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Howard Wright No.2 biplane

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1910

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Howard Wright - E.N.V. monoplane - 1910 - Великобритания<– –>Howard Wright-Capone - helicopter - 1908 - Великобритания


S.Ransom, R.Fairclough English Electric Aircraft and their Predecessors (Putnam)


Howard Wright Curtiss-pattern Biplane

  During the latter part of 1910, Howard Wright completed a single 35 hp-engined pusher biplane on the lines proposed by Glenn Curtiss, of the USA. No drawings or photographs of the aircraft have survived and it must be presumed that Howard's design incorporated the predominant features of a Curtiss biplane of the period, namely mid-gap ailerons and a tricycle undercarriage. In other respects the Curtiss machine resembled the Howard Wright 1910 Biplane.

  Span 33 ft; wing area 270 sq ft.


Howard Wright 1910 Biplane

  The last and most successful aircraft built by Howard Wright to W.O. Manning's design were the 1910 Biplanes. On many occasions there were likened to and confused with the Farman Biplane but in detail design and workmanship they were incomparable. Further recognition of the attributes of the 1910 Biplane was achieved through the exploits of its pilots, who found it pleasant to fly and tolerant of mishandling.
  The aircraft closely followed the pattern for a two-seat pusher biplane introduced by Farman and emulated by many others, with the pilot and passenger seated in tandem in an exposed position over the leading-edge of the lower wing and in front of the engine. Initial versions of the machine were fitted with a 60 hp ENV vee-eight water-cooled engine, its radiators flanking the passenger, but at a later date the aircraft were fitted with a 50 hp Gnome rotary engine. Propellers of Howard Wright manufacture were fitted to all 1910 Biplanes.
  The parallel-chord wings were built up on two spars, one spar being positioned along the leading-edge and the other at the aileron hinge line. Both spars were braced along their length with wires passing through the apexes of small sheet-steel inverted-V posts. The upper wing could be increased in area by detachable extensions braced from a kingpost at the leading edge near the joint. Ailerons were mounted on all four wingtips and the extensions when fitted, and were operated from a column placed at the pilot's right-hand side. The pilot's control column was connected, also, to the forward elevator which in turn was linked directly to the tail elevator, and the split rudder was pedal operated. The monoplane tail, built and braced in a similar manner to the wings, could be adjusted on the ground for changes of trim and was carried, like the forward elevator, on four wire-braced booms. The bracing wires in the region of the propeller however, were prevented from flying about, in the event of breaking or coming adrift, by being tied at intervals to cords running parallel with them. The undercarriage was the accepted arrangement of wheels and skids. A large proportion of the airframe was made from Honduras mahogany, ash being used only in the undercarriage and for the rudder post. Fittings were made from cast aluminium and steel and where attachments had to be made the wooden parts were locally reinforced with steel plate. Although production of the biplane was continuous over a period of about a year and each machine was constructed to a common pattern, no two aircraft were identical, modifications being made to suit the customer's individual needs.
  The biplane, fitted with upper wing extensions, made its debut at Larkhill, Salisbury Plain, during August 1910, piloted by Lieut E.M. Maitland, who had qualified for his brevet in France. Shortly after taking delivery of the machine, Maitland crashed it at Larkhill. His injuries prevented him making further flights but he had the machine repaired and lent it to his brother officer, Lieut H.E. Watkins, so that he could learn to fly. Watkins took the aircraft to Brooklands and there used it to qualify for his Royal Aero Club Aviator's Certificate, No.25, on 15 November 1910. On his first circuit of Brooklands, Watkins flew with Manning as his passenger. In December, Watkins took the biplane to Shorncliffe, near Folkestone, to compete for the Baron de Forest prize but the aircraft was wrecked before he could start. The biplane had been fitted with an automatic wireless transmitter so that Watkins' flight could be tracked by Maitland from a tug, equipped with a receiver as they crossed the English Channel. After repairs, the biplane was flown on a number of occasions before Maitland sold it to the War Office for ?625 on the opening day of the 1911 Olympia Aero Show. It was officially taken on charge on 23 June, 1911, and given the serial number F3. The aircraft served with No.2 Company, the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers, at Larkhill, and accumulated 1 hr 56 min flying time before becoming unserviceable on 8 July, 1911. In the following January, it was taken to the Royal Aircraft Factory, Farnborough, and used, ostensibly, in the construction of the B.E.6, serial number 206.
  After the sale of Maitland's biplane, Watkins bought another of the same type from John Dones, better known as 'Jack Dare', who was the brother of the then well-known actress sisters, Zena and Phyllis Dare. Dones' biplane was the second to be built and was delivered to him at Eastchurch at the end of September 1910. This aircraft was also owned at a later date by W.D. Johnstone.
