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Bristol Type T

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1911

Bristol - Prier monoplane / P-1 - 1911 - Великобритания<– –>Bristol - biplane - 1911 - Великобритания


C.Barnes Bristol Aircraft since 1910 (Putnam)


The Bristol Biplane Type T

  The racing Boxkite No. 44, flown by Tetard in the Circuit de l'Europe, has already been described. Contemporary with it was a single-seat biplane designed by George Challenger for Maurice Tabuteau. It was not a Boxkite variant, although it incorporated details based on Boxkite experience and also owed much to the practical advice of Capt. Dickson, for which reason it was often called the Challenger-Dickson biplane. The first of the type, No. 45, had long upswept skids similar to those of the Farman Longhorn, but was a more compact design. The engine, a 70 h.p. Gnome, was mounted at the back of a rectangular nacelle containing fuel and oil tanks arranged longitudinally behind the cockpit. A push-pull handwheel control was installed, as in the Zodiac, and the forward elevator was carried at the apex of the front booms and the chassis skids. A single tailplane, with the rear elevator hinged to it, had a pair of narrow chord balanced rudders mounted close together below, in the slipstream. The T -type biplane, its official designation, was intended for cross-country racing and Tabuteau was one of nine entrants who completed the Circuit de l'Europe course out of the 38 starters. The route of 1,025 miles was from Paris via Liege, Spa, Liege, Venlo, Utrecht, Breda, Brussels, Roubaix, Calais, Dover, Shoreham, Hendon, Dover, Calais back to Paris.
  The vantage points which attracted most spectators were Calais and Dover, where there was the prospect of witnessing a mass crossing of the Channel for the first time, only seven crossings, including Bleriot's first in 1909, having been previously accomplished. The 11 pilots who arrived at Dover did in fact all cross within 45 minutes of each other. Tabuteau lost his way to Hendon and landed at Northwood to ask his way; for such an emergency he carried a placard inscribed: "Hold back the aeroplane. Do not let it go only when I am in and raise the hands. Do not frighten if the motor makes noise and smoke and wind and above all do not let it go."
  Four more T-type biplanes (Nos. 51-54) were built for entry in the Circuit of Britain race, for which the Daily Mail offered prize money totaling ?10,000. They were to have been flown, respectively, by Graham Gilmour, Collyns Pizey, Gordon England and Howard Pixton, with Tabuteau also competing on No. 45. However, Tabuteau was unable to take part and Gilmour had had his aviator's certificate suspended by the Royal Aero Club for alleged dangerous flying over Henley Regatta on 7 July, so only Pizey, England and Pixton started. The new biplanes differed slightly from No. 45, having modified nacelles with normal control sticks and the rudders were set as far apart as possible, out of the middle of the slipstream. Nos. 52 and 53 had 70 h.p. Gnome engines, but No. 54 had a 60 h.p. Renault. The team was unlucky, for England had engine trouble and could not take-off, Pizey broke his undercarriage in landing near Melton Mowbray and Pixton was slightly injured in landing near Harrogate. After the race, Gilmour's machine, No. 51, was fitted with a 50 h.p. Gnome and sold on 22 July to Gerald Napier, a newly qualified pilot trained at the Brooklands school. On 1 August he made several practice flights, with somewhat erratic landings, and then he took-off again with a passenger, although the machine was only a single-seater. He stalled on a gliding turn and crashed, being killed, but his passenger was thrown clear and received only minor injuries. No further flying was done with T -type biplanes after this, although one of them was handed over to Gordon England for experimental work and he converted it into a tractor biplane with a 60 h.p. E.N.V. engine. This machine, No. 59, was called the Challenger England and was delivered to Larkhill in November 1911. It was not very successful, and is notable chiefly because it had a fuel system comprising main tanks in the fuselage from which fuel was transferred by air pressure to a small gravity tank under the upper wing, thus preventing air bubbles from reaching the carburettor as so often happened with a direct feed from a pressurised tank. No. 59 was flown from time to time by advanced pupils (including Robert Smith-Barry) at Larkhill and, on 19 May 1912, was taxied into a crowd of spectators and overturned, one person being killed; after this it was dismantled. One further T-type biplane, No. 78, was never completed, but was to have had a 100 h.p. Gnome.

