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Григорович М-24

Страна: Россия

Год: 1923

Григорович - МК-1 - 1917 - Россия<– –>Григорович, Шишмарев - ГАСН - 1917 - Россия


М.Маслов Русские самолеты 1914-1917


Летающая лодка М-24
  В начале 1920-х годов бывший завод С.С. Щетинина, объединенный с другими петроградскими предприятиями, размещенными на Комендантском аэродроме и получивший наименование ГАЗ № 3 "Красный летчик", возобновил производство летающих лодок Григоровича. Попытка установить на М-9 двигатель "Рено" 220 л.с. внушала оптимизм в связи с заметным улучшением летных характеристик. Первая такая лодка, получившая обозначение М-9 бис, летом 1920 г. развивала скорость 130 км/час и обладала повышенными характеристиками скороподъемности. По заказу Управления морской авиации в 1920-21 гг. на "Красном летчике" построили несколько М-9 бис, однако дальнейшая их эксплуатация выявила необходимость дальнейшего совершенствования и усиления конструкции лодки.
  Д.П. Григорович, вернувшийся после долгих странствий по югу России в период гражданской войны и едва не оказавшийся в эмиграции, скептически относился к решению строить М-9 в неизменном виде. Он считал, что необходима значительная работа по созданию более совершенного образца. Однако, в конечном счете ему пришлось согласиться с представителями отдела снабжения Главного Управления Воздушного флота, которые желали обойтись минимумом изменений. Так появилась лодка, получившая обозначение М-24.
  Согласно первоначальных планов решили строить 56 М-24. Чуть позднее заказ сократился до 40 экземпляров, первый из которых сдали 1 мая 1923 г. Всего за период 1922 - 1923 гг. на "Красном летчике" изготовили 43 М-24.
  В 1924 г. на ГАЗ № 3 изготовили уже без участия Григоровича 20 экземпляров модифицированных лодок, называемых М-24 бис. Это были последние летающие лодки с индексом "М", построенные с учетом опыта и знаний периода 1915 - 1918 г.
  Средства для постройки серии М-24 собирали у населения, поэтому большинство экземпляров имело названия, написанные на носовой части корпуса. М-24 с названиями "Волховстрой", "Петроградская правда", "Владимир Ильич", "Псковитянин", "Коммуна", "Красный Петрогубфин", "Черепанин" и др. предстояло войти в состав эскадрильи "Красный балтиец", базирующейся на Балтийском море. На практике М-24 вошли в состав 1-го и 2-го морских разведывательных отрядов авиации Балтийского флота, где состояли на службе до 1928 г. Кроме этого несколько экземпляров М-24 послали на Черное море, где они находились в составе 3-го разведывательного авиаотряда с базированием в Севастополе.
  В конце 1925 г. на Черном и Балтийском морях числилось 27 М-24.

Летные и технические характеристики||М-24
Размах верхнего крыла (м)||14,15(14,4)
Длина в линии полета (м)||8,8
Площадь крыльев (м2)||55,0
Вес пустого (кг)||1240(1280)
Полетный вес (кг)||700(1740)
Скорость у земли (км/час)||160
Потолок (м)||500
Продолжительность полета (час)||4
   ||Первыми указаны данные для самолетов первой серии, в скобках - для самолетов второй серии.


L.Andersson Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 (Putnam)


Grigorovich M-24 (MR-4)