  The third 1910 Biplane brought the type into prominence through the exploits of its pilot, T.O.M. Sopwith. Sopwith's machine arrived at Brooklands in November 1910, from Eastchurch. The morning of 21 November saw Sopwith attempting a few straight flights without having taken any instructions on handling, and in the afternoon he made a number of circular flights, which included three to qualify for Aviator's Certificate No.31. Three days later, and with only ten hours flying to his credit he entered the biplane for the British Empire Michelin Cup competition for the longest nonstop flight by a British pilot in a British machine. Sopwith's flight from 10.15 am to 1.18 pm covering 107 miles not only set up new British records but also put him in a strong position to win the prize. The next two weeks were spent in modifying the ENV-powered standard pattern biplane for longer flights. The modifications included: adding upper wingtip extensions with ailerons; fitting a large-capacity petrol tank in place of the passenger's seat; the addition of a fabric-covered fairing for the pilot's protection; and repositioning the control column to between the pilot's legs. On 18 December, the Baron de Forest prize was Sopwith's with a flight of 169 miles in 3 1/2 hr from Eastchurch to Beaumont in Belgium. Sopwith's biplane also gained the distinction of being the first all-British aircraft to be flown across the English Channel. As 1910 drew to a close Sopwith set out to improve his time for the Michelin Cup and on 31 December, the last day of the contest, established a new record of 4 hr 7 min 17 sec with a flight of 150 miles 246 yards. However, the prize was not to be his, S.F. Cody claimed it at the last moment with a flight of 195 miles in 4 hr 50 min.
  On 1 February, 1911, Sopwith flew his biplane to Windsor Castle at the invitation of HM King George V, a journey made from Brooklands in thick mist and intense cold. In April, the biplane was displayed on the Royal Aero Club's stand at the Olympia Aero Show before being taken by Sopwith in the following month, to the USA. Sopwith's tour of the USA proved extremely successful, many passenger-carrying, demonstration and stunt flights being made interspersed with competitive flying. The tour, however was not without mishap, the biplane being wrecked on two occasions; at Columbus, Ohio, on 3 June, when Sopwith skimmed low over a field and the starboard undercarriage skid dug into a small hillock, and near Manhattan Beach, on 10 September, when the engine failed and Sopwith and his passenger came down in the sea. The biplane was repaired after both accidents! On his return from the USA, Sopwith established a school of flying at Brooklands and used the biplane for training, for which role it had been fitted with dual control in March 1912.
  The next ENV-powered biplane was exported unassembled to New Zealand in 1910. It had been bought by two Auckland brothers, Leo and Vivian Walsh with the backing of an enthusiastic syndicate. They, with the aid of their sisters, completed the biplane late in 1910 and, after initial tests during which Vivian Walsh had to teach himself to fly, the biplane was given its first public demonstration before New Zealand's prime minister at Papakura on 5 February, 1911. About a year later, the biplane was taken over by W.S. Miller and F.E. Sandford, who rebuilt and modified it to have sweptback outer-wing panels and a semi-enclosed cockpit. The biplane was tested in its new form at Avondale Racecourse, Auckland, in February 1913. It subsequently made a number of successful flights but was finally written-off after a crash at Alexandra Park, Auckland, on 6 December, 1913. The only other biplane, fitted with an ENV engine, known to have been flown abroad was that owned by W. C. England at Rangoon during the summer of 1912.
  At home, the 1911 Olympia Aero Show heralded a new variant of the biplane. Although it followed the original pattern, the layout was adaptable for racing for which purpose it had been built for Robert Loraine, the Irish actor who had achieved fame with his crossing of the Irish Sea in the previous September. The biplane was powered by the 50 hp Gnome rotary engine salvaged after the crossing from Loraine's Farman racing biplane, and it was the first time that this type of engine had been used in any Howard Wright machine. To adapt the aircraft for racing the lower wings could be reduced in span by removing their outer sections. This was accomplished simply by releasing ten bracing wires, undoing two bolts and removing two struts from their sockets at each wingtip. Alterations to the controls were avoided by the fitting of broad-chord ailerons only to the upper wing. The only other noticeable difference a minor one, was the fitting of undercarriage skids which had their forward portions more upturned than usual. After the Show the aircraft was flown at Brooklands.
  The second Gnome-powered biplane, also a racing pattern was bought by Claude Grahame-White, who flew it during the latter part of 1911 at Hendon. During 1912 Grahame-White used the biplane for training at his newly established flying school and at which, on 6 June, no less than six pilots used it to qualify for their aviator's certificate, among them No.231 awarded to Marcus Dyce Manton, who was later to become chief test pilot and inspector to the English Electric Co. The others were: H.C. Biard, F.H. Fowler, T.O'B. Hubbard, R.T. Gates and Lieut B.T. Janes. Two weeks later N.S. Roupell and E.H. Morriss gained their brevets. The last to qualify on the biplane was R.H. Kershaw on 16 July. In the meantime Grahame-White had married Dorothy Taylor, whom he had met in New York. On this occasion the biplane was flown by the bridegroom to the reception held at Sir Daniel Gooch s mansion, Hylands, at Widford in Hertfordshire. Seven days later, on 6 July, the biplane was flown by Lewis Turner to win the speed handicap race at Hendon. In July, also, Turner crashed the biplane at Harlow, Middlesex.
  The last two biplanes to be built were entered for the ?10,000 Daily Mail Circuit of Britain race and the second Michelin Cup competition respectively. The former machine was fitted with upper wing extensions, a small bluff fairing in front of the pilot and 60 hp Green engine. It was flown by Lieut H.R.P. Reynolds who, although delayed by previous competitors for the race, made a good start in the evening of Saturday, 22 July, 1911. Reynolds landed at Hendon that night. He spent Sunday adjusting the engine to give more power and making several circuits to test its performance. On Monday he rejoined the race, reaching Doncaster by nightfall. Reynolds arrived at Harrogate the next day but there was forced to retire from the race. J.L. Longstaffe, the pilot of the other machine fared little better, his attempts at the Michelin Cup being thwarted by mechanical trouble.
  Records show that Capt G. Ll. Hinds Howell and one Louis de Silva also piloted the biplane at Brooklands during 1910. Production of the biplane, however, ceased with the sale of Howard Wright's aircraft interests to the Coventry Ordnance Works.

