М.Маслов Русские самолеты 1914-1917
<Конек-горбунок> В.Н. Хиони
Хотя этот самолет, получивший свое название по имени героя русской сказки, написанной П.П. Ершовым, по времени своего появления и периоду эксплуатации далеко выходит за временные рамки нашего повествования, упоминание его представляется немаловажным. <Конек-горбунок> завершил серию всех типов самолетов <Анатра>.
С образованием в Одессе ГАМ № 7 решено было построить небольшую серию учебных самолетов с использованием оставшихся элементов <Анаде> и двигателей <Фиат> мощностью 100 л.с. Первый самолет, получивший обозначение У-8, построили и успешно испытали весной 1923 г. В дальнейшем У-8 получил известность как <Конек-горбунок> и не в качестве учебного, а как агитационный и сельско-хозяйственный. В последнем варианте использовался как опылитель в борьбе с саранчой. В задней кабине установили бак для ядовитого порошка, который при открытии специального клапана распылялся за самолетом. Всего построили 30 самолетов <Конек-горбунок>, которые эксплуатировались до 1929 г.
Летные и технические характеристики||<Конек-горбунок>
Размах крыльев (верхних) (м)||11,48
Длина в линии полета (м)||7,80
Площадь крыльев (м2)||37,0
Вес пустого (кг)||700
Полетный вес (кг)||975
Скорость у земли (км/час)||122
Время набора высоты 1000 м. (мин)||9,8
L.Andersson Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 (Putnam)
Khioni Konek-Gorbunok (Kh-5)
The Kh-5 two-seat trainer was built in 1923 by V N Khioni at RVZ/ GAZ No. 7, the former Anatra aeroplane works in Odessa. Remaining parts from First World War Anatra Anade production were used to a great extent and the resulting aircraft was fitted with a 100hp Fiat water-cooled engine with a frontal radiator. The Kh-5 was a two-bay biplane with fabric-covered wings. Two separate fuel tanks were attached to the undersurfaces of the upper wing half-way between the inner pair of interplane struts and the centre-section struts. The upper wings had large horn-balanced ailerons and the rudder and elevators also had aerodynamic balancing surfaces. Metal panels covered the upper surface of the fuselage and the sides forward of the leading edges of the lower wings.
The new machine was flown for the first time in May 1923 and it was flown by Khioni both at Odessa and in Moscow with the nickname Konek-Gorbunok (Hunchback Horse) painted on the fuselage sides. This name caught on and the initial Kh-5 designation was soon abandoned. The prototype was handed over to the NOA for State trials in September but was destroyed in a crash on 23 July 1924. In the meantime an order for another thirty Konek-Gorbunoks had been placed by the VVS and these were built by GAZ No. 7 during 1924. Apparently a second prototype (c/n 1) was also built and this machine was first flown on 18 July 1924. The Konek-Gorbunok was rated inferior to all other trainers tested by the NOA in 1924 and by the time the thirty- aircraft batch had been completed the VVS had lost interest, probably because there were plenty of other types of trainers available.
Most of the Konek-Gorbunoks were apparently stored at Odessa until released for civil use. It seems that only four were taken on charge by the VVS (c/ns 5, 6, 17 and 28). They were officially handed over to the Khar'kov-based 5th Otdel'naya razvedivatel'naya aviaeskadril'ya 'Il'ich' during a ceremony in Odessa on 3 May 1925 and later served as liaison aircraft with the 4th Otdel'naya istrebitel'naya aviatsionnaya eskadril'ya and the 5th and 9th Aviaeskadrilii. The last military Konek-Gorbunok was still in service at the beginning of 1929.
In June 1924 two machines were released for use by the Obshchestvo aviatsii i vozdukhoplavaniya Ukrainy i Kryma (OAVUK), the Society of Aviation and Aeronautics of the Ukraine and Crimea. The slow-flying performance and low landing speed of the type suited it for use by the ODVF and OAVUK in their aviation propaganda campaigns. This was a kind of organised barnstorming with aircraft being sent to small and large communities all over the Soviet Union. In old ex-VVS machines, mostly Sopwith 1 1/2-Strutters, Junkers F 13s and Konek-Gorbunoks many people were given an opportunity to fly for the first time, of whom few had even seen an aeroplane before. Making the public air-minded was seen as an important task and at the same time money was raised for the aircraft presentation schemes of the ODVF and the OAVUK.
