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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Nieuport Nieuport-II/III

Страна: Франция

Год: 1910

Nieuport - Nieuport-I - 1909 - Франция<– –>Nieuport - Nieuport-IV - 1911 - Франция


Nieuport-II/III


После успешных полетов в 1909 году своего первого самолета Эдуард Ньюпор под впечатлением успешного полета Луи Блерио построил свой новый самолет "Ньюпор-II" - расчалочный фюзеляжный моноплан с двигателем "Даррак"(20л. с.). После ряда успешных полетов "двойки" Э. Ньюпор строит свой следующий самолет - "Ньюпор-II N" с двигателем собственной конструкции мощностью 27л. с. (двухцилиндровый, воздушного охлаждения). Самолеты стали выпускаться небольшими сериями с различными двигателями. Простые и дешевые машины быстро завоевали популярность. Их покупали не только во Франции и европейских странах, но и на американском континенте, и на Дальнем Востоке.


Модификации
  "Ньюпор-II" - опытный моноплан с двигателем "Даррак" (20 л. с.).
  "Ньюпор-II N" - отличался более мощным двигателем "Ньюпор" (27 л. с.) и конструкцией крыла большего размаха. Строился серийно.
  "Ньюпор II G" - самолет серийный с ротативным двигателем "Гном" (50л. с.).
  "Ньюпор II А" - с двигателем "Анзани" (40л. с.). Серийный.
  "Ньюпор II В" - двухместный вариант с двигателем "Даррак" (30л. с.), отличался конструкцией кабины.
  "Ньюпор III A" - двухместный вариант "Ньюпор II А", развитие серии.


В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.


"Ньюпор" учебный ("Ньюпор-II", "Ньюпор-Астра", "Ньюпор-III" ) по схеме и конструкции мало отличался от последующего широко известного "Ньюпора-IV", описанного ниже. Главная особенность их всех - фюзеляж необычно большого для 1911 г. миделя с глубокой посадкой летчика (кроме головы и плеч, полностью скрытого в фюзеляже), благодаря чему улучшилась аэродинамика самолета. Это впервые после А. Ф. Можайского проведенное мероприятие, да еще при монопланной схеме, и было секретом успеха этого самолета в 1911 г. До того, да и позже, летчик был или вообще открыт или же скрыт в фюзеляже лишь по пояс и сильно обдувался потоком.

В России применялись варианты учебных "Ньюпоров": "Ньюпор-Астра" с двигателями "Ньюпор" в 30 л. с., "Анзани" в 45 л. с. и "Гном" в 50 л. с., "Ньюпор-II" с двигателем "Анзани" в 25 л. с. и "Ньюпор" в 40 л. с., "Ньюпор-III" с двигателями "Анзани" в 25 л. с. и "Гном" в 50 л. с. Кроме того, на Московской воздухоплавательной выставке в 1912 г. был представлен "Ньюпор" с 4-цилиндровым рядным двигателем, не летавший. Соответственно колебались размеры и масса самолетов одноместных, двухместных и даже трехместных. "Ньюпор" учебный служил для этой цели недолго и быстро сменился военным типом "Ньюпор-IV", а для первоначального обучения в обиходе был "Фарман-IV" и другие самолеты.


Самолет||<Ньюпор> опытный/<Ньюпор> учебный/<Ньюпор-III> учебный
Год выпуска||1911/1911/1911
Двигатель, марка||<Даррак>/<Ньюпор>/<Гном>
   мощность, л.с.||28/30/50
Длина самолета, м||6,7/7,5/8
Размах крыла, м||8,1/8,4/9,8
Площадь крыла, м2||14/14/19
Масса пустого, кг||200/225/250
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||20/20+10/30+10
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||90/175/190
Полетная масса, кг||290/400/440
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||21/28/23
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||10/13,5/8,8
Весовая отдача,%||31/44/43
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||120/109/110
Время набора высоты 1000 м, мин||20/25/12
Время набора высоты 2000 м, мин||?/?/40
Потолок практический, м||?/?/2300
Продолжительность полета, ч.||3/3/2,5


L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913


NIEUPORT. Etablissements Nieuport, 9 rue de Seine, Suresnes (Seine). Established 1910 by the late Edouard Nieuport. Approximate capacity of works: about 100 machines a year. Chief designer during 1911 was Pagny, who has now joined the Hanriot firm.