1910 Biplane (Standard pattern)
  Span 36 ft; span upper wing with extensions 48 ft; length 36 ft 6 in; height without wing extensions 12 ft; wing chord 6 ft 6 in; gap 6 ft 6 in; aileron span 6 ft 6 in; extension aileron span 6 ft; aileron chord 1 ft 6 in; forward elevator span 8 ft 6 in; forward elevator chord 3 ft; tailplane span 12 ft; tailplane chord including elevator 5 ft 6 in; elevator span 12 ft; elevator chord 1 ft 6 in; rudder height each 2 ft 6 in; rudder chord each 3 ft; propeller diameter 8 ft; propeller pitch 4 ft 8 in; wing area including ailerons 454 sq ft; wing area with extensions including ailerons 532 sq ft; total aileron area 39 sq ft; total aileron area with extensions 57 sq ft; forward elevator area 25.5 sq ft; tailplane area including elevator 66 sq ft; elevator area 18.5 sq ft; total rudder area 15 sq ft.
  Weight empty 800 lb; weight loaded 1,200 lb.
  Maximum speed 45 mph; cruising speed 36 mph; endurance 5 hr.
  Price ?1,000.

1910 Biplane (Racing pattern)
  Span upper wing 36 ft; span lower wing 22 ft; length 37 ft; wing chord 6 ft; gap 6 ft.


H.King Sopwith Aircraft 1912-1920 (Putnam)


One later reference to the Howard Wright Monoplane will be made in the context of an A.B.C. engine; but Sopwith's next aeroplane was a biplane - another product of Howard T. Wright - and it was on this sturdy machine, in which he incorporated some of his own modifications, that he really made his name as an airman. As the matter was put in a report of a lecture by Sir Thomas during 1960 (in the lecture theatre of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers - though his audience was dominantly of the RAeS persuasion): 'Crashing the Avis [sic] and buying the biplane was expensive, so he decided to try and get money back by going for the Baron de Forest ?4,000 prize for the longest flight from England to the Continent.'
  The biplane concerned was built in 1910 and was a typical Farman-type pusher 'box-kite' of its period. with two interconnected elevators - one forward, one aft - the latter on the boom-borne monoplane tail. Four ailerons gave lateral control, and the engine was a more powerful (60 hp) E.N.V., of the F series, instead of the original 50 hp Gnome. On 21 November, 1910 (according to Sopwith's own teslimony), he spent the morning 'rolling', or taxying, this biplane, and in the afternoon made a few circuits. These led to his qualification for the Aero Club's Aviator's Certificate No.31 on the same day; and on this day also he took up his first passenger - identified by him merely as 'some trusting person '.
  To mix our metaphors with the bug that had entered Sopwith's bloodstream, he now had the bit between his teeth; he was flat-out for flying, and could even contemplate beating the great Samuel Franklin Cody at his own game. 'I seized every opportunity to get into the air', he once recalled, 'and by the time I had ten hours' flying behind me I began to feel that I was a really experienced pilot. Col. S. F. Cody had just set up British distance and duration records of 94 1/2 mile in 2 hours 24 minutes, and 1 thought that something should be done about it and made all preparation (which were not many!). On the first attempt I was fortunate enough to cover a distance of 107 miles in 3 hours and 12 minute .'
  For the sake of historical precision, the 'preparations' (in the way of a good breakfast and extra clothes) appear to have been largely due not to Fred Sigrist or any other of Tom's male counsellors and helpers, but to his sister May, who was not merely proud of her brother, but solicitous for his welfare, and useful in such matters as lap-counting and timekeeping.
  This is how Flight recorded the feat at the time (issue of 3 December, 1910): ' To Mr. Sopwith, the aviator, and to Messrs. Howard Wright, the builders, we have to extend our hearty congratulations on having put up on Saturday last a new all-British distance record of 107 miles, and at the same time established a British duration record of 3 hrs. 12 mins. for any type of machine, British or foreign, flown in this country.
  "Mr. Sopwith has also by the same flight achieved the best performance to date for the British Empire Michelin Cup. The Howard Wright machine on which these records were made is a biplane fitted with a 60-h.p. E.N.V. engine and Spiral tube radiator. It has a Farman type wheel-base [sic], monoplane tail and elevator with a central rudder above and below the tail plane. Mr. Sopwith first flew a Howard Wright monoplane this was only some few weeks ago and we drew attention in a previous issue to the rapid progress he made. He has only had delivery of the biplane a few days, which speaks well for the ease of control of this make of machine.'
