A.Jackson Avro Aircraft since 1908 (Putnam)
The Avro 530, first flown in July 1917, was a two seat fighter which failed to secure a production contract in the face of competition from the celebrated Bristol Fighter because of non-availability of engines. The 300 h.p. watercooled Hispano-Suiza was not obtainable when required and the machine flew with a 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza. Even on the lower power the performance of the Avro 530 rivalled that of the Bristol and it might still have become one of the famous fighters of the First World War had not almost all 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engines been earmarked for the S.E.5A.
Built at Manchester and erected and flown at Hamble, the Avro 530 was an unusually clean two bay biplane with a tail unit resembling that of the first Pike. Its unusually deep fuselage was of wire braced, box-girder construction with the fabric covering stretched over formers to give a more streamlined shape. The engine mounting consisted of strutted duralumin girders. The pilot occupied the front cockpit but the fuselage was so deep at this point that it almost filled the mainplane gap, leaving only enough room for a single Vickers gun in a plywood fairing on top of the fuselage. The top wing was thus on a level with the pilot's eyes, ensuring adequate view in all upward and forward directions while a rear gunner armed with a single Lewis gun on a Scarff mounting commanded the downward and rearward view.
The fabric covered, wooden mainplanes were of R.A.F. 14 section and engine cooling was by means of a large frontal radiator. In the original form of the machine the lines of the short, blunt nose were improved by fitting a hollow, open-fronted metal spinner. The famous Avro skid-type undercarriage gave place to a new low-drag unit comprising two narrow Vees faired with metal sheeting and braced by an internal Vee strut. Landing speed was reduced by trailing edge flaps actuated by a handwheel in the pilot's cockpit. They were fitted to both upper and lower mainplanes between the inboard ends of the ailerons and the fuselage.
In an attempt to solve the engine supply problem, the Avro 530 was afterwards re-engined with a 200 h.p. Sunbeam Arab and modified in various ways. An unfaired, wide angle Vee undercarriage was fitted; there was no spinner; the tail fin was larger and more gracefully curved; and new R.A.F.15 section mainplanes were fitted. These were without flaps but had long-span ailerons and metal cuffs to fair the ends of the interplane struts into the wing.
In view of its deep and capacious fuselage, the Avro 530 was offered in 1920 as a high speed touring aeroplane with comfortable tandem cockpits above a large baggage compartment. There is no evidence that this modification took place and the machine did not receive a civil registration.
SPECIFICATION AND DATA
Manufacturers: A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd., Clifton Street, Miles Platting, Manchester; and Hamble Aerodrome, near Southampton, Hants.
One 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza
One 200 h.p. Sunbeam Arab
Span 36 ft. 0 in. Length 28 ft. 6 in.
Height 9 ft. 7 in. Wing area 325+ sq. ft.
Tare weight 1,695 lb. (1,760 lb.)
All-up weight 2,680 lb. (2,500 lb.)
Maximum speed 114 m.p.h. (118 m.p.h.)
Cruising speed 95 m.p.h. (102 m.p.h.)
Climb to 5,000 ft. 6 min. 30 sec. (5 min. 30 sec.)
Ceiling 18,000 ft. Endurance 4 hours
Production: One prototype only, to Contract A.S.425 17 C, Works Order number believed 3800
Note - Estimated figures for proposed civil version in parentheses.
H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)
530. Quite rightly this two-seater fighter of 1917 has been compared with the Bristol Fighter, but its advanced design has not, perhaps, been sufficiently stressed, especially in respect of armament provisions. Avro made reference to a 'turret-like structure' having a wing secured to it and housing a gun firing through an opening and allowing vertical adjustment. A fixed gun firing through the airscrew boss was also mentioned, and the rear gun was said to be 'raised clear of the top plane#. As it materialised, the 530 had a single synchronised Vickers gun in the pylon, or 'turret# structure, with ejection chutes projecting from the fuselage sides, and the gunner had a Lewis gun on his high-set Scarff ring-mounting.
