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Albatros J.II

Страна: Германия

Год: 1918

Albatros - Dr.II - 1918 - Германия<– –>Albatros - W.8 - 1918 - Германия


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Albatros J II
  This aircraft was an improvement on the J I, with the armour extended forward to enclose the engine. At least four examples were built, numbered 126/18, 133/18, 167/18 and 169/18, but in view of the success of the Junkers J I, it is doubtful if many more existed. The downward twin machine-guns may be seen in the photograph protruding through the floor between the undercarriage legs. This arrangement was subsequently abandoned due to difficult and inaccurate sighting at low altitude. Engine, 220 h.p. Benz IVa. Span, 13.55 m. (44 ft. 5 1/2 in.). Length, 8.433 m. (27 ft. 8 in.). Height, 3.4 m. (11 ft. 1 7/8 in.). Area, 43.2 sq.m. (466.56 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 1,027 kg. (2,259 lb.). Loaded, 1,927 kg. (4,239 lb.). Speed, 140 km.hr. (87.5 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 8.7 min. Duration, 2.5 hr. Armament, two fixed Spandau machine-guns, one manually operated Parabellum machinegun in rear cockpit.


J.Herris Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Vol.3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 26)


Albatros J.II

  Although the Albatros J.I met the letter of the J-type requirement for armor protection of the crew, it was the only production J-type that did not have an armored engine. Unsurprisingly, lack of engine armor was the flyers' main complaint about the Albatros J.I, leading directly to the redesigned J.II. Like the competing Junkers and AEG designs, the Albatros J.II featured armor around the engine, giving the J.II a boxy nose instead of the streamlined nose of the Albatros J.I. In addition, the radiator was likewise armored to make it less vulnerable.
  To compensate for the additional weight of the engine armor, the J.II had the 220 hp Benz Bz.IVa, a slightly more powerful version of the 200 hp Benz Bz.IV engine installed in the J.I. Wing sweep was reduced slightly to maintain proper center of gravity with the additional nose armor. Despite the additional power, maximum speed of the J.II remained the same as the J.I due to the increase in weight and drag - a slow 140 km/h. Like the preceding Albatros J.I, climb and ceiling of the J.II remained modest. Nevertheless, since most missions were flown at 500 meters or less, climb rate and ceiling were not viewed as critical for J-type aircraft, which relied on their armor for protection instead of speed and altitude performance.
  Like the preceding C.XII and J.I, the J.II had ailerons on all four wings. However, to reduce control forces and improve responsiveness, the upper wings of the J.II were given horn-balanced ailerons. Tail surfaces remained the same as the J.I. Initially, armament was also the same; a flexible machine gun for the observer and two fixed machine guns firing downward at a 45° angle. However, the Albatros J.II was designed to carry a flexible 20mm Becker cannon mounted in the floor of the observer's cockpit. But Idflieg reported that, by the end of September 1918, no J.II aircraft carrying this armament had been delivered. Forward-firing armament had not been installed on J-type aircraft because it was not considered useful for air-to-air combat given the heavy J-type's lack of agility. Likewise, diving at ground targets for strafing was at first considered too risky for these heavy, armored aircraft. However, due to difficulty aiming the downward-firing guns, as J.II production progressed the two fixed guns reportedly were moved to the conventional position in front of the pilot and firing directly ahead. If so, it was the only J-type to use this armament configuration. Unfortunately, photographs to confirm this installation have not surfaced.
  While the Albatros J.II had better armor protection than the J.I, its greater weight with essentially the same wing further increased its stall speed and aggravated the take-off distance, agility, and flight safety challenges suffered by all J-types. Albatros J.II production orders totaled 150 aircraft.