  Later in its career Sopwith's Howard Wright 1910 biplane was modified to have upper wing extensions, with extra bracing-wires; but the most interesting alterations were those associated with the flight that gained for Sopwith the Baron de Forest prize a performance that greatly enhanced not only the pilot's personal reputation but the prestige of the nation which later types of aeroplane, then bearing Sopwith's own name, were to defend and even symbolize. Chief among the alterations mentioned were increased petrol tankage, and a windshield (more explicitly a foot-scuttle) which, had it been given three-quarters of a chance, would have grown into a nacelle.
  The radiators for the E.N.V. engine were mounted fore-and-aft, one on each side between the wings; and as this flight for the de Forest prize was to be an all-British affair a special word must be said for the powerplant. The 'en V’ connotation already mentioned was no mere whim; for contrary to the supposition that all the best aero-engines of those times were French (and. indeed, the E.N.V. concern operated a factory in the Paris suburbs) this engine had very close British associations, though it was used successfully by several eminent French pilots. Thus, when describing a new (100 hp) model early in 1914 Flight saw fit to remind its readers: The E.N.V. Motor is by no means new to the aeronautical world, for as far back as 1908-09 Mr. Moore-Brabazon had one fitted upon his machine, but the E.N.V. Motor Co., of Willesden, N.W.. has now been formed to design and manufacture an entirely new engine...' (The 60 hp E.N.V. presented long ago to the Science Museum was catalogued as having been made in 1910 by the E.N.V. Motor Syndicate Ltd. of London).
  True. S. F. Cody once declared publicly: 'I have had a little experience of foreign engines the E.N.V., for instance. I had an E.N.V. engine with which I failed to fly in Manchester. I tried to get the makers to put it right but they did not ... we entered into a law suit. I sent the engine on to them and they kept it for four months. They did get it right themselves after breaking a crank shaft and one or two cylinders ... I then took up the Green.'
  Sopwith, too, 'took up the Green', as we shall see; but respecting the sometimes obscure ‘origins' of aero-engines generally it could hardly be improper here to observe that the Rolls-Royce range from Eagle to Merlin had its 'origins' in a German Mercedes racing car stored, during 1914, in a Shaftesbury Avenue showroom, and that the 'origins' of the Rolls-Royce Bristol Siddeley Pegasus vectored-thrust turbofan are traceable to a 1956 submission by the Frenchman Marcel Wibault.
  A general account of Sopwith's 'de Forest prize' adventure having already been rendered in the opening chapter it remains here to note that, in the development and application of aircraft of those times, second only to the powerplant were the instruments installed; and thus it came to be recorded in those times: 'Mr. Sopwith had fitted a compass to his machine, but as this persisted in sticking at N.W., in whichever direction the machine was steered. Mr. Sopwith backed his own judgment in preference and steered by the sun."
  To continue our perusal of the various aeroplanes that helped Tom Sopwith, in one way or another, to 'originate' his own (and never forgetting the men whose help was ready to his hand nor the powerplants that made their efforts possible) we now transfer attention to the most international of all his early aeronautical ventures - that is, to his American tour of 1911, made within a few months of his having flown the Howard Wright biplane to Windsor for the King's inspection. By the time of this Royal occasion 1 February, 1911 the biplane had acquired not only the wing-extensions already mentioned, but also a new fuel system, of Fred Sigrist's creation.
  Although the Howard Wright did not actually accompany its owner to the United States, it was sent on after him; and having been assembled, and thereafter somewhat disarticulated by gale-damage, took part in competitions and displays. Sad to relate further, some time after a package that had been intended by young Sopwith for the deck of the While Star liner Olympic had missed its mark and fallen into the water, the Howard Wright itself came in for a similar ducking.


