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DFW Mars biplane

Страна: Германия

Год: 1912

DFW - Mars - 1912 - Германия<– –>DFW - Mars-Buchner - 1912 - Германия


J.Herris DFW Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 29)


DFW Mars Two-Seaters

  The Mars monoplane was designed and built in 1912, the same year as the Mars-Buchner biplane was built. The standard Mars biplane was developed from the Mars-Buchner biplane with a more robust wing cellule. The Mars monoplane and biplane were similar in appearance other than their wings.
  The Mars monoplane originally had a four cylinder engine but most had a six-cylinder, 100 hp Argus, Daimler, or NAG engine. The wings were designed to fold. Most used wing warping for roll control although at least one had a modified wing that featured ailerons.
  The Mars biplane also originally used four-cylinder engines like the 95 hp NAG, Daimler G4F, and others. Once more powerful six-cylinder engines became available the later production Mars biplanes used these more powerful engines. The wing cellule was a robust, three-and-a-half bay design that was also designed to fold the wingtips for storage in tents while in the field.
  Both the Mars monoplane and biplane were two-seat aircraft that could be used for reconnaissance and training. In 1913 a Mars biplane was flown for the Turkish side in the was against Bulgaria, and a long reconnaissance flight was flown with Captain Kemal Bey, later to become president of Turkey Kemal Attaturk.
  Small numbers of the Mars biplane were flown at the front during the early part of the Great War, and it is possible that Mars monoplanes were also used at the front. Certainly both types were used for training before and after the beginning of the war.

DFW Mars Specifications
Monoplane Biplane
Engine 100 hp NAG 100 hp Mercedes D.I
Span, Upper 16.8 m 17.0 m
Wing Area 35 m2 46 m2
Length 9.7 m 9 m
Height - 3.18 m
Empty Weight 560 kg 700 kg
Loaded Weight 820 kg 920 kg
Maximum Speed 120 km/h 100 km/h


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913


MARS. Deutsche Flogzeugwerke G.m.b.H., Lindenthal bei Leipzig. Established 1911. This is one of the most important and successful aviation works in Germany. Capacity: from 80 to 100 machines a year.

   1911-12. 1912. 1912
   Monoplane. Biplane. Hydro-
   aeroplane.

Length...........feet(m.) 31 (9.7) 31 (9.7)
Span.............feet(m.) 55? (16.8) 57 (17.8)
Are.........sq. feet(m?.) 376 (35) 495 (46)
Weight, total, lbs.(kgs.) 1234 (560) 1434 (650)
   useful, lbs.(kgs.) 1808 (820) 2006 (910) Building
Motor................h.p. 95 N.A.G. 95 Mercedes
Speed, max....m.p.h.(km.) 120 (75) 115 (71)
   min....m.p.h.(km.) ... ...
Endurance............hrs. 5--6 4--6
Number Built during 1912 6 16

Remarks--


Журнал Flight


Flight, December 28, 1912.

SOME GERMAN MACHINES.
By G. B.

<...>
Generally speaking, it may be said that while the French designers have been striving mainly for speed the Germans have paid a great deal more attention to the question of lateral stability. This will be obvious front a study of the accompanying photographs, which we are enabled to reproduce by the courtesy of our contemporary Flugsport. In monoplane design the influence of Grade and also of Etrich has been very marked, many machines having the underslung position of the pilot of the former, while the bird-shaped plane, evolved by the latter in a modified form, is quite common. When the Etrich monoplane assumed a practical form in Austria in 1910, arrangements were at once made for it to be manufactured in Germany, and under the name of Rumpler-Taube or Pigeon, it has proved very successful in competition, and has also been favourably received by the military authorities. With regard to biplanes, the Albatross Co. exhibited at the 1911 Paris Salon one of their machines in which the tips of the upper plane were arranged somewhat on the Etrich plan. Since then, however, this firm have abandoned this system in favour of main planes with a flattened V form similar to the "Lohner" arrow-plane," entered for the British military trials. The Mars biplane is on more or less the same general lines.
<...>


Flight, December 20, 1913.

