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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Aviatik B.I / B.II / P.15

Страна: Германия

Год: 1914

Фронтовой самолет

Aviatik - B / P.14 - 1913 - Германия<– –>Aviatik - P.20 - 1914 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


АВИАТИК B-I/B-II / AVIATIK B-I/B-II

  Немецкая фирма Аутомобил-унд-Авиатик из Мюльхаузена (Эльзас) выпустила в 1914-1916 годах несколько типов военных многоцелевых аэропланов. "Остроносые" деревянные бипланы с тянущими винтами и рядными моторами водяного охлаждения - этой схемы придерживалось тогда подавляющее большинство германских авиапредприятий.
  Открыл серию "Авиатик" B-I (заводское обозначение P.15A), появившийся незадолго до начала Первой мировой войны. Двухместный аэроплан без вооружения с двух- или трехстоечной бипланной коробкой применялся в качестве разведчика на западном и восточном фронтах примерно до начала 1915 года.
  Единственным оригинальным моментом в этой машине была ярко выраженная стреловидность крыльев, унаследованная от довоенной разработки фирмы Авиатик - аэроплана "Пфайль" ("Стрела"). Считалось, что это обеспечивает самолету повышенную продольную устойчивость. Следующим стал "Авиатик" B-II (P.15B), отличавшийся более мощным мотором.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Мерседес", 100 л.с. (B-I) или 120 л.с. (B-II)


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Aviatik B I
  The Aviatik B I appeared in 1914 in both two- and three-bay versions. Both types are seen in the illustration. Power unit was 100 h.p. Mercedes D I.


Aviatik B II
  Constructed and used during 1915, the B II appeared in small numbers and was a neat-looking aeroplane for the period. The painting of the patee crosses underneath the upper wingtips and on the wheel discs is noteworthy. As in the majority of B types, the pilot sat in the rear cockpit and the observer forward. Engine, 120 h.p. Mercedes D II. Span, 12.49 m. (40 ft. 11 3/4 in.). Length, 7.10 m. (23 ft. 3 5/8 in.).


J.Herris Aviatik Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 10)


Aviatik B - Type P15

  Aviatik's next B-type design was a further refined design, the P15 with 2-bay wings and a fixed fin. Three-bay P15 aircraft were also built to increase the bomb load carried by the aircraft. Construction was conventional and engines used included the 100 hp Argus As.I and 100 hp Mercedes D.I.


Aviatik B.I & B.II

  Until mid-1915 there were many undocumented variations in the aircraft built and the type designations did not address these. On August 8, 1915 Idflieg published an expanded designation system to clarify some of the details of these aircraft. In the new scheme Idflieg mentioned the P15a and P15b, but details of these versions are unknown because if either Idflieg or Aviatik described the differences, the documentation has been lost. Therefore it is not possible to identify the Aviatik B-type variants in more detail. Furthermore, existing aircraft were retroactively designated Aviatik B.I and B.II in addition to aircraft built after August 8, 1915.
  What is known is that aircraft in the production batch B.1320-1355/15 were two-bay Aviatik B.II aircraft with 120 hp Mercedes D.II engines and were used for bombing. It may be that Aviatik B-type aircraft powered by a 100 hp engine were retroactively designated Aviatik B.I, and those with 120 hp engines were designated Aviatik B.II, but this is supposition not confirmed by documentation.
  In addition to German-built aircraft, 23 Aviatik B.II aircraft powered by 120 hp Daimler engines were built in Austria and a further 49 'improved' B.II aircraft powered by 150 hp Daimler engines were also built in Austria. These aircraft were used at the front and later as trainers.


Журнал Flight


Flight, August 28, 1914.

AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY"
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.

7. The Aviatik Tractor Biplane
  is of the arrow type, although its wings only possess a comparatively slight sweep back. As in other biplanes of this type, the upper main plane is straight as viewed from in front, while the lower plane is given a slight dihedral angle. The rectangular section fuselage is of streamline form, but is deeper at the stern than is usually the case. The turtle back does not extend over the entire length of the fuselage, but finishes off just behind the pilot's seat, which is considerably farther forward than in other arrow type machines, owing, no doubt, to the fact that the wings are so nearly straight. In front is the passenger's seat, between which and the engine are the fuel tanks with sufficient fuel for a 4-hours flight. Either Argus or Mercedes 100 h.p. engines may be fitted. The radiators are mounted on either side of the fuselage. The chassis is of the usual simple type, differing, however, from others in that the struts do not form an angle at their lower extremities, but are secured to two short skids from which is slung the tubular axle. The tail planes are protected against contact with the ground by a short swivelling skid. With full load on board, including pilot and passenger and four hours' fuel, the machine does just over 60 m.p.h., and climbs 1,000 metres (3,281 ft.) in 15 minutes.