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)


Howard Wright 1910 Biplane

  The Howard Wright Biplane gained considerable prominence in the hands of T. O. M. Sopwith, following its debut during 1910. The design reflected conventional two-seater pusher practice of the period, with the pilot and passenger exposed to the elements from their seats in front of the engine and over the leading-edge of the lower wings. Two elevators were used, one fore and one aft, and they were interconnected in their operation. Four booms carried the monoplane tail, similar supports being used to take the nose-elevator well forward of the wings. Ailerons were mounted on all four wing-tips, except on the version shown at Olympia in April, 1911, which was without them on the lower wings.
  The 50 h.p. Gnome was at first specified as the standard engine, but Sopwith's machine differed in having a water-cooled 60 h.p. E.N.V. "F". Later his machine was also given extensions to the upper wing-tips, together with additional wire bracing to strengthen them. Separate split ailerons completed the extra wing area on his special version. On 22nd October, 1910, Sopwith startled the spectators at Brooklands by taking his newly-acquired aeroplane into the air on its first test flight without having flown before. He crashed, but was unhurt, and took his Royal Aero Club Aviator's Certificate No. 31 a month later on 21st November. For this, he used a new machine of the same type, teaching himself to fly on the same day as that of his test. Just over three weeks later, he entered for the Baron de Forest's Ј4,000 prize for the longest all-British flight before the end of 1910 from England into Europe. This he won with a distance of 169 miles from Eastchurch to Thirimont in 3.5 hours.
  After this fine performance, Sopwith straightaway decided to try to improve upon his earlier attempt upon the 1910 British Empire Michelin Cup and Ј500 prize, for which he was in the lead with a time of 3 hrs. 20 mins. and a distance of 107 miles, both of which had constituted new British records. On 31st December, the last day of the contest, he improved on these figures by flying for 4 hrs. 7 mins. 17 secs, and covering 150 miles 246 yds. However, this extra effort was in vain, as it was beaten by S. F. Cody during the last few hours. On 1st February, 1911, Sopwith flew his Howard Wright from Brooklands to Windsor Castle to be received by H.M. King George V, afterwards taking it on a successful tour in the U.S.A. Another E.N.V.-powered Howard Wright biplane was flown at Rangoon by W. C. England in the summer of 1912.