P.Lewis The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)
Another auspicious two-seat design which was unable to make the grade once the Bristol machine had gained a firm foothold was Avro’s 530, completed in July, 1917. Careful attention had been paid to producing an airframe for the two-bay biplane which was designed to use the 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. The current shortage of this engine dictated the installation of the 200 h.p. version of the same make and the 530 was tested also with the 200 h.p. Sunbeam. Unusual features of the design were the deep fuselage filling the entire wing gap, the fairings applied to fill the openings between the undercarriage V struts, and the flaps which formed the trailing edges of the wings. Two guns were carried - a Vickers for the pilot and a Scarff-mounted Lewis in the rear cockpit.
F.Mason The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)
Avro Type 530
It might be contended that the secret of success enjoyed by the Bristol F.2B Fighter was due to two circumstances, namely that it had already been developed into an aircraft for which there was a demand before any would-be competitor, and that it avoided using the Hispano-Suiza engine. Almost every one of those other challengers, as has been shown, favoured the Hispano engine and, as a result, were defeated by the prior claims on its faltering supply on behalf of the S.E.5.
The Avro 530 was just one more such aircraft which fell victim of the short supply of Hispano engines. The aircraft was directly comparable with the Bristol Fighter and was, if anything, slightly superior in some aspects of performance. Built at Avro’s works in Manchester and first flown at Hamble in Hampshire in July 1917, it featured a 200hp Hispano-Suiza engine with a frontal radiator, all enclosed in an annular cowling; cooling airflow to the radiator passed through a large spinner which itself improved the shape of the nose. The deep fuselage was a wire-braced wooden box-girder, fabric-covered and formed to improved aerodynamic shape by secondary stringers. The wooden, two-bay, two-spar wings of RAF 14 section were also fabric-covered and not only included ailerons, but also underwing trailing-edge flaps on upper and lower wings for landing - the latter being operated by a handwheel in the pilot’s cockpit.
Unfortunately the fuselage was so deep that, in placing the upper wing in line with the pilot’s eye level - so as to achieve the best possible field of view upwards and downwards - the wing scarcely cleared the upper decking of the front fuselage; this was further aggravated by fairing over the single forward-firing synchronized Vickers gun. Careful attention to detail elsewhere included fairing the undercarriage V-struts together to provide a single aerodynamic member on each side.
Only one example of the Type 530 was completed, and it became immediately obvious that the aircraft possessed no future while fitted with the Hispano-Suiza engine, even though the engine for which the Avro was designed was the 300hp version. The sole prototype was therefore extensively modified to incorporate the 200hp Sunbeam Arab eight-cylinder water-cooled in-line engine. The landing flaps were removed in favour of lengthened ailerons, and the fairings were removed from the undercarriage V-struts.
However, by the time these changes had been made, production of the well-established Bristol Fighter - a much-liked aircraft among its crews - had accelerated to an impressive rate, and there could therefore be no question of introducing a new aircraft with untried operational qualities.
Type: Single-engine, two-seat, two-bay biplane fighter.
Manufacturer: A V Roe & Co Ltd, Manchester.
Powerplant: One 200hp Hispano-Suiza engine driving two-blade propeller; later one 200hp Sunbeam Arab engine.
Dimensions: Span, 36ft 0in; length, 28ft 6in; height, 9ft 7in; wing area, 325.5 sq ft.
Weights: Tare, 1,695lb; all-up, 2,500lb.
Performance: Max speed, 114 mph at sea level; climb to 10,000ft, 15 min; service ceiling, 18,000ft; endurance, 4 hr.
Armament: One synchronized 0.303in Vickers machine gun faired on nose, forward of the pilot’s cockpit; one Lewis gun with Scarff ring on the rear cockpit.
Prototype: One, first flown in July 1917. No production.