THE D.F.W. BIPLANE AT BROOKLANDS.

  QUITE an interesting visitor to these shores is the D.F.W. biplane, which has been down at Brooklands for two or three weeks. Owing to the lack of space, we cannot at the moment do more than publish photographs of this machine, which is being exploited in this country by Mr. G. Cecil Kny, who hopes, by demonstrating the capabilities of his machine as a reliable war plane, to get a share of Government orders. From a cursory glance round this very businesslike-looking aeroplane, it appears likely - though probably not being very fast - to justify Mr. Kny's claim, to go and return, day in and day out, for weeks on end if necessary, as it is said to have done on the Continent. It looks immensely strong, and the 100 h.p. Mercedes engine, with its motor car front radiator, looks capable of doing all that is claimed for it. We shall later be giving a detailed description of this machine, with photographs and scale drawings. The machine is constructed by the Deutsche Flugzeug Werke, who are the makers of the monoplane which was fully dealt with in FLIGHT on November 8th, 1913.


Flight, January 10, 1914.

THE D.F.W. BIPLANE.

  If the D.F.W. biplane may be considered as being representative of German aeroplane construction - and the prominent position occupied by the German Aircraft Works (Deutsche Flugzeug Werke), of Lindenthal, near Leipzig, certainly justifies this assumption - aeroplane construction in Germany has made tremendous strides during the last year or so. In this country, steel construction has been comparatively little employed, and if for no other reason this new arrival to our shores would be of great interest. There are, however, a great number of other things to attract one's attention, both as regards design and new details incorporated in the construction.
  Like the majority of German machines, this biplane is of the tractor type, with the weights of engine and pilot situated comparatively far apart. The engine, a 100 h.p. six-cylinder Mercedes, is mounted on stout ash bearers in the front portion of the fuselage. The radiator in conjunction with the lower front portion of the fuselage forms a very good entry for the air, which is allowed to flow along the gently tapering sides until it meets again behind the pointed stern.
  Constructionally the fuselage is built up of three tubular longerons connected by a system of three-ply wood cross-members, a construction which, apart from being very strong, possesses a certain amount of elasticity, which greatly minimises danger of distortion due to shocks. Steel wires running longitudinally and supported on the cross-members serve to form the streamline shape of the lower portion of the fuselage, whilst a turtle back of three-ply wood runs from a point behind the pilot's seat to the rudder post. An aluminium cover, black enamelled, extends from the engine housing to a point just to the rear of the pilot's seat. This cover is attached to the upper longerons by means of ordinary bonnet fasteners, and can be easily removed for the purpose of examining the controls, &c. In front of the pilot's and passenger's seats this cover is swept slightly upwards in order to deflect the air and thus form a wind-screen for the protection of the occupants.
  The two seats are arranged tandem fashion, the pilot occupying the rear seat, from where he has, due to the position well to the rear of the trailing edges of the wings, a practically unrestricted view in all directions. The passenger's seat is situated sufficiently far forward to enable him to look over the leading edge of the lower plane, and thus has a good view in a downward and forward direction, while an unobstructed view straight downwards is obtained by cutting away the trailing edge of the lower plane in the vicinity of the fuselage. Mounted on a very neat dash in front of the pilot are an uncommonly complete set of instruments, not the least interesting of which is a very small, compact Bosch self-starter, which is in reality a small dynamo, hand operated, by means of which the pilot can start his engine with one or two revolutions of a small handle, without any necessity of swinging the propeller. This is, of course, on the assumption that there is sufficient gas in the cylinders, which seems to be always the case with the excellent Mercedes engine, for on the twenty odd times that we have seen the engine started the device never failed to work.
  The controls are of the usual type, consisting of a vertical tubular column on which is mounted a hand-wheel, the rotation of which operates the ailerons, whilst the to-and-fro movement actuates the elevator. The rudder is controlled by means of two foot-pedals similar to those used on motor cars. Two sets of controls are provided, so that either pilot or passenger may take control of the machine at any time. If desired the passenger's controls may be easily put out of action.
  Between the engine and the passenger's seat is a large petrol tank containing about 50 gallons of petrol, which is fed to the two carburettors by gravity. A smaller emergency tank, containing an additional supply of about four gallons, is slung underneath the top plane. Six exhaust pipes project through the fuselage covering on the right hand side of the machine, and they are made of sufficient length to ensure that no exhaust gases are blown back in the faces of the pilot and passenger. In order to keep these pipes cooler they are not exactly in line, the front one projecting more outwards from the body than the rear one so that the air is allowed to flow freely round all of them. A gauze bonnet is fitted over the engine so as to allow of easy inspection.
