М.Маслов Русские самолеты Первой Мировой (Эксмо)
В сентябре 1915 г. старший механик 2-й авиароты Смоленского авиапарка Владимир Федорович Савельев в сотрудничестве с другим механиком - Владиславом Залевским - разработали проект оригинального трехмоторного четырехплана, предназначенного для военных целей. Три двигателя по 250-260 л.с. предлагалось оборудовать в фюзеляже и оснастить зубчатыми или ременными передачами для привода воздушных винтов. По замыслу, такое решение позволяло получить более эффективное использование силовой установки. Согласно расчетам, аппарат с экипажем из 5-ти человек имел следующие характеристики:
Размах верхнего крыла (м) 23,50
Длина в линии полета (м) 17,0
Площадь крыльев (м2) 230,0
Вес пустого (кг) 4250
Полезная нагрузка (кг) 2750
Скорость максимальная (км/ч) 135
Продолжительность полета (час) 5
В силу ряда обстоятельств, проект трехмоторного самолета развития не получил, однако саму идею четырехплана реализовали при изготовлении одномоторного, двухместного разведчика. Самолет не имел названия и известен как «четырехплан Савельева». При его постройке использовался фюзеляж и ряд других узлов от моноплана «Моран Ж», двигатель «Гном» 80 л.с.
Испытания, проведенные в апреле-мае 1916 г. показали неплохие характеристики самолета, поэтому опыты с ним продолжились. Позднее использовался двигатель «Гном Моносупап» 100 л.с., с которым полетная скорость достигала 135 км/ч.
После проведения доводок, в 1917 г, четырехплан Савельева приняли в казну как вполне удовлетворительный аппарат. Находился в эксплуатации в летний период 1917 г., затем в разобранном виде в комплекте с двигателем «Гном-Моносупап» №722 хранился на Комендантском аэродроме С-Петербурга. В ноябре 1918 г. специальная комиссия под руководством Н.Е. Жуковского рассматривала возможность дальнейшего использования самолета. Состояние признавалось удовлетворительным, четырехллан допустили к полетам в качестве учебного аппарата.
В 1923 г. Савельев построил еще один двухместный четырехплан, однако схема признавалась устаревшей и дальнейшие опыты в этом направлении более не возобновлялись.
Летные и технические характеристики четырехплана Савельева образца 1916 г. с двигателем «Гном Моносупап» 100 л.с.
Размах верхнего крыла (м) 9,3
Длина в линии полета (м) 6,0
Площадь крыльев (м2) 26,2
Вес пустого (кг) 400
Полетный вес (кг) 700
Скорость максимальная (км/ч) 132
Продолжительность полета (час) 3
В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
Четырехплан Савельева. Владимир Федорович Савельев был одним из немногих во всем мире конструкторов, занимавшихся самолетами по схеме четырехплана. Он был автором двух самолетов, выполненных по этой схеме.
В 1916г. В. Ф. Савельев, тогда старший механик 2-го авиапарка, в сотрудничестве с техником того же парка Владиславом Залевским построил в мастерских авиапарка в Смоленске опытный двухместный разведчик с фюзеляжем от "Морана-Ж" и четырехпланной одностоечной коробкой крыльев, возраставших по размаху от нижнего к верхнему, и с выносом ее на 15°. Двигатель - "Гном" (потом "Клерже") в 80 л. с.
Самолет был закончен постройкой 19 апреля 1916 г., испытывался и показал хорошие качества. По оценке летчика кап. Юнгмейстера, "самолет чуткий и может не уступить "Альбатросу" с мотором 165л. с., нужен "Моносупап" 100 л. с.". Потом этот двигатель был установлен с небольшой переделкой самолета. Было много удачных полетов. В. Ф, Савельев работал над проектом большого пассажирского восьмиплана. Второй его четырехплан относится к 1923 г.
Самолет||Четырехплан № 1 Савельева/Четырехплан № 2 Савельева
Длина самолета, м||6/6
Размах крыла, м||8,5/9,3
Площадь крыла, м2||24/26,2
Масса пустого, кг||360/400
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||70/100
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||300/300
Полетная масса, кг||660/700
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||27,5/26,7
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||8,2/7
Весовая отдача, %||43/43
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||116/132
Потолок практический, м||Более 2000/?