The two OAVUK Konek-Gorbunoks were based at Odessa and named Krasnyi Finrabotnik Odesshchiny and Krasnyi Profrabotnik Odesshchiny. They were flown by N I Romashkin and A T Berbenko on tours around the Ukraine. The Krasnyi Finrabotnik Odesshchiny (c/n 14) was registered RRUOA in August 1925 and the other probably became RRUOB. A third machine (c/n 29) was acquired later and became RRUOD. It was handed over to the Osoaviakhim Civil Aviation School at Khar'kov when the school was opened on 4 November 1928.
Twelve Konek-Gorbunoks were released for the ODVF and they were delivered early in 1925. The Moscow- based MODVF received three, R-RMAA, R-RMAB and R-RMAC, which were registered in April 1925 together with another two, R-RMOA and R-RMOB (c/n 23). One of these was named Moskovskii potrebitlokoop (Moskovskaya potrebitel'skaya kooperatsiya) in May 1925 and R-RMOB was sold to Dobrolet. R-RODE (c/n 2) was based at Tula but crashed on 18 May 1925. The small fleet of the civil flying school opened at Tula in 1930 also included a Konek-Gorbunok, but this must have been another machine. R-RWOA (c/ n 3), owned by the Vyatsk branch of the ODVF, was loaned to Dobrolet between 1926 and 1927 and was registered RR-DLI during that time. The Konek-Gorbunok based at Nizhnii-Novgorod and named Nizhegorodets (c/n 30) crashed on 5 June 1926 and R-RODC (c/n 1) based at Arkhangel'sk was withdrawn from use in 1927. The ODVF branch in Bashkiriva received a machine registered R-RODO (changed to RR-ODS in August 1928) and named it Jangi-Aul. Others were assigned to Gomel' and Ivanovo-Voznesensk.
Being able to fly very slowly and to land almost anywhere the Konek- Gorbunok was found to be suitable also for another role - crop dusting and pest control. The idea of using aircraft in the struggle against locusts and agricultural pests was tried on a small scale in 1923-24 and in February 1925 Dobrolet acquired two Konek-Gorbunoks for this task. Containers and spray nozzles for pesticide powder were designed by Professor Vold'rev and built by the Dobrolet workshops in Moscow. The containers were fitted in the front cockpits of the two Konek-Gorbunoks, which were registered R-RDLB (c/n 20) and R-RDLC (c/n 22) in Mav 1925 (changed to RR-DEB and RR-DEC in 1927).
The first mission assigned was to combat locusts in North Caucasia and a detachment commanded by I V Mikheev and consisting of the two Konek-Gorbunoks and B.E.2e R-RDLA was sent from Moscow in the spring of 1925. The aircraft, fuel, spare parts and other equipment were transported by barge down the Volga and then by air and by horse to a temporary landing ground near the area which was to be dusted. From that time similar expeditions were regularly sent out by Dobrolet. The later well-known polar aviator M V Vodop'yanov participated in this work as a mechanic and learnt to fly in a Konek-Gorbunok, from which he had removed the crop-dusting gear. In March-April 1926 RR-DLE (c/n 18) and RR-DLI (c/n 3) were taken over from Aviakhim, and another pair of Konek-Gorbunoks was loaned (c/ns 23 and 30).
Eleven new Konek-Gorbunoks were added to the Dobrolet fleet late in 1926, which by the end of the year included thirteen such aircraft. Nine of the new machines were assigned registrations in the spring of 1927: RR-DEK (c/n 7), RR-DEM (c/n 15), RR-DEN (c/n 26), RR-DEO (c/n 12), RR-DEP (c/n 24), RR-DES (c/n 10), RR-DET (c/n 25), RR-DEW (c/n 8) and RR-DEZ (c/n 13). RR-MOB (c/ n 23) had also been taken over by that time. A new type of registration based on the constructor's numbers was introduced in April 1928, when the Dobrolet Konek-Gorbunoks became ДЛ-7, ДЛ-8, ДЛ-10, ДЛ-12, ДЛ-13, ДЛ-15, ДЛ-20, ДЛ-22, ДЛ-23, ДЛ-24, ДЛ-25 and ДЛ-26 (with corresponding c/ns). Nine surviving machines were assigned the 1929-type registrations CCCP-101 to CCCP-109, but only seven remained when these reservations were taken up on 4 June 1929. Most were withdrawn from use in the following autumn, however, and the delivery of fifteen Polikarpov APs (U-2s) for the 1930 season put an end to the Konek-Gorbunok's career in Dobrolet service.
100hp Fiat A-10
Span 11.46m; length 7.8m; height 3.05m; wing area 37 m2
Empty weight 700kg; loaded weight 975kg
Maximum speed 111km/h; cruising speed 99km/h; landing speed 70km/h; climb to 1,000m in 9.8min; ceiling 3,500m, endurance 4.8hr; range 530km