   SPECIFICATION AND DATA
Type: Biplane Type T
Manufacturers: The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Filton, Bristol
Power Plants: One 70 hp Gnome
   One 60 hp Renault
   One 100 hp Gnome
Span: 35 ft
Length: 24ft 6in
Wing Area: 350 sq ft
Empty Weight: 800lb
All-up Weight: 1,0001b
Speed: 58 mph
Accommodation: Pilot only
Production: 6
Sequence Nos. 45 51-5478

   SPECIFICATION AND DATA
Type: Challenger-England
Manufacturers: The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Filton, Bristol
Power Plant: One 50/60 hp E.N.V.
Span: 35 ft
Length: 23 ft
Wing Area: 350 sq ft
Accommodation: Pilot only
Production: One only
Sequence No.: 59


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)


/Bristol Boxkite

<...>
  The single-seater number 45 was fitted also with the 50 h.p. Gnome, and was a new type somewhat resembling the Maurice Farman. It was flown in the same contest by Mons. Maurice Tabuteau, whose recommendations were incorporated in the design. Four generally similar single-seaters were entered for the 1911 Daily Mail Circuit of Britain, and Captain Bertram Dickson collaborated with Challenger in their design, the machines being designated Improved Type T. Numbers 51, 52 and 53 were powered by 70 h.p. Gnomes, while number 54 received the 60 h.p. Renault. The racing biplanes differed in several respects from the standard and military Boxkites. Light wood and fabric structures formed the nacelles, twin rudders and hooped rattan tailskids were fitted, the ailerons on the lower wings were deleted, and the ailerons on the upper wing extensions were each in one piece. A more powerful Improved Type T single-seater, to be fitted with the 100 h.p. Gnome, and numbered 78, was not completed. A further racing variant, using standard Boxkite wings but with the nose elevator and booms deleted and the landing-gear reduced in height, was designed by Gabriel Voisin and allotted number 69. It had a 50 h.p. Gnome and was completed in February, 1912, but appears not to have been flown.
<...>


Bristol Challenger-England Biplane

  Designed by E. C. Gordon England, the experimental single-seat tractor biplane number 59 was built in 1911 and was a conversion of one of Challenger's Type T pushers using the 60 h.p. E.N.V. "F" engine. It incorporated an ingenious fuel system in which several tanks in the nacelle were pressurized by an air pump so as to supply petrol to a small header tank, which fed the engine by gravity so that air bubbles in the carburettor were eliminated. One only was built, and this overturned at Larkhill after running into a crowd of spectators on 19th May, 1912. Span, 35 ft.

C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Maurice Tabuteau starting from Vincennes on No. 45 in Circuit de l'Europe Race, June 1911.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
EUROPEAN AVIATION CIRCUIT. - Bristol Type T No.45 raced by Maurice Tabuteau in 1911. - M. Tabuteau immediately after his descent at Hendon on the British-built Bristol biplane.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Collyns Pizey on Bristol-Challenger-Dickson Type T No.52 at Larkhill, June 1911. One of a batch of racing biplanes based on the Boxkite.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Collyns P.Pizey leaving the cockpit of the Bristol Improved Type T No. 52 racing biplane at Hendon during the 1911 Daily Mail Circuit of Britain.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Bristol Boxkite Improved Type T No. 52 for 1911 Daily Mail Circuit of Britain.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Views of one of the "Bristol" biplanes entered by the British and Colonial Aeroplane Co. for the Daily Mail Circuit of Great Britain. The top plane has a span of 15 metres, while the lower plane is of approximately 8 metres span, the chord in each case being 15 metres. Steel has been substituted for aluminium in the fittings of all machines, and 50-h.p. Gnome engines are fitted to both biplanes and monoplanes.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Collyns Pizey on T-type biplane in Circuit of Britain Race, July 1911.
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
D. Graham Gilmour, hatless, - among the best-known pilots of his day - with the Bristol Improved Type T No. 52 flown in the 1911 Circuit of Britain in the background.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Pixton making a good start on the Bristol.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Howard Pixton makes a fine vol plane on the Bristol upon his arrival at Hendon.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Graham Gilmour, who was refused - by the Royal Aero Club - permission to take part in the Circuit of Britain, standing by his special Bristol biplane. On the right a creped laurel wreath is being placed on his hangar as a token of mourning for non-participation.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Challenger-England No. 59 at Larkhill, December 1911.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
The Bristol Challenger-England Biplane No.59 (a conversion of a Type T to tractor type) on it back at Larkhill after running into a crowd on 19th May, 1912.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES IN THE DAILY MAIL CIRCUIT ROUND GREAT BRITAIN. - From these every machine can be readily identified either in flight or on the ground.