  The main planes, which have a very decided slope backwards, are built up of ash spars of I section with side pieces of poplar, over which are built the ribs, which have webs of three-ply wood and flanges of lime wood. The upper plane is straight - that is to say, it has no dihedral angle - whereas the lower plane has a dihedral of four degees. Six pairs of struts connect the main planes, and these struts are unusual in that they are hinged in the centre so that they can be folded, thus allowing the two planes to be laid flat against one another, when the machine is dismantled. This is accomplished without in any way interfering with the cross bracing of the planes, so that these can be erected again without any adjustment whatever. The top plane has a considerably larger span than the lower one, and the two extensions are supported, when the machine is on the ground, by steel tubes running from the upper wing tip to the lower ends of the outer pair of plane struts. For accommodation in a small hangar these two extensions of the top plane can be easily folded down, thus reducing the overall span to about 40 feet. Along the leading edge of the wings we noticed some little fittings, the purpose of which evidently is to allow the wings to be rolled along the floor of the hangar without the necessity of lifting them, an operation which, if not carefully carried out, is apt to strain the wings. To the rear spar of the top plane are hinged two ailerons, which are set at a negative angle of incidence normally, and thus serve the same purpose, to a certain extent, as the upturned wing-tips of the Etrich and Handley Page machines. There seems, however, to be very little necessity of using these ailerons, for during a flight of about twenty minutes' duration on which we accompanied the D.F.W. Company's chief pilot, Herr Roempler, a careful observation of the ailerons revealed the fact that the pilot did not have to move them once during the whole flight. We did a steeply-banked right-hand turn only a short height above the trees just outside the track at Brooklands, where gusts and remous are known to be practically always prevalent, and we fully expected that here at least the ailerons would be called into play, but evidently there was no necessity to do so, for after completing the turn the machine gradually came back to an even keel without the slightest movement of the ailerons. Another thing noticed was that on making a turn the machine seemed to bank automatically to just the right degree, for we did not feel the tendency to lean towards the higher side generally experienced on a machine where warp or ailerons are employed to increase or counteract the bank; the amount of banking must, therefore, have been at least fairly correct for the particular speed and curve.
  On landing, the good qualities of the chassis were demonstrated, for on running into a small mound in the ground the machine simply bounced slightly and alighted again without any shock. The chassis consists of two pairs of U-shaped steel tubes held rigid by a pyramid of four shorter and thinner steel tubes having their apex underneath the lower main plane where the keel of the fuselage rests on it, and secured to the U-tubes by steel clips. The chassis tubes are attached to the upper longerons by clips and bolts passing outside the tubes, which are therefore not weakened by piercing. Each of the two pairs of wheels is mounted on a short tubular axle, and sprung by means of rubber shock absorbers. Coil springs on each side provide for a slightly sideways travel of the machine on alighting. Instead of the usual radius rods, short stranded cables are used to keep the wheels in their normal position.
  In order to provide a certain amount of speed variation the angle of incidence of the tail plane can be altered while the machine is in flight. The method of doing this is illustrated by one of the accompanying sketches. The tail plane, which is pivoted round a transverse steel tube in the stern of the fuselage, is divided into two halves, and does not fit tightly on to the sides of the fuselage, sufficient space being provided to allow of the upward and downward movement of the tail plane. A short tubular axle, working in bearings in the sides of the fuselage, carries two short crank levers, which work in slotted steel plates on the tail plane. On this axle is mounted a sprocket wheel, from which a short length of chain and stranded cables run to an autoloc wheel mounted on the outside of the fuselage just behind the pilot's seat. By rotating this wheel the axle, which carries the cranks, is revolved, and the front of the tail plane moves up or down according to the direction in which the handwheel is rotated. To the trailing edge of this tail plane is hinged the elevator, which is of the undivided type. On top of the fuselage is mounted a small vertical fin, which has hinged to its trailing edge the rudder. Leather edgings around all these hinges allow of easy inspection of the hinges, and in a similar way the fabric with which the fuselage is covered can be removed by undoing the lacing. A short rubber-sprung tail skid is pivoted below the tail planes. Stranded cables are used throughout for the wing bracing,
  The weight of the machine empty is 1,460 lbs. and its speed is in the neighbourhood of 68 miles per hour. With a supply of fuel sufficient for seven and a half hours' flight, and with pilot and passenger, the machine climbs about 300 ft. per minute, and its gliding angle 1 in 8.5. The machine appeared to require a comparatively long run before taking the air, but Herr Roempler. contends that there is no reason for taking a machine off too soon provided there is room enough to give it a longer run, and when required the machine will, we understand, get off in under 50 yards. Mr. Cecil E. Kny who is the designer and manager of the German Aircraft Works, intends either to erect shops for building the machines in this country, or else to arrange with some large armament firm to build them under licence.


