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Salmson Sal.2

Страна: Франция

Год: 1917

Single-engine two-bay reconnaIssance biplane

Salmson - Autoplane - 1909 - Франция<– –>Salmson - Sal.3 - 1917 - Франция


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


САЛЬМСОН SAL.2 / SALMSON SAL.2

  Цельнодеревянный двухстоечный биплан с полотняной обшивкой по всем поверхностям за исключением дюралевого капота мотора. Характерные особенности машины - отсутствие киля и стабилизатора (как на ранних "Моранах", хвостовое оперение составляли только цельноповоротные рули) и оригинальный звездообразный двигатель водяного охлаждения с лобовым радиатором. Самолет разработан в начале 1917 года конструкторским коллективом фирмы Сосьете дес Моторс Сальмсон. В апреле "Сальмсон 2" успешно прошел испытания и был рекомендован к принятию на вооружение французских ВВС.
  Серийное производство началось в конце 1917-го, а в январе следующего года "Сальмсон 2" начал поступать на западный фронт. Он широко применялся до конца войны в качестве разведчика и ближнего бомбардировщика, заслужив репутацию хотя и не лучшей в своем классе, но вполне добротной и надежной машины. Единственный отмеченный недостаток был тот же, что и у английского DH.4 - большое расстояние между кабинами пилота и летнаба. При отсутствии бортовых переговорных устройств это не позволяло членам экипажа поддерживать между собою связь в полете.
  Всего построено 3200 экземпляров "Сальмсона". На них воевали 19 французских эскадрилий на западном фронте и еще две - в Италии. Кроме того, с апреля по ноябрь 1918 года 750 машин передали американскому экспедиционному корпусу. Их намеревались использовать до тех пор, пока авиапромышленность США не наладит массовый выпуск более современных "Де Хэвиллендов" DH.9a. Но война закончилась раньше.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  "Сальмсон Z9", 260 л.с.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  1 синхр. "Виккерс" и 1 или 2 турельных "Льюиса", до 24 противопехотных бомб
  


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


Сальмсон Sаl.2 B2 1917 г.

  Моторостроительная фирма "Сальмсон" в ходе войны выпускала звездообразные двигатели жидкостного охлаждения гораздо более мощные, чем ротативные "Гном" и "Рон". В ходе войны мощность двигателей фирмы постоянно повышалась. К концу 1917 года мощность двигателя была доведена до 265 л. с. В это время был объявлен конкурс на разведчик и легкий бомбардировщик для французских ВВС. Э. Сальмсон также подготовил к конкурсу новый самолет.
  Это был второй самолет фирмы. Это был двухстоечный биплан - двухместный, одномоторный самолет смешанной конструкции. Стрингеры фюзеляжа и лонжероны крыла изготавливались из стальных труб. Шпангоуты и нервюры оставались деревянными. Оставалась и обтяжка полотном. Капот двигателя фактически копировал капот самолета HD.3 C2, для которого фирма поставляла свои двигатели. Кабина пилота размещалась сразу за двигателем. Кабина стрелка-бомбардира размещалась за задней кромкой крыла и оборудовалась турелью. Между кабинами размещался топливный бак, а топливо подавалось насосом, работающим от вертушки. Расходный топливный бак, обеспечивающий запуск двигателя, размещался в заголовнике пилота. Крылья оборудовались элеронами. Оперение не имело ни киля, ни стабилизатора. Поворот осуществлялся вокруг своей оси, крепившейся системой стоек и раскосов. Шасси обычное, со стойками из стальных профилированных труб, сплошной осью и шнуровой резиновой амортизацией. Вооружение состояло из синхронного пулемета "Виккерс" 7,71-мм перед кабиной пилота и двух 7,69-мм пулеметов "Льюис" на турели у стрелка. Под крылом подвешивались бомбы общей массой 160 кг. Машина выпускалась и в варианте разведчика (отсутствовали бомбодержатели) и обозначались Sаl.2 A2. Несколько машин передали американскому экспедиционному корпусу.


ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   Sal.2 В2 1917г.
  Размах, м 11,80
  Длина, м 8,50
  Высота, м 2,90
  Площадь крыла.кв.м 38,0
  Сухой вес, кг 780
  Взлетный вес, кг 1340
  Двигатель: "Сальмсон"
   мощность, л. с. 265
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 185
  Время набора высоты, м/мин 3000/11,6
  Дальность полета, км 520
  Потолок, м 6250
  Экипаж, чел. 2
  Вооружение 2-3 пулемета
   160 кг бомб


R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 (Putnam)


Army Type Otsu 1 Reconnaissance Aircraft (Kawasaki-Salmson 2-A.2)

  At the end of the First World War, the president of Kawasaki Dockyard, Kojiro Matsugata, received a strong indication that the Army intended acquiring a number of Salmson 2-A.2 aircraft. The Army was impressed by this aeroplane of which several were taken to Japan by the Mission Francaise d' Aeronautique in January 1919 and in which Japanese pilots and crews were trained by the French. Wishing to enter the aircraft manufacturing market, Matsugata went to Paris and acquired the manufacturing rights for the Salmson 2-A.2 reconnaissance aeroplane along with its engine. He also shipped two of these aircraft and one Salmson 7A.2 to Japan, arriving there in August 1919.
  Before their arrival, Kawasaki secured a contract from the Army for the manufacture of the Salmson. In 1920, in order to study the Salmson manufacturing process, the company sent to the Salmson factory in France, Engineer Suzuki, and senior mechanics of the automobile section, Kasahara and Nishida along with Engineer Miwa and chief mechanic Hayashi of the head office, and they returned with the knowledge and materials needed for Salmson production. At the same time, the Army wanted to begin its own manufacture of this aircraft but only had a licence to build the engine. Army aircraft production began however, under the guise of 'aircraft repair.' Salmson filed a protest, and mediation by the manager of Kawasaki's Aeroplane Deparnnent, Tomokichi Takezaki, cleared the way for continued Army production.
  The two production sources worked in collaboration. The Army completed its first Salmson 2-A.2 in late 1920 at Tokorozawa and officially accepted it in December 1921 as the Type Otsu 1 Reconnaissance Aircraft. Kawasaki sent engineers Suzuki and Arai to Tokorozawa to learn ways of speeding its own production and this enabled Kawasaki to complete its first two prototypes in November 1922. One, assembled from Army parts, the other built solely by Kawasaki, received serial numbers 1001 and 1002 respectively.When flight tests were successfully accomplished, the Army placed an order for 45 with Kawasaki, followed by further orders reaching 300 aircraft before production terminated in August 1927. These Japanese aircraft were identical to the French Salmson 2A.2 with the exception of some with modifications around the engine cowling and seats. Kawasaki imported fifty-six engines from Salmson for installation in early production aircraft, but after 1923 all airframes were equipped with Kawasaki-built engines. In time, the Army fitted some with dual controls to use them as trainers. Some variants had a forward-firing fixed machine-gun, or wing-mounted shackles for six small bombs or small flare bombs.
  In April 1923, when production of the Type Otsu 1 was well underway, Kawasaki began a performance-improvement project calling for modification of existing aircraft. Withdrawing two Type Otsu 1 aircraft from production and the imported Salmson 7-A.2, which was the French improved version of their 2-A.2, modifications were made on them, including the use of the more powerful 300hp Salmson AZ-9 engine, and a radiator change to the Lamblin type. Dimensions remained the same but the modified aircraft were 100kg heavier in empty weight. However, with the added power, an increase in performance was expected, but engine overheating problems brought a decision to retain the original 230hp Z-9 engines.
  As the Army reorganized its air units according to the French system, the Type Otsu 1s were assigned to bomber units as interim light bombers. The first combat from the Army Type Otsu 1 took place in October 1922 while operating in Siberia. In the Manchurian and Shanghai Incidents, the Type Otsu 1s were also very active, not only in their original reconnaissance role, but for bombing, liaison, light cargo transport, message pick-up and dropping, smoke-screen laying and ration re-supply. Because of their large numbers they remained in service as the Army's primary aircraft until replaced by the Type 88 Reconnaissance Aircraft around 1933. Those released to civilians as surplus aircraft were popular during the biplane era together with Avro 504Ks and Hanriots.