Продолжительность полета, ч||3/3
J.Zynk Polish Aircraft 1893-1939 (Putnam)
S.Z. Quadruplane Nos. 1 and 2 (Zalewski W.Z.III and IV)
When World War 1 broke out Wladyslaw Zalewski joined the Imperial Russian Air Service and was eventually posted to the 2nd Aircraft Park at Warsaw. The head mechanic there, Vladimir Savieliev, who had previously worked on the assembly of the famous 'giants' Ruski Vitaz and Ilia Muromets at the Russo-Baltic Wagon Works, gave much thought to the problems associated with construction of large aircraft and came to the conclusion that such aeroplanes should have five or six wings, since by this means overall dimensions and structural weight could be appreciably reduced and the efficiency of the design improved. In the summer of 1915 Savieliev, who had no design experience, asked Zalewski to prepare a study for a multi-plane heavy bomber.
As a first step, the Pole suggested the development of a small single-engine quadruplane. This was agreed upon and in November 1915, the project - known, from the names of Savieliev and Zalewski, as the S.Z. Quadruplane No. 1 - was submitted to the C-in-C of the Air Service for approval. Development was authorized immediately and construction was undertaken by the workshops of the 2nd Aircraft Park, which had by then moved to Smolensk. To speed up the building of the machine, parts from other types of aircraft were used, including a Morane G's engine bearers, cowling, flying controls, wheels and elevators (a Morane elevator was also used to serve as the rudder), various Farman fittings and the tailskid of a shot-down Albatros. So that the quadruplane could be used either as a single- or two-seater, the observer's cockpit was located at the C.G., in front of the pilot's cockpit.
Taxi-ing trials began on 23 April, 1916, with Col Jungmeister at the controls. On one of the first runs the machine lifted itself into the air unexpectedly and so the pilot carried on to make a very successful first flight. Manoeuvrability proved to be exceptional (the quadruplane could turn inside a Nieuport Bebe fighter) and the handling qualities delightful. Col Jungmeister, highly impressed with the machine, requested its immediate release for reconnaissance duties, but Zalewski, intent on improving its performance, obtained official permission to carry out extensive modifications and developed the aircraft into the S.Z. Quadruplane No. 2, which began tests in October 1916.
As modified, the machine featured redesigned increased-span wings with less camber and a reduced angle of incidence. A more powerful, 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape rotary was fitted and the observer was provided with a light machine-gun, installed on a pyramid structure in front of the forward cockpit and arranged to fire above the airscrew. Trials indicated improved all-round performance and manoeuvrability, even better than that of the earlier model. Early in November 1916, the S.Z. Quadruplane No. 2 was delivered to the 4th Squadron, 4th Wing of the Imperial Russian Air Service, based near Mir in the Baranowice region, at the request of Col Jungmeister who was its CO.
Its operational career was rather short. After a few reconnaissance sorties, Jungmeister was forced down when his engine seized up over enemy lines. Landing in the immediate vicinity of the front, the pilot did not notice field telephone cables, and the machine struck them on touchdown and nosed over. Its white-painted underside attracted the attention of German aircraft, which attacked the field and dropped a few bombs. In spite of all this, the quadruplane was not seriously damaged. It was taken for repairs to Lebedev factory in Petersburg, but because of the revolutionary disorders of the time these were never carried out. For the same reason plans for quantity manufacture of the type never progressed beyond the first aircraft. Later Zalewski allocated to the S.Z. Quadruplane Nos. 1 and 2 the numbers W.Z.III and IV respectively in his personal designation sequence.
The quadruplane story has an interesting postscript. In 1959 the Frunze Central Aviation House in Moscow received certain material regarding the S.Z. aircraft from Savieliev, who claimed to have been mainly responsible for the design of the machines. He stated that they were known from his own initials as the SV quadruplanes. However, the photographs of the aircraft available to the author distinctly show the letters S.Z. (in the Russian alphabet) on the engine cowling. After the war Savieliev evolved a modified copy of the S.Z. Quadruplane No. 2, which was completed in Russia in 1923.
Construction: The S.Z. No. 1 and No. 2 were two-seat diminishing-span single-bay reconnaissance quadruplanes constructed of wood except for the tail unit. The wings of the Quadruplane No. I, with 18 deg stagger and a gross area of 24 sq m (258.3 sq ft), were two-spar fabric-covered structures, the spars being of the hollow, laminated variety. Based on Prof Bauman's theories, they employed the arch-type aerofoil section with deep undercamber and had 4 deg of incidence. The diminishing wing panels were connected by two pairs of parallel interplane struts of solid pine on either side. The bottom wing, spanning 5.5 m (18 ft 0 3/4 in), had up-turned tips. Hinge-mounted ailerons, operated by cables, were fitted to the two upper wings only. In order lo facilitate access to the cockpits, the centre section of the second wing from the top was not covered and was free of ribs, small fences flanking the gap. The S.Z. Quadruplane No. 2 featured increased-span wings of less cambered aerofoil section, which had an area of 26 sq m (279.9 sq ft) and incidence of 3 deg. In all other respects its wings were essentially similar to those of the earlier model.
