А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
"Анри Фарман-VII" - отличался монопланным хвостовым оперением по верхним поясам параллельных ферм несколько меньших размеров. Передний руль чаще всего не ставился. Сиденья пилота и пассажира на брусьях выносились вперед для обеспечения центровки.
В России строился поплавковый вариант с поплавками по типу "Сикорский С-5а".
В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
"Фарман-VII" (Ф-VII, "Фарман" гоночный, "Фарман" учебно-гоночный, "Фарман" военного типа). По схеме очень близок к Ф-IV, но отличался монопланным горизонтальным хвостовым оперением на верхних поясах совершенно параллельных ферм. Его размеры были несколько меньше, передний руль иногда снимался или вовсе не ставился. На поведение самолета это мало влияло. На нем ставились двигатели "Гном" в 50, 60 и 70 л. с. и "Калеп" в 50 л. с. Два сиденья на параллельных брусьях были вынесены далеко вперед. Обтяжка бывала и одиночная, и двусторонняя. Элероны свисали на стоянке. Скорость достигала 90 км/ч. На четырех самолетах "Фарман-VII" в 1912 г. в Балканской войне русские летчики-добровольцы впервые приняли участие в боевых действиях.
"Фарман-VII" А. А. Агафонова. Был построен и оборудован на заводе Щетинина по заказу авиатора А. А. Агафонова для перелета Петербург-Севастополь в 1913 г. На "Фармане-VII" были увеличены консоли верхнего крыла и установлены два больших дополнительных бензобака. Перелет из Петербурга в Севастополь не состоялся, но на самолете совершались другие полеты.
"Фарман-VII" А. Ф. Красильникова. Хвостовое оперение вместе с фермами было взято от самолета "Фарман-XVI". На крыльях была рекламная надпись "Гильзы Катыка". На самолете совершались полеты над Москвой и сбрасывались листовки торговых фирм.
"Фарман Милитэр" ("Военный" ). Самолет среднего типа между Ф-IV и Ф-VII, причем пояса ферм сходились на стабилизаторе, а руль направления был один, разделенный стабилизатором. Самолет по своим размерам был меньше, чем Ф-VII, двигатель мощнее, скорость больше. Самолет импортный, в России, по-видимому, был в одном экземпляре.
Следует отметить, что почти все "Фарманы" после Ф-IV имели временное название "Милитэр". Фирма Фарман и ее подражатели стремились как можно скорее заявить о пригодности очередного самолета к использованию в военных целях. Последний "Милитэр" был "Фарман-XXII".
"Фарман-IX" ("Фарман военный", "Фарман-IX Дукса", "Военно-гоночный", "Милитэр"). По схеме он не отличался от самолета Ф-VII с передним рулем. Размеры были в общем те же. Завод "Дукс" строил его серийно, введя при этом обтекатель сидений в форме остроносой гондолы. В этом виде самолет назывался "Фарман-IX" завода "Дукс". Двигатель - "Гном" в 70 л. с. Иногда передний руль снимался.
"Фарман-XI" ("Фарман-11"). По схеме был близок к самолету "Фарман-XVI" Двигатель - "Гном" в 60 л. с. Был в небольшом числе импортных экземпляров, хотя одно время предполагался как основной самолет русской военной авиации.
Длина самолета, м||9/8/?
Размах крыла, м||12,0(7,0)/12,0(7,0)/?
Площадь крыла, м2||3128/?
Масса пустого, кг||345/260/?
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||75/75/?
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||255/225/?
Полетная масса, кг||600/485/?
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||19,4/17,3/?
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||12/7/?
Весовая отдача, %||42/46/?
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||86/90/100
Скорость посадочная, км/ч||60/60/?
Время набора высоты 500 м, мин||7/8/10
Время набора высоты 1000 м, мин||?/?/20
H.King Aeromarine Origins (Putnam)
In the application of hydrofoils to aircraft the pre-eminent name is that of the Italian Guidoni, who began his experiments in 1910. As General A. Guidoni he told the story many years later.
'Having witnessed some of the trials of the Forlanini boat,' he said, 'I was impressed with the ingeniousness and the possibilities of this system. So when in 1910 I designed my first seaplane, I put on it the Forlanini type of floats, but soon realised that they were no good for a seaplane. The change from one vane to the other gave severe bumps to the machine and produced changes impossible to control.
'The Crocco system gave a too small area owing to the size of the floats and, astonishing though it may appear, I did not know at that time of his work. In my first test, using a two floats seaplane, I placed the hydroplanes between the floats; this proved unsatisfactory, because the floats would never get out of water, the drag at the getting-off speed being too high. Then I tried the Forlanini vanes under the floats, but without success.