  Single-engine two-bay reconnaIssance biplane. All-wood structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpits.
  230-260hp Kawasaki Salmson Z.9 nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
  Single or twin dorsal flexible 7. 7mm machine-guns, with optional forward-firing fixed 7.7mm machine-gun.
  Span 11.767m (38ft 71/4in); length 8.624m (28ft 3in); height 2.90m (9ft 6in); wing area 37.27sq m (401.174sq ft).
  Empty weight 930kg (2,050Ib); loaded weight 1,500kg (3,306Ib); wing loading 40.2kg/sq m (8.2Ib/sq ft); power loading 6.51 kg/hp (14.35Ib/hp).
  Maximum speed 101 kt (116mph) at 2,000m (6,562ft); climb to 3,000m (9,843ft) in 11 min 42 sec; service ceiling 5,800m (19,028ft); endurance 3 1/2-7hr
  300 built by Kawasaki from November 1922 to August 1927 and approximately 300 built by Tokorozawa Branch of Army Supply Dept.


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It soon became clear to the Aviation Militaire that the reconnaissance units' A.R.1s and A.R.2s were underpowered and that the Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutters were too fragile and carried an inadequate payload. A requirement for a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft capable of carrying a crew of two, several machine guns, a camera, and a T.S.F. unit was announced in 1916. Several aircraft were developed to meet this requirement; including the Breguet 14 and the Salmson 2A2.
  The Societe des Moteurs Salmson, which had previously concentrated on the production of aero engines, had gained considerable experience in aircraft manufacturing when it had built Sopwith 11/2 Strutters under license. To meet the new requirement it designed a completely new biplane, drawing upon the knowledge acquired in producing the Sopwith machines.
  The Salmson 2 was a biplane powered by a 230-hp Salmson 9Za. The wings were of equal span with ailerons on both the upper and lower wings. The wings had two hollow spars of spruce. The ribs were plywood and the bottom was covered with poplar. The spars of the lower wing were attached to the fuselage longerons by metal fittings. The upper wing was held in place on the fuselage by the cabane struts and was attached to the lower wing by two bays of struts.
  The fuselage had a rectangular structure composed of four longerons with several fuselage formers which were attached by hinges and reinforced by a latticework of piano wire. At the rear were vertical tubes to which the rudder and vertical stabilizer were attached. The longerons were made of ash sheathed in aluminum at their attachment points. There were two 100-liter fuel tanks, both held in cradles in the lower fuselage. The oil tank held 47 liters and was located on the right side of the fuselage beneath a rounded fairing. The engine was mounted on two metal holders which were held together by a U-shaped support. The motor mount was attached to the fuselage longerons by bolts. The armament was two flexible 7.7-mm Lewis guns and a synchronized 7.7-mm Vickers.
  The undercarriage had six struts (three per side) attached to the motor mount and the rear spar. The articulated axle was wrapped in bungee chord to act as a shock absorber. The tail skid was a tube of duralumin attached to the lower fuselage.
  The performance was good and the test pilot stated that the Salmson 2 responded well to the controls but the nose tended to wander ~"hunt") when coming out of a turn. It was recommended that the bungee chords attached to the rudder be tightened. A drawback in combat was the considerable distance between the pilot and gunner.
  It had not been planned to equip the aircraft with bomb racks; however, as the war progressed modifications were carried out to some Salmson 2s to enable them to carry 230 kg of bombs for ground attack.
  Production totaled 3,200 aircraft. Salmson produced 2,200 and the remaining 1,000 were built by Latecoere, Hanriot, and Desfontaines.
  
Variants
  
  The aircraft underwent remarkably few changes during its service career. Latecoere, which built the type under license, produced a number of interesting variants. The Latecoere Type 2 was a Salmson 2 modified to conform more closely to the Latecoere production process. Only six were built; the other aircraft produced at that plant were assembled without modification. The Latecoere firm also modified one aircraft to enable it to carry a torpedo; however, no production of this type was undertaken.
  The Salmson 2 D2 was a two-seat training version of the Salmson 2. The D designation stood for double command (dual control). In addition to having dual controls fitted, the Salmson 2 D2s were fitted with 130-hp Clerget 9B engines. Several were built in 1917.
  