The fuselage was a wire-braced wooden box-girder structure covered with three-ply and accommodated two seats in tandem, the pilot's cockpit, at the rear, being slightly raised. The monoplane tail unit consisted of a welded-steel tubular frame with fabric covering, and incorporated a braced tailplane and unbalanced rudder and elevators. The landing gear consisted of a through axle, attached by rubber cords to tubular-steel Vs on either side of the fuselage. The S.Z. No. 1 was powered by a partly-cowled 80 hp Gnome seven-cylinder rotary engine, driving a two-blade tractor airscrew which was designed by Zalewski to Stefan Drzewiecki's theories. The S.Z. No. 2 was equipped with the 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape seven-cylinder rotary, which drove a new Zalewski airscrew.
Overall dimensions of the S.Z. Quadruplane No. 1 included a span of 8.5 m (27 ft 11 in), a length of 6 m (19 ft 8 1/4 in) and a height of 3.3 m (10 ft 10 1/4, in). Empty and maximum loaded weights were 360 kg (794 lb) and 660 kg (1,455 lb). Performance included a maximum speed of 115 km/h (71.5 mph). The S.Z. Quadruplane No. 2 had an overall span of 9.3 m (30 ft 6 1/4 in), its length and height remaining the same. The maximum loaded weight rose to 750 kg (1,653 lb) and maximum speed to 135 km/h (83.9 mph).
S.Z. Quadruplane No. 3 (Zalewski W.Z.V)
In September 1916, Savieliev was issued with the War Department specification for a three-seat army co-operation reconnaissance bomber with a 220 hp engine, either Renault or Salmson, a useful load of 550 kg (1,213 lb) and a maximum speed of not less than 140 km/h (86.9 mph). Wladyslaw Zalewski immediately began studies for the required machine, selecting the 220 hp Renault eight-cylinder upright vee water-cooled engine in preference to the Salmson radial. The new project, originally known as the S.Z. Quadruplane No. 3 and retrospectively designated the W.Z.V, was a larger and heavier derivative of the previous S.Z. models.
The study, prepared in Smolensk, was completed in February 1917, and a prototype was to be built in Kiev, but due to the German advance towards that city it was necessary to transfer this work deeper into Russia. At that time Zalewski met one of the organizers of the Central Experimental Aerodrome in Kherson on the Black Sea who became very interested in the design and offered to construct the machine at this new establishment. Preliminary work on the prototype was being undertaken in the early spring, but revolutionary troubles soon brought it to a complete halt.
In the winter of 1916-17 Zalewski evolved proposals for a giant heavy quadruplane bomber designed around four 215 hp Sunbeam Arab or 220 hp Renault water-cooled engines. The aircraft, designated the W.Z.VI, was to be heavily armed with Scarff-mounted machine-guns and able to carry up to 700 kg (1,543 lb) of bombs, its estimated empty and maximum loaded weights being 4,500 kg (9,920 lb) and 7,000 kg (15,432 lb). It was intended to build a prototype in the workshops of the Central Experimental Aerodrome at Kherson, but this plan also came to nothing because of the revolution.
Construction: The S.Z. No. 3 was a three-seat diminishing-span single-bay reconnaissance bomber quadruplane of wooden construction. The wings, with a total area of 60 sq m (645.8 sq ft), were aerodynamically and technologically larger replicas of those of the previously described S.Z. Quadruplane No. 2, except for the bottom wing, with a span of 8.8 m (28 ft 10 1/2 in), which dispensed with the up-turned tips. All wing panels were of equal, 1.3 m (4 ft 3 1/2 in), chord and the interplane gap was 1.2 m (3 ft 11 1/2 in). The ply-covered fuselage accommodated two side-by-side seats with dual controls for two pilots, with a fixed synchronized gun on the port side, and the observer's cockpit with a Scarff ring for a single or twin Lewis gun behind. Zalewski originally intended to place the fuselage between the two lower wings, but later abandoned that idea, settling for a layout similar to that of the earlier S.Z. Quadruplanes, and except for the main landing-gear units, which featured twin wheels, the machine was in all other respects basically similar to those aircraft. Overall dimensions included a span of 148 m (48 ft 6 3/4 in), a length of 9.2 m (30 ft 2 1/4 in) and a height of 4.6 m (15 ft 1 1/4 in). Estimated empty and maximum loaded weights were 1,180 kg (2,601 lb) and 1,750 kg (3,858 lb) respectively, and wing loading 29.2 kg/sq m (6 lb/sq ft). Estimated performance in the fully loaded condition included a maximum speed of 148 km/h (91.9 mph) at sea level and 140 km/h (86.9 mph) at 2,000 m (6,561 ft), and a service ceiling of 3,700 m (12,139 ft).