SPECIFICATION

  Description: Two-seat pusher biplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: Warwick Wright Ltd., 110 Marylebone High Street, London, N.W.I, and Battersea, S.W.11.
  Power Plant: 50 h.p. Gnome, 60 h.p. E.N.V. "F".
  Dimensions: Span, 36 ft. Length, 36 ft. 6 ins. Wing area, 415 sq. ft.
  Weights: Loaded, 1,200 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 45 m.p.h. Endurance, 5 hrs.
  Price: Ј1,000.


Журнал Flight


Flight, December 3, 1910

FROM THE BRITISH FLYING GROUNDS.

Brooklands Aerodrome.

  BROOKLANDS has again distinguished itself. When Mr. Cody, flying his Cody biplane on Laffan's Plain, recently captured the all-British record for distance and duration - 94 miles in 2 hrs. 24 mins. - the British airmen here determined to go one better. There were several aspirants to the honour, Mr. Sopwith, on the Howard Wright biplane, and Mr. Pixton, on the Avroplane, being warm favourites. The odds, however, were slightly against Mr. Pixton, as the magnetism of the sewage farm had to be discounted.
  To Mr. Sopwith, the aviator, and to Messrs. Howard Wright, the builders, we have to extend our hearty congratulations on having put up on Saturday last a new all-British distance record of 107 miles, and at the same time established a British duration record of 3 hrs. 12 mins. for any type of machine, British or foreign, flown in this country.
  Mr. Sopwith has also by the same flight achieved the best performance to date for the British Empire Michelin Cup. The Howard Wright machine on which these records were made is a biplane fitted with a 60-h.p. E.N.V. engine and Spiral tube radiator. It has a Farman type wheel-base, monoplane tail and elevator, with a central rudder above and below the tail plane. Mr. Sopwith first flew a Howard Wright monoplane - this was only some few weeks ago - and we drew attention in a previous issue to the rapid progress he made. He has only had delivery of the biplane a few days, which speaks well for the ease of control of this make of machine. This flight and triple record breaking naturally by comparison overshadows the smaller events of the week, although much good work has been put in by the other tenants.
  Mr. Graham-Gilmour on Thursday last week piloted the Martin-Handasyde for straight flights at about 20 feet high. Mr. Collier rolled the Otazell, as did Mr. Oxley the Avroplane and Mr. Macfie his biplane.
  The Bristol-Gnome, piloted by a pupil, made short flights, and Mr. Sopwith was out carrying passengeis.
  On Friday Mr. Low took up a passenger on the Bristol-Gnome, and Mr. Snowden-Smith made several circuits, at a good height, on M. Blondeau's Farman.
  Mr. Sopwith, on the Howard-Wright, remained in the air for half an hour, and Mr. Pixton was flying the Avroplane. The Macfie and Otazell were seen rolling.
  On Saturday all minor essays were eclipsed by Mr. Sopwith's performance, but Mr. Morisson, on his single-seated Gnome-Bleriot, did remarkably well, rising quickly and at an acute angle. The Avro team, Messrs. Pixton, Oxley, Beattie and Jenkins, all did their utmost, and returned the machine home without a scratch. The Bristol-Gnome was also flying.
  Sunday, mud, rain and wind kept shutters up, and people away.
  On Monday the Spencer-Stirling biplane, fitted with R.H. engine, made short flights. Mr. Sopwith, on his Howard Wright biplane, and Mr. Low, on the Bristol-Gnome, made several circuits, the latter with passengers, otherwise there was little done. Mr. Oxley was the first out on Tuesday, the 29th ult., followed later by Mr. Pixton on the same machine. The latter was flying off and on for the whole afternoon. He is a very daring and pretty flyer, but the sudden movements he makes must put a severe strain on the bodywork. In particular, one dive and sudden righting appeared to actually bend the body, and it speaks well for the work Mr. Roe has put into his fuselage that nothing serious happened. We do not wish to appear pessimistic, but if Mr. Pixton continues his progress on his present lines we doubt whether he will get through life unmaimed, and the science may lose the fine work which so promising an airman can put in.
  The outstanding event of the day was Lieut. Snowden Smith's flight to Aldershot and back on the Farman biplane belonging to Mrs. Maurice Hewlett and M. Blondeau. This is referred to on P. 995.
  Mr. Low contributed his quota by vol plank from about 200 ft., and carrying passengers on the Bristol-Gnome. Mr. Sopwith, resting on his laurels, gave pleasure or otherwise by carrying passengers of both sexes.
  Mr. Fisher and Mr. Raynham, on "Neale VI," made hops and short straight flights, as did also the Spencer-Stirling biplane.
  M. Blondeau was passenger carrying, and at one time attained a good altitude.