Model and date. II N. II G. IV G. 1912-13. IV M, 1912-13. 1913. 1913. 1913. 1913.
Monoplanes. 1912. 1912. 2-seater. 3-seater. 2-seater. 1-seater. 1-seater. Hydro 3-seater.

Length........ feet(m.) 23-2/3 (7.20) 23-2/3 (7.20) 25-2/3 (7.80) 25-2/3 (7.80) 26-1/4 (8) 21-3/4 (6.60) 23 (7) 29 (8.80)
Span ........ feet(m.) 28-1/3 (8.65) 28-1/3 (8.65) 36 (10.9) 39-1/3 (12.10) 36 (11) 28-1/3 (8.70) 27-2/3 (8.40) 40 (12.20)
Area ......sq.feet(m?.) ... ... ... ... 231 (21-1/2) 140 (13) 156 (14-1/2) 242 (22-1/2)
Weight, machine lbs. (kgs.) 529 (240) 683 (310) 771 (350) 1058 (480) 771 (350) 573 (260) 573 (260) 1230 (558)
Weight, useful lbs. (kgs.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Motor ... ... ... h.p. 30 Nieuport Gnome Gnome Gnome Gnome 50 Gnome 30 Nieuport 100 Gnome
Speed, max. m.p.h. (km.) 75 (120) 87 (140) 72 (117) 72 (117) 69 (110) 78 (125) 69 (110) 72 (117)
Speed, min. m.p.h. (km.) ... 75 (120) 69 (110) ... ... ... ... ...
Number built during 1912... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...


Notes.--Early types had a Hanriot style landing carriage; the 1913 models revert to a Bleriot type. Warping wings. Fuselage entirely enclosed, rectilineal with rounded nose.


Журнал Flight


Flight, July 16, 1910

NOVEL MACHINES AT RHEIMS.
BY HANDLEY PAGE.


<...>
  Of the other monoplanes, the Werner, driven by Pischoff, and the Nieuport are distinct types of their own.
  The Nieuport monoplane, with its rectangular-shaped, covered-in body, has the engine very neatly mounted in the "bows." The front of the body, about 2 ft. square, is finished quite flat and end-on to the wind, but the main spars are carried through and bent, so that the top and bottom ones on either side meet. The horizontal opposed two-cylinder motor used has a pressed steel ring fitting on each cylinder, and these rings fix on to the projecting ends of the main spars. The latter are bound round with tape to strengthen them. As in some of the Bleriots, there is a small inspection-door at the side of the body.
  The "spring axle" arrangement has been adopted for the chassis. The body is carried in three steel tube V's with parallel tops, the parallel parts at the side of the body, the points of the V's being fixed to a long tubular skid below the body. The axle, made up of three "leaves," is about 5 ft. long, and carries at each end two wheels about 15 ins. in diameter. It is fixed in a small fitting at the bottom of one of the upright V tubes.
<...>


Flight, December 17, 1910

AEROPLANE SILHOUETTES FROM THE PARIS SHOW.

THE NIEUPORT MONOPLANE.