H.Nowarra, G.Duval Russian Civil and Military Aircraft 1884-1969
In November, 1915, W. Zalewski, a young Polish aircraft designer, together with V. F. Saveliev, a head mechanic, submitted a design for a quadruplane to the Commander in Chief of the Air Service, the project being designated as the S.Z. Quadruplane No. 1. Official approval was given, and construction of the machine authorised to commence at the 2nd Aircraft Park, Smolensk, where both men were stationed as members of the Air Service. The machine was intended as a small-scale prototype of a much larger multi-winged bomber, for Saveliev, who had worked at Russo-Baltic on the Sikorski giant aircraft, was convinced that future large aircraft should have five or even six wings. The S.Z. No. 1 emerged at the beginning of April, 1916, as a two-seater, with an 80 h.p. Gnome engine. The wings were of diminishing span, from the upper of 27 ft. 11 in. to the lower of 18 ft. 1 in., the latter having raised tips, all being supported by long interplane and centre-section struts and wire-braced. The fuselage, tail surfaces and undercarriage were conventional in appearance. The commander of a reconnaissance squadron, Col. Jungmeister, was nominated as test pilot, and in this capacity carried out taxi-ing trials on April 23rd, 1916. In the event, these trials provided the first flight, for the S.Z. No. 1 had so much lift that Jungmeister unexpectedly found himself airborne, and decided to carry on! With a top speed of 72 m.p.h. the machine proved to have exceptional manoeuvrability, and Jungmeister requested that it should be released for duty with his unit, but Zalewski insisted upon modifications to improve performance still further. These consisted of redesigned wings of slightly greater span and area, installation of a Gnome Monosoupape 100 h.p. engine, and armament for the observer in the front cockpit by means of a light machine-gun mounted to fire above the propeller. Test flights confirmed the wisdom of the alterations, for the speed was now 82 m.p.h. and the machine was capable of out-turning even the agile Nieuport single-seaters.
The S.Z. No. 1 joined the strength of the 4th Squadron, 4th Wing of the Imperial Air Service, based in the Baranovitche region, in early November, 1916, and became the personal mount of the Commander, Col. Jungmeister. Unfortunately, its operational career was short, for after a few sorties a forced landing due to engine failure occurred, and the resultant damage was never repaired owing to the start of the Revolution. The political upheaval also prevented completion of a three-seater 200 h.p. Army reconnaissance bomber quadruplane, developed from the S.Z. No. 1 and under construction at the Central Experimental Aerodrome at Cherson, on the Black Sea. A detailed design study for a giant quadruplane bomber with four 200 h.p. engines was abandoned for the same reason.
Although there was little obvious difference between the original S.Z. No. 1 quadruplane and the machine in its modified form, the latter was often referred to as the S.Z. No. 2, and to further complicate the issue Zalewski later re-designated these two forms as ‘W.Z. III’ and ‘W.Z. IV’ (Wladyslaw Zalewski), having taken into account some earlier designs. The incompleted three-seater bomber became ‘W.Z. V’.
L.Andersson Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 (Putnam)
Savel'ev Chetyrekhplan (Quadruplane)
V F Savel'ev, a mechanic in the Imperial Russian Air Service, built a successful two-seat reconnaissance machine with four wings at Smolensk in 1916. In 1922-23 he constructed a new two-seat quadruplane (c/n 1/76) while working in the 1st Aviapoezd-masterskaya (aircraft repair train). The lower wing was mounted immediately behind the rear undercarriage struts below the fuselage, the second wing ended against the fuselage sides and the third wing consisted of two separate halves with an open space between them. The fourth wing was supported by the four interplane struts. Tests at the NOA between April and August 1923 revealed difficult handling and other deficiencies and this prevented further development. The aircraft was written off.
110hp Le Rhone
Span 5.6m; length 6.42m; height 3.33m; wing area 18.5nv
Empty weight 506kg; loaded weight 802kg
Maximum speed 165km/h; climb to 1,000m in 7min; ceiling 3,500m; endurance 4hr; range 500km