W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters
AVRO 530 UK
Of relatively clean aerodynamic design by contemporary standards and featuring a ducted propeller spinner, the Avro 530 two-seat fighter was designed in 1916 to compete with the Bristol F.2A, but the first prototype was not flown until July 1917. Powered by a 200 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Bd eight-cylinder water-cooled engine, the Avro 530 was of wooden construction with fabric skinning, and mounted an armament of a single fixed and synchronised 0.303-in (7,7-mm) Vickers gun, a Lewis gun of similar calibre being mounted on a Scarff ring in the rear cockpit. Although performance of the Avro 530 proved to be good, it did not improve sufficiently on that of the Bristol F.2A to warrant production orders. Furthermore, priority in the supply of the Hispano-Suiza engine was being given to the S.E.5a. During 1918, one of the two Avro 530 prototypes was flown with a 200 hp Sunbeam Arab engine, revised undercarriage, an extended tail fin and flapless wings of new section with long-span ailerons, but development was subsequently abandoned.
Max speed, 114 mph (183 km/h) at sea level, 102 mph (164 km/h) at 10,0 ft (3 050 m).
Time to 10,000 ft (3 050 m), 15min.
Empty weight, 1,695 lb (769 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,680 lb (1216 kg).
Span, 36 ft 0 in (10,97 m).
Length, 28 ft 6 in (8,69 m).
Height, 9 ft 7 in (2,92 m).
Wing area, 325.5 sqft (30,23 m2).
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919
Of relatively clean aerodynamic design by contemporary standards, and featuring a ducted spinner, the Avro 530 two-seat fighter was designed in 1916 to compete with the Bristol F.2A, but the first prototype was not flown until July 1917. Powered by a 200 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Bd eight-cylinder liquid-cooled engine, the Avro 530 was of wooden construction with fabric skinning, and mounted an armament of a single fixed and synchronised 0-303-in (7,7-mm) Vickers gun, and a Lewis gun of similar calibre mounted on a Scarff ring in the rear cockpit. Although performance of the Avro 530 proved to be good, it did not improve sufficiently on that of the Bristol F.2A to warrant production orders. Furthermore, priority in the supply of the Hispano-Suiza engine was being given to the S.E.5A. During 1918, one of the two Avro 530 prototypes was flown with a 200 hp Sunbeam Arab engine, revised undercarriage, an extended tail fin, and flapless wings of new section with long-span ailerons, but development was subsequently abandoned.
Max speed 114 mph (183 km/h) at sea level,
102 mph (164 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3 048 m).
to 10,000 ft (3 048 m) 15 min.
Endurance 4 hr.
Empty weight 1,695 lb (769 kg).
Loaded weight 2,680 lb (1 215 kg).
Span 36 ft 0 in (10,97 m).
Length 28 ft 6 in (8,69 m).
Height 9 ft 7 in (2,92 m).
Wing area 325.5 sq ft (30,23 m2).
Flight, March 20, 1919.
The Avro Machines
Avro Two-Seater Fighter, Type 530. July, 1917.
In many ways the 530 was a radical departure from usual Avro practice. Thus the engine, instead of the rotaries fitted in the type 504 machines, was a water-cooled - a 200 h.p. Sunbeam "Arab." Also the shape of the wing tips was totally different from the usual Avro rectangular tips with rounded corners. As regards the fuselage, this was very much deeper, and of different shape altogether from the ordinary Avro bodies. The object kept in view when designing this machine was to provide as good a view as possible for both gunner and pilot. To this end the body was made very deep, and the pilot was so placed that his eyes were on a level with the under side of the top plane. Similarly the gunner was placed very high in relation to the top plane, being in fact able to fire over it. It will be noticed that the attachment of the top plane to the body was unusual. A sort of fin was extended up from the body, covered with ply-wood, to which the centre section was attached. Inside this fin was mounted the pilot's machine gun, synchronised, of course, while the gunner's weapon was mounted on the usual rotatable gun ring. The undercarriage was of a simple Vee type, but forming a letter M, as seen from in front, and the two side Vees were enclosed in fabric. The machine was very light and quick on the controls, and the deep roomy fuselage afforded ample space for ammunition, wireless, cameras, etc. From the table of performances it will be seen that both speed and climb were very good indeed for the power, and this is of particular interest in view of the comparatively large cross sectional area of the fuselage - 14 sq. ft. - which does not appear to have adversely affected the speed of the machine. Originally the Type 530 was designed for a 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine, but as this could not be obtained the experimental machines were fitted with 200 h.p. Sunbeam "Arabs" and 200 h.p. Hispano-Suizas.