'My idea was then to have the hydro area divided in a multiplane with two or three legs; the vanes would be parallel and with a side inclination, the low end of each one being lower than the high end of the following vane.
'This design had the advantage of the Crocco vane, because it gave a gradual variation of hydro area when emerging from water, and it had at the same time the advantage of the Forlanini's, in giving a sufficient hydro area with a considerable depth and a reduced width.
'"Provando e riprovando" was my motto, but at the same time I tried to evolve the theory of the jumping due to the vanes...
'The first set of vanes was built of steel plate and were very heavy. I tried wood with success and aluminium, which proved the best. In order to be able to move the vanes along the float, they were mounted on rings of steel plate or aluminium. The planes I used in this first stage of research were an old Farman 1909, F.1, and similar improved machines F.2 and F.3, built at the Navy Yard. Two monoplanes were also tested.
'Increasing the power and speed of machines, I found the wood vanes inadequate. I tried aluminium sheet vanes and then I standardised a set of steel vanes, which proved to be the right sort for any kind of machine, provided the size, thickness and shape were designed according to the power, speed and weight. I used ordinary steel plates, reducing them at the grinding wheel and welding the legs to the surfaces.'
Yet one may search in vain the aeronautical history books of the past half century for any recognition of Guidoni's work. May his own utterances, which I have quoted, save his name from oblivion.
Flight, May 20, 1911.
THE LATEST FARMAN BIPLANE.
THE accompanying photograph shows the latest Farman military biplane, of the successful experiments with which readers of FLIGHT have already heard. The first and most noticeable point to be observed is, of course, the absence of the front elevator. In this machine fore and aft equilibrium is obtained entirely by the use of a tail elevator, which forms a hinged extension on the horizontal tail plane. It will also be noticed that this elevating plane is of fairly high aspect ratio as also are the balancing planes in the trailing edges of the upper main planes. The tail as a whole and the tail outrigger have a light workmanlike appearance and it may also be observed that the two rudder planes are in line with the elevator so that the fixed tail plane is wholly in advance of all the movable members. This machine has the extended upper main plane characteristic of the Farman military type, and the method of trussing the upper front spar, by wires passing over steel brackets forming extensions of the outermost struts, forms an interesting minor detail relating thereto. The machine is fitted with a Gnome rotary engine. In the above photograph Mr. Farman is seen talking to Lieutenant Menard, one of the foremost biplane pilots of the French Army.
Flight, June 3, 1911.
FOREIGN AVIATION NEWS.
Lieut. Menard's Tour of France - Passenger Record Beaten.
AFTER being delayed for some days by bad weather, Lieut. Menard was able to commence his long projected 3,000 kilom. tour around France on the 25th ult. Accompanied by Lieut. Do Hu, he started on his Henry Farman from Bouy at five minutes to three, and at a quarter to six, after having covered 238 kiloms. in 2 hrs. 50 mins., he landed at Chartres at a quarter to six in order to take on board more petrol. At a quarter past seven Vendome was reached, and a landing was decided upon in order to inspect the motor, which was not working at all well. Two hours and a quarter were, as a matter of fact, spent in making adjustments, and it was not till half-past nine that the aviators were in the air again. Chatellerault was passed about midday, and at a quarter past twelve a safe landing was made at Lacueit, close by Poitiers. The journey was a record one, and the last portion beat the world's records for a flight with passenger. The total distance covered during the morning was 600 kiloms.
In consequence of some repairs being necessary, the journey was not resumed until Saturday last, when the two aerial voyagers, after fitting a new motor to the machine, left Poitiers for Rocheforte-sur-Mer, which was safely reached after about an hour and a half's flying. Lieut. Menard and his companion were to have continued their journey on Wednesday to Pau.
Flight, July 15, 1911.
FOREIGN AVIATION NEWS.
The Height Record Beaten on a Henry Farman.
FOR some considerable time no assaults have been made on the height record standing to the credit of Legagneux, but on Saturday, Loridan on one of the new racing Henry Farman biplanes succeeded in climbing during a flight of 1 hr. 23 mins. to an altitude, according to his barograph, of 3,280 metres (10,758 ft.). Stopping the motor, he came down by a vol plane in twelve minutes.
Flight, January 25, 1913.
AVIATION IN WAR.
WE have received from Messrs. Farman Freres the following interesting account of flights and reconnaissances, which was sent them by an aviator serving in the Greek army, at the Balkan theatre of war. The account covers a period of twenty days.