  A number of Grigorovich M-9 and M-20 flying-boats were produced by the GAZ No. 3 Krasnyi letchik factory in Leningrad after the Revolution. In order to produce a more up-to-date flying-boat for naval reconnaissance D P Grigorovich, who had created most of the flying-boats used by the air service of the Imperial Russian Navy during the First World War, was instructed by the Naval Aviation Department of the Glavvozdukhflot on 12 April 1922 to design a development of the successful M-9. His first attempt was the M-23bis powered by a 280hp Fiat engine. A prototype was completed by GAZ No. 3 in the summer of 1923, but it did not fly and it was destroyed by floods at Krestovskii Island in the autumn of the same year.
  A new prototype designated M-24 was developed on the initiative of Grigorovich's assistant A N Sedel'nikov and was built and flown in October 1923. This was a two-bay biplane flying-boat with the lower wings having dihedral. Auxiliary floats were below the outer sections of the lower wings. Power was provided by a water-cooled 220hp Renault engine with frontal radiator and pusher propeller mounted below the upper wing and supported by a number of struts. The engine was enclosed by a cowling. The fragile-looking tail unit, which was very similar to the one used on the M-9, included horn-balanced rudder and elevator. An open cockpit for an observer was located in the bow and equipped with a machine-gun. Armament also comprised a second fixed machine-gun and 100kg of bombs. The M-24 could be fitted with skis for operation from ice or snow.
  Twelve of the forty M-24s built by GAZ No. 3 had been ordered and paid for by the Leningrad division of the ODVF on 12 September 1923. They were given presentation names and were officially handed over to the 2nd Otdel'nyi morskoi razvedivatel'nyi aviatsionnyi otryad at Leningrad together with an additional two aircraft in two batches of four and one of six between January and June 1924. The 2nd Otdel'nyi morskoi razvedivatel'nyi aviatsionnyi otryad, which had earlier flown Grigorovich M-9s and M-20s, was at the same time assigned the name Krasnyi Balt'ets (Red Sailor of the Baltic Fleet). The M-24s were named Volodarsky, Krasnyi Putilovets, Krasnyi Petrogubjin, Petrogradskaya Pravda, Volkhovstroi, Leningrad, Leningradskie profsoyuzy, Vladimir Il'ich, Pskovichanin, Krasnaya Kareliya, Krym SSSR, Bryanskii Rabotchii, Toplivnik and Cherepanin.
  At the same time as the M-24 came into service it became obvious that the design was something of a failure and a special commission was formed in order to investigate the deficiencies. The type was withdrawn from service but due to the lack of suitable naval aircraft it was decided to try to modify the M-24. The only other aircraft available to the VVS naval squadrons in 1924 were about thirty Savoia S.16s and twenty Junkers Ju-20s were in the process of being delivered. Grigorovich was at the time working at GAZ No. 1 in Moscow and the redesign of the M-24 was made by others. The 220hp Renault engine was boosted to 260hp by replacing the original pistons with new ones made of aluminium. Production was resumed and the twenty additional flying-boats that were delivered late 1924 were sometimes referred to as the M-24bis.
  Of the sixty M-24s built (c/ns including 1718-1760) only twenty-eight were in fact accepted and taken on charge by the VVS and very few of these were actually issued to operational units. All twenty-eight were in service by September 1924. Two Junkers Ju-20s were received by the 2nd Otdel'nyi morskoi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad in 1924 and this type replaced the M-24s of that unit in the following year. The 1st Otdel'nyi morskoi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad at Peterhof received a few M-24s but had converted to the Ju-20 by the beginning of 1925. The Savoia S.16bis-equipped 3rd Otdel'nyi morskoi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad at Sevastopol also had two M-24s in 1925, before the type was relegated to the advanced training role in the summer of the same year.
  The MR-1 designation was allotted to the M-24 at about the same time, but this was soon changed to MR-4 when the floatplane version of the R- 1 was designated MR-1. Seventeen MR-4s were retained as trainers. Some were transferred to the Naval Aviation otryad of the Military School of Aerial Observers in Leningrad. The last example was still on hand by December 1928 in the 51st Aviaotryad (formerly the 1st Otdel'nyi morskoi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad), although the type was formally withdrawn from use during that year.
  An offer to Dobrolet of a number of M-24s free of cost was rejected, but one M-24bis was transferred to Mosoaviakhim some time around May 1929.

M-24 (M-24bis)
  220 (260)hp Renault
  Span 16m; length 9m; wing area 55nv
  Empty weight 1,200kg; loaded weight 1,650 (1,700)kg
  Maximum speed 130 (140) km/h; ceiling 3,500 (4,000) m; range 400km

М.Маслов - Русские самолеты 1914-1917
М-24, установленный на лыжи в зимнее время
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
A Grigorovich M-24 reconnaissance flying-boat named Kommuna. This type was not successful and was quickly relegated to the training role.