  
Description: Two-Seat Reconnaissance Aircraft
Manufacturer: Societe des Moteurs Salmson
Power plant: 230-h p Salmson 9Za
Dimensions:
  Span 11.75 m
  Length 18.50m
  Height 2.90 m
  Wing area 37.27sq. m
Weights:
  Empty 780 kg
  Loaded 1,290 kg
Performance:
  Max speed
   sea level 188 km/h
   2,000 m 186 km/h
   3,000 m 181 km/h
   4,000 m 173 km/h
   5,000 m 168 km/h
  Climb to
   1,000 m 3 minutes 18 seconds
   2,000 m 7 minutes 13 seconds
   4,000 m 17 minutes 20 seconds
   5,000 m 27 minutes 30 seconds
  Ceiling 6,250 m
  Range 500 km
Armament: One synchronized Vickers 7.7mm machine gun
   and two ring-mounted 7.7mm Lewis machine guns
Production: 3,200

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Легкий бомбардировщик Сальмсон Sal.2 B2 французских ВВС (Гроуп Бомбардимент де жур; 1917г.)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Salmson 2, эскадрилья SAL122 ВВС Франции, 1917г.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Пассажирский самолет Late-3, созданный фирмой "Латекоер" на базе Sal.2 A2 (1919г.)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Сальмсоны" американских экспедиционных сил в Европе. Западный фронт, лето-осень 1918 г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The Salmson 2A.2 made its prototype debut in April 1917, entering operations towards the close of 1917. As it transpired this Salmson two-seater turned out to be one of France's finest reconnaissance types, quite capable of deep penetration beyond the front and fighting its way out when called upon to do so. Powered by a Salmson-built Canton-Unne radial, the 2A.2 had a top level speed of 115mph at 6,560 feet, along with an endurance of up to 3 hours. Armed initially with a single, fixed forward firing .303-inch Vickers in the nose and a flexibly mounted .303-inch Lewis in the rear, this armament was doubled on entering service. One of the features that endeared the 2A.2 to its crews was its 'get homeability', its extremely robust structure capable of withstanding severe combat damage and still staying together. In all, around 3,200 examples of the 2A.2s were built, mainly for the French, but with deliveries of 705 to the Americans commencing in April 1918.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Salmson SA-2 of the 1st Aero Squadron and DH4s of the 85th Squadron at Toul in late 1918.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Several USAS squadrons used the Salmson 2A2.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Observer Lt John H. Snyder of the 91st Aero Squadron hands down the photographic evidence gleaned during his latest mission for dispatch to the photographic laboratory. Based at Gondreville-sur-Moselle, the 91st Aero Squadron, equipped with Salmson 2A 2s, had a short, but lively five month operational existence, extending from 7 June 1918 to 11 November 1918. During this time the 91st Aero lost 13 fliers, along with another 13 wounded. Set against this, the 91 st Aero was credited with downing no less than 21 enemy fighters.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Three-quarter Front View of the Salmson type S.A.L. 2-A.2. (250 h.p. Salmson engine).
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Прототип самолета внешне отличался отсутствием заголовника кабины пилота и жалюзи перед радиатором. (Experimental Salmson 2 fitted with a 260-hp engine. The aircraft underwent testing in 1917)
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Salmson 2 serial 22
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Salmson 2 of SAL 33; serial number 49. The pilot's name was Delavenne
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Salmson 2 A2 serial number 513
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Salmson 2 serial number 637 of SAL 59. This escadrille was assigned to the 10th Corps d'Armee
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Salmson 2 A2 of the 1st Aero Squadron assigned to the 1st Corps Observation Group
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Salmson 2 A2 of SAL 32. The escadrille was assigned to the 10th C.A. and was initially based at Montdidier
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Salmson 2 of Col. Hamonic
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A Salmson 2A2 of Sal.40, summer 1918
R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe - Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 /Putnam/
Kawasaki Army Type Otsu 1 Reconnaissance Aircraft, adapted from the French Salmson 2-A.2.
R.Mikesh, A.Shorzoe - Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941 /Putnam/
An Army Type Otsu 1 with Japanese markings.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Salmson SAL.2