  FRENCH-BUILT monoplane. Made its first appearance at the Rheims Meeting, 1910. Planes double - surfaced throughout. Entire fuselage is covered in with fabric. One of the lightest and most efficient aeroplanes on the market.
  General dimensions. - Bearing surface, 14.9 metres; length overall, 7.50 metres; span, 8.40 metres.
  Seating capacity. - One or two seats.
  Engine. - 20-25-h.p. 2-cyl. horizontal opposed air-cooled Darracq motor. Normal revolutions, 1,200. The 5-cyl. 40-h.p. Anzani or the 50-h.p. Gnome can be fitted at an increased cost, as shown below.
  Propeller. - Chauviere Integrate. Diameter, 2 metres. Pitch, 1.20 metres. Effective revs., 1,200.
  Wheels and skids. - Two wheels connected by a flexible leaf spring. A single skid is placed centrally curving forwards and upwards.
  Tail. - Non-lifting fin extending to elevator, which is in two parts to allow single rudder placed centrally to work freely.
  Weight. - Complete with engine, 250 kilogs.
  Lateral stability. - Maintained by flexing the trailing edges of the wings. The wings are connected by a patented arrangement by which one wing automatically alters the curvature of the other wing when under undue pressure, thereby maintaining stability to some degree.
  Speed. - 75 kiloms. an hour.
  System of control. - The flexing of the wings for the maintenance of lateral stability is performed by two independent pedals, each controlling owe wing. A wheel control actuates the rudder, and the backward and forward movement of a lever works the elevator.
  Price. - Two-seater, with Darracq 20-h.p. motor, 18,000 francs. Two-seater, 40-h.p. 5-cyl. Anzani, 22,000 francs. One-seater, 50-h.p. Gnome, 24,000 francs. Two-seater, 50-h.p. Gnome, 26,000 francs. Any engine can be fitted if required.


Flight, June 8, 1912.

MODELS.

A Successful Scale Nieuport Model.

  WE give this week illustrations and particulars of a type of model which we would like to see far more in evidence than it is - a type which one can really call a model as opposed to a "flying-stick." The model was designed and constructed by Mr. J. W. Burghope (Brighton and District Model Aero Club), it took three months to build, and is the result of over three years' experience, and the outcome of innumerable and miserable failures.
  The model rises from the ground (hangar wood floor) after a run of 30 ft., and will then fly for 70 yards. Hand launched, 124 yards has been done combined with a duration of 14 secs., and an altitude of from 35 to 40 ft.
<...>

А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Учебный/спортивный самолет "Ньюпор-II N" (1911г.)
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Учебный/спортивный самолет "Ньюпор-II G" (1912г.)
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
The Nieuport monoplane, which was successfully flown by its constructor at Rheims Meeting. - It is fitted with a 20-h.p. 2-cyl. Darracq engine. Inset the Nieuport monoplane in flight.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
One of the first Nieuport II monoplanes.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
Another version of the Nieuport II.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
Still another variant of the Nieuport II theme.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
The Nieuport IIN with the Nieuport engine.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
The neat little Nieuport 2N of 1910/11, powered by a Nieuport-designed 28-32hp air-cooled flat-twin engine, was fast enough to take the world speed record on 11 May 1911, but it had a contrary control system in which the warping was operated by what was usually the rudder bar, while lateral movement of the column worked the rudder. Because of such peculiarities, pioneer pilots often flew only one particular manufacturer's aeroplanes.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
GORDON-BENNETT RACE A T EASTCHURCH. - Mr. Weymann. the winner on behalf of America, and his Nieuport monoplane. (1) Just before being timed away for his start; (2) getting away; (3) sharp banking round No. 1 pylone; and (4) bringing home the Nieuport after the race was won.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
GORDON-BENNETT RACE AT EASTCHURCH. - M. Chevalier, who flew two Nieuports in the race, just before his start. Inset is M. E. Nieuport flying his Nieuport machine in the race.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
GORDON-BENNETT RACE AT EASTCHURCH. - The starting line which the competitors had to cross in flight, as seen from the Press enclosure. At the other end of the line is the Judges' box, and right and left the scoring boards and public announcements. In the air above Mr. Alec Ogilvie is seen on his N.E.C.-engined "Baby" Wright, and below, Weymann, the winner, on his Nieuport monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
NIEUPORT MONOPLANE. - The rudder and tail of the latest model.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
UNDER-CARRIAGES AT OLYMPIA. - The Nieuport inverted "A" frame.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Mr. Burghope's flying scale model Nieuport - a fine piece of workmanship.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES IN THE DAILY MAIL CIRCUIT ROUND GREAT BRITAIN. - From these every machine can be readily identified either in flight or on the ground.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
UNDER-CARRIAGES AT OLYMPIA. - A comparison of the Nieuport laminated steel spring axle and the Handley Page flexible wooden axle.