Flight, August 28, 1914.

AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY"
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.

10. The D.F.W. Arrow Biplane
  is already familiar to our readers from descriptions with scale drawings and sketches which have appeared in our columns. Two machines of this type have been flying at Brooklands for the past year or so, and there is no necessity to go into a detailed description. Suffice it to say that they are steady, reliable machines, if somewhat slow, and as they are built of steel practically throughout they stand up to very rough usage.

J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars Biplane BULLI, DFW Flying School, ca.1914.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars Biplane DRESDEN, DFW Flying School, before the war.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars Biplane B.88/13, unit unknown.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars Biplane with long fin.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
The Mars biplane, the fuselage and landing chassis of which are exactly similar to that of the Mars monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
A plan view of the D.F.W, biplane now at Brooklands.
The swept-back wings led to the smaller, more compact DFW Pfeil (Arrow) biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE D.F.W. BIPLANE AT BROOKLANDS. - Side view.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The DFW Mars biplanes were powered by a variety of four and six-cylinder engines such as the 95 hp NAG, etc. This later aircraft has a six-cylinder engine and two men are seated in the observer's cockpit.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The D.F.W. biplane, as seen from the side.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An early production four-cylinder DFW Mars biplane photographed before the war in front of the Fokker hangar.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Early production DFW Mars Arrow biplanes feature different fin and rudder designs. This aircraft has a four-cylinder engine.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The biplane version of the DFW Mars was one of the primitive, miscellaneous airplanes with which Germany entered the war.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Ground crew and spectators surround an early four-cylinder DFW Mars biplane whose name is not quite legible. (Peter M. Bowers Collection/Museum of Flight)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Ground crew attempt to steady an early DFW Mars biplane before takeoff. The engine has four cylinders. (Peter M. Bowers Collection/Museum of Flight)
Форум - Breguet's Aircraft Challenge /WWW/
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The DFW Mars biplane used as background in this group photo displays its large wingspan of 18 meters.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The D.F.W. biplane from the front.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This DFW Mars biplane is serial B 88/13.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars monoplane at left and Mars biplane at right. Both types were built in small numbers and used for training and reconnaissance in the opening months of the war. Their fuselage and vertical tails were very similar. (Peter M. Bowers Collection/Museum of Flight)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars monoplane at right with "DFW" and Mars biplane at left. Both types were built in small numbers and used for training and reconnaissance in the opening months of the war. Their fuselage and vertical tails were very similar. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two DFW Mars biplanes are shown at the DFW flying school.The one in front is named BULLI. Both are carrying an early version of the German national insignia, indicating the photo was taken during the war. (Peter M. Bowers Collection/Museum of Flight)
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A DFW Mars biplane in training service at Doberitz.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
View of the DFW Mars biplane DRESDEN at the DFW flying school. This aircraft, powered by a six-cylinder engine, carries no national markings, so the photos were probably taken before the war.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This postcard of a DFW Mars biplane claims that it was the first aircraft to bomb Paris under command of Flieger Lt. von Hiddessen.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Early production DFW Mars Arrow biplanes feature different fin and rudder designs. This aircraft has a six-cylinder engine.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