J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik (P15) B.529/15.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik B (P15) B.549/15 flown by Hptm. Hugo Geyer
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik (P15) B.549/15 flown by Hptm. Hugo Geyer.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik (P15) B
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik (P15) in Turkish Service.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This photo of an Aviatik B model P15 was distributed as a Sanke card.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The German Air Service entered the war with a number of types. Most, as with the RFC, were tor reconnaissance duties. Among the best was the Aviatik B.1 as shown here.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Aviatik BII had been phased out of operational use but was still in use with training schools - as shown by the 'S' on the airframe of this example.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Factory photographs of Aviatik B.231/13 show the refined lines, including fixed fin, of the P15 model. The engine was a 100 hp Mercedes D.I.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik P15 B.491/15 is probably on training duty in Germany.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik P15 B.505/15 is in the foreground of this unit lineup. Behind it is an LVG B-type, an Albatros B-type, and another Aviatik P15 B-type. These three aircraft types formed the core of early German reconnaissance units.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Aviatik B.II appeared in limited numbers during 1915 as a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft powered by a 120hp Mercedes DII. Note the identification crosses on the underside of the upper wing and, unusually, on the wheel hubs.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik P15 B.558/15 represents the final configuration of the Aviatik B-type P15 model with 120 hp Mercedes D.II engine. It was captured by the French in September 1915 in excellent condition and photographed for posterity. B.558/15 wears its factory markings and finish with no unit or personal markings.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik P15 B.576/15 with a bad wheel and no gravity tank under the wing. This was the final configuration of the Aviatik B-type that was developed into the Aviatik C.I.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik B-types in the production batch 1320-1355/15 were definitely designated as Aviatik B.II. These aircraft had 120 hp Mercedes D.II engines and, with their greater payload, were used for bombing. B.II 1329/15 is shown above and 1323/15 is at left.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
These two Aviatik B-types look like the Aviatik B.II, but their serial numbers are not visible so it is not possible to verify they are from the production batch 1320-1355/15 or were Aviatik B.II. However, they appear to have had 120 hp Mercedes D.II engines.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two-bay Aviatik P15 models. The aircraft at right appears to have wooden wheels to conserve rubber.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
Aviatik B type biplanes of BAO on Allenstein aerodrome on the Eastern Front in April 1915 before taking off for Lomza. Completely mobile, housed in special railway trains, the BAO could be easily moved to different parts of the Front as required. The aeroplanes were often flown solo, allowing the weight of the observers to be used for increased fuel and bombloads. The effect of this force led to the creation of a second Brieftauben Abteilung at Metz, which additionally included aerial fighting in its duties. To differentiate between this unit and BAO, it was known as Brieftauben Abteilung Metz (BAM). These two formations formed the nucleus of the German bomber arm.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
A varied collection of two-seaters at a German airfield in 1915. The aircraft are Albatros B IIs , Aviatik B Is and B IIs.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
The crew of an Aviatik B category machine from Feldflieger Abteilung 9b at Colmar, well wrapped up against the elements and about to leave on a reconnaissance flight during Winter 1915, show their 25cm hand-held camera and the two 4.5kg Carbonit bombs to be dropped on targets of opportunity. These will be carried by the observer in the front seat, hung by their carrying handles on any suitable projection. He will then have to undo the safety wires, remove the pins, and either hand the bombs to the pilot for release or lean precariously aft out of his cockpit as he throws them over the side.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik P15 B-type in Turkish service.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik P15 B.522/15 is photographed with its abashed pilot after an incident at Flieger-Ersatz-Abteilung 2.
J.Herris - Aviatik Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Aviatik P15 B.279/13 after a serious head stand.
A.Imrie - German Bombers /Arms & Armour/
The belly of this crashed Aviatik B II from Feldflieger Abteilung 34 shows the two bomb chute exits and the celluloid-covered downwards viewing panel immediately ahead. Two 10kg Carbonit bombs were suspended in the chutes in the pilot's cockpit beside his knees. On a bombing run the pilot rested his head on the crash pad and viewed the ground through the transparent panel; he used an intersection of fuselage bracing wires as a sight, unhooking the bombs at the appropriate moment.