It has often been said that aviation, in the Balkan War, has not given all the results that were expected of it. And this is in some manner true, for the Balkan States had made little preparation. They had no spare parts, few experienced pilots, and no organisation. However that may be true for the general run of aeroplanes out there, it is far from being the case with their Farman machines, which, in spite of what has been said above regarding the lack of preparation of the Balkan States, have rendered the greatest service.
Even quite inexperienced pilots have been able to use them, and to report to their Commander-in-Chief observations of value. Their construction is such that in spite of the extremely rough ground where they had to operate, flights and landings were able to be made with very little breakage. We are of opinion that perhaps the best way to convey an idea of the services these machines have rendered to the Greek Government, is to relate the day-to-day flights made by Henry and Maurice Farman biplanes. This simple diary will be more eloquent than the more or less highly-coloured accounts that have been sent from the scene of hostilities.
This short diary simply concerns the period from December 10th to January 1st.
There were seven Henry Farman biplanes in Macedonia - six with 50-h.p. Gnome motors and one fitted with an 80. Three of them remained unused for there were no pilots to fly them. The principal flights during this campaign were :-
Lieut. Camberos, on the 80-h.p. Gnome-Henry Farman, made a reconnaissance from Larissa to Cosani, about 85 kiloms., at a height of 1,600 metres, reporting information of the greatest value.
Lieuts. Moutoussis and Notaras together made a scouting flight of more than 140 kiloms., on a 50 Gnome-Henry Farman biplane, at an altitude of between 1,100 and 1,200 metres, flying above opposing troops whose position they were able to reveal. In making short scouting flights two 50-Gnome biplanes were slightly damaged by landing on very bad ground, but repairs were effected easily.
Lieut. Moutoussis on a 70-h. p. Maurice Farman biplane, flew above Salonica at a height of between 1,200 and 1,500 metres. That machine was ordered to be dismantled, and sent to the Epirus.
The central aviation camp in Epirus was on the Plain of Nicopolis, 6 kiloms. from Preveza. The Chief of the flying squad was Capt. Bares, a French military pilot, having under him two Greek Lieut, pilots, Camberos and Notaras, who went through their tuition in France at the Farman school. On December 10th, Capt. Bares and Lieut. Camberos tested the Farman biplane that had been assembled and made flights above Preveza. The following day, the 11th , Notaras flew over Preveza, and in the afternoon Camberos left with a passenger for Philippias, 47 kiloms. from Preveza, and afforded interesting observations. On the 14th, Camberos was transferred to the Artillery, and on the following day Lieut. Moutoussis arrived. Two days later he tested the Maurice Farman biplane that had been erected in the meantime, and flew over Preveza. The next day at 1 p.m. Moutoussis left to make a flight above Janina and landed at Amin Aga Han, 75 kiloms. from Preveza. The distance between Preveza and Janina was 106 kiloms. During this flight, flying at over 1,600 metres, he threw down bombs, creating a veritable panic amongst the Turkish troops. Many hostile bullets tore the fabric, but the machine continued its flight unaffected.
Capt. Bares, on the return of Lieut. Moutoussis, used the same machine, and flew back over Janina, 2,300 metres up. Again several bullets pierced the fabric, but the machine returned to camp unaffected, except for a slight break that happened in landing on rough ground. That same day a new Maurice Farman biplane arrived, and erection was immediately proceeded with. On the 20th, Moutoussis flew over Preveza on the Maurice Farman, and made interesting reports. He continued his flights the next day. He made a second reconnaissance over Janina on a Maurice Farman on the 22nd inst., flying over the town at 2,100 metres, and throwing bombs, which, as on the previous occasion, had considerable effect. Several hostile bullets reached him, breaking a longeron, but without affecting the machine's flying qualities. He landed at Philippias. Next day he left that town for Nicopolis. On the 24th, Nolaras made flights with a passenger above Preveza. Between then and the 27th, when a new machine arrived and was erected, the two lieutenants continued their scouting flights on their respective Farman biplanes. A Greek army pilot officer, Adamides, joined the corps on the 28th. A very excellent reconnaissance flight was made by Lieut. Notaras above the fort of Bisani and the town of Janina on New Year's Day. He flew at about 2,300 metres. Leaving the aerodrome at Nicopolis at 10.20 a.m., he returned at 12.18, reporting observations concerning the garrison and the fortification, which were considered of the highest importance by the Greek commanding officer.
During this campaign of twenty days only three machines suffered damage, and what damage was done was easily repaired.