Albatros J-Type Specifications
Albatros J.I Albatros J.II
Engine 200 hp Benz Bz.IV 220 hp Benz Bz.IVa
Span, Upper 14.14m 14.1m
Span, Lower 13.45m 13.45m
Chord, Upper 1.70m 1.70m
Length 8.83m 8.44m
Track 2.0m 2.0m
Wing Sweepback 2° 1.5°
Wing Area 42.82 m2 43.2 m2
Empty Weight 1,398 kg. 1,515 kg.
Loaded Weight 1,808 kg. 1,927 kg.
Maximum Speed 140 km/h 140 km/h
Climb to 1,000m 11.2 minutes 11.2 minutes
Flight Duration 2.5 hours 2.5 hours
Armament 1 flexible machine gun, some aircraft 2 fixed machine guns 1 flexible machine gun, 2 fixed machine guns
Optional 20mm Becker Cannon 20mm Becker Cannon


Albatros J-Type Production Orders
Serial Numbers Qty Type and Order Date Lowest Known Serial Highest Known Serial
1918 Serials
J.125-174/18 50 Albatros J.II ordered Feb. 1918 J.126/18 J.169/18
J.616-715/18 100 Albatros J.II J.616/18 J.714/18
- 150 Albatros J.II were ordered and most, perhaps all, were delivered.

J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II J.126/18. This aircraft was photographed either with no exhaust or the exhaust was angled downward.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II 127/18
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Albatros J.II had an armored engine, solving the worst problem of the Albatros J.I. This one is in standard factory finish.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II, serial unknown, in late-war irregular camouflage pattern. This particular pattern was illustrated in drawings made of tribute aircraft sent to Japan in 1919.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
The Albatros J.II was redesigned to improve survivability in the hostile environment in which it flew its missions. Most importantly, the entire engine was now armored, solving the worst problem with the J.I. In addition, unlike the J.I, the radiator was now armored, further improving survivability. Finally, the upper ailerons were given aerodynamic horn balances to reduce control pressures for better maneuverability. The same basic Benz engine was used, but power was boosted 10% to 220 hp to compensate for the greater weight of the engine armor, which accounted for the boxy cowling. The result was a more robust, survivable aircraft with essentially the same performance despite its greater weight.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II at the factory, perhaps 127/18. Despite its boxy shape due to construction from armored plates, care has been taken to minimize frontal area to keep drag in check. Two fixed guns firing downward protrude from the bottom of the fuselage. A guard shack painted in stripes is in the right background and the airship hangar is behind the aircraft.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Another view of the same Albatros J.II shows more of its nose. With its armored engine and radiator, the J.II was much more likely to survive being hit by rifle-caliber ground fire than its J.I predecessor.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Some Albatros J.II aircraft had the fuselage camouflage seen on some J.I aircraft and illustrated in color by the Japanese artist. No unit or personal markings are visible; the tires are missing due to the rubber shortage.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II ready for a mission clearly showing the downward-firing guns and observer's flexible gun. The wind-driven dynamo for the wireless is on the front undercarriage strut, and the leads for the antenna are below the fuselage.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II 140/18 serves in basic factory finish and markings; no unit or personal markings are visible.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This rearview of the Albatros J.II displays its standard factory finish and markings. Printed camouflage fabric covers all flying surfaces, the armor is painted light gray, and the wood rear fuselage and fin are varnished.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II 127/18 is shown here in its basic factory finish and markings. Flying surfaces are covered with printed camouflage fabric, the armor is painted light gray, and the wood rear fuselage and fin are clear-varnished.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II 126/18 serves in basic factory finish and markings; no unit or personal markings are visible.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II ready for a mission.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
This postwar view of German aircraft sent to Italy as reparations shows an Albatros J.II in the middle with the same pattern of fuselage camouflage seen above, another indication it was applied at the factory.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
The 20mm Becker cannons fitted to the Albatros J.Is proved to be effective anti-tank weapons, and 20 Albatros J.II aircraft were fitted with these weapons in an improved mount in the floor of the gunner's cockpit shown here; the front of the aircraft is at the top of the photo. Extra magazines for the Becker are stacked on the sides of the armored cockpit and extra drums of machine gun ammunition are stored at the rear. Twenty AEG J.II aircraft were delivered with a similar Becker installation.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II after a landing accident; the downward-firing guns are barely visible under the fuselage.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II Factory Drawing
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 3: Bombers, Seaplanes, J-types /Centennial Perspective/ (3)
Albatros J.II 127/18