THE D.F.W. BIPLANE. - A three-quarter view from the back.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A DFW Mars biplane attracts a crowd. This later production aircraft is powered by a six-cylinder engine.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This DFW Mars biplane demonstrates its ability to fold its upper wings to fit in a tent in the field. (Peter M. Bowers Collection/Museum of Flight)
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Harry Oelerich, chief pilot of the D.F.W. Flying School, after beating the German duration record by 6 hrs. 8 mins. a few weeks back.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The front part of the D.F.W. biplane, showing the engine in place.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A DFW Mars biplane in flight presents a distinctive profile. The Mars Biplanes used ailerons instead of the wing warping most commonly used by the Mars monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Some fine speciment of banking on the 100 h.p. D.F.W. all-steel Arrow biplane, when being flown recently by Lieut. C. H. Collet, of the Naval Wing of the R.F.C. at Brooklands.
Lieut. Collet, R.N.A.S., who took such a prominent part in the air raid on the Zeppelin sheds on Tuesday, will be remembered as doing some notable flying at Brooklands. Above we give a couple of photographs showing him banking steeply on the D.F.W. all-steel Arrow biplane.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
General view of one of the three erecting shops of the German Aircraft Works, Ltd. (D.F.W.), at Lindenthal, near Leipzig, Germany.
DFW Mars biplanes under construction; the four-cylinder engines indicate these are early production aircraft.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Herr Roempler, the skilful pilot of the D.F.W. aeroplane, now at Brooklands.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Lieut. Collet, of the Naval Wing of the R.F.C., in the pilot's seat of the 100 h.p. D.F.W. Arrow biplane, prior to his testing the machine on a long flight at Brooklands.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Lieut. C. H. Collet, who was to have piloted the British-built Beardmore D.F.W. tractor biplane in the Round Britain Race.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
In addition to the crashes, there were always taxi accidents, a particular hazard for these early aircraft without brakes. Here a DFW Mars biplane has experienced a close encounter of the worst kind with a Taube.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Crash of a DFW Mars biplane; landing accidents were a common occurrence with early aircraft for a number of reasons, including rough airfields and sudden gusts of wind that could overturn them.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Sketch showing front part of fuselage and landing chassis of the D.F.W. biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
THE TAIL PLANES OF THE D.F.W. BlPLANE. - Note the wheel outside fuselage by means of which the angle of incidence of the tall plane may be altered during flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Sketch showing how angle of incidence of D.F.W. tail plane is altered.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Universal-joint on end of struts of D.F.W. biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
One of the "Domes of Silence" fitted on leading edge of D.F.W. wings to facilitate moving them about inside hangar.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Section of D.F.W. wing spar.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Sketch showing how plane struts are hinged in the centre of the D.F.W. biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
One side of landing chassis showing mounting of wheels.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The flexible rear portion of the D.F.W. ribs.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars biplane
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars biplane
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars biplane
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
DFW Mars biplane
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
THE D.F.W. BIPLANE. - PIan, side and front elevations to scale.