Flight, December 24, 1910

THE HOWARD WRIGHT BIPLANE.

  ALTHOUGH at the first Flight Show held at Olympia in 1909 Mr. Howard Wright showed a biplane which was noteworthy for some very interesting points, both in design and construction, most of the successes attained up till quite recently with machines made by Mr. Wright were accomplished on monoplanes. It will be remembered, however, that after quiet but persistent work the Howard Wright biplane came into prominence again at the end of last month, when Mr. Thomas Sopwith succeeded in setting up new British duration and distance records at Brooklands. He then covered 107 3/4 miles in 3h. 12m. 55s., but this performance, splendid as it was, Mr. Sopwith completely eclipsed on Sunday last, in his magnificent attempt to win the Baron de Forest prize, details of which are given elsewhere in this issue. In view of the extraordinary success attained with the machine, which by the way is entirely British built, we have no doubt that the description of it which we give below, as well as the photographs and scale drawing which clearly show the construction, will be appreciated by our readers. From a glance at the series of photographs of the complete machine, it will be noticed that superficially parts of it bear some resemblance to other well-known and successful machines, but when one comes to examine the details of construction, it is seen that considerable originality has been incorporated in the design. Although the span is fairly large, being 36 ft., the machine has the appearance of lightness and yet the construction is very strong. The main planes are single surfaced, and both are fitted with hinged flaps for maintaining lateral stability. The planes are placed 6 ft. 6 ins. apart by means of eight pairs of struts fitting into lugs on the main spars. One of these spars forms the leading edge of each main plane, while the other is placed approximately 5 ft. further back. These spars are rectangular in section, and are strengthened by a system of wire bracing similar to that which is a feature of the Sommer machine. As can be seen from the photograph taken from the front of the machine, the ribs of the main planes are placed equidistant, and enclosed in pockets made on the upper side of the fabric. A single elevator is mounted on a triangular outrigger in front, and it is inter-connected with the elevating flap at the rear end of the fixed tail. The elevator is regulated by the single control lever, which has a dual function, for besides controlling the elevator it also regulates the balancing flaps at each end of the main plane, a backward and forward movement being required for the former and a sideways adjustment for the latter. The tail consists of a horizontal rectangular fixed plane having an area of 60 sq. ft., and, as we have said, to the rear edge of it is hinged an elevating flap. Above and below this tail plane are arranged vertical rudders, each of them being of a similar size, and controlled by a bar worked by the pilot's feet. Each side of the elevator outrigger framework, which runs from the main spars of each plane, is braced by a single strut.
  The framework carrying the tail, which runs out from the rear spars, is braced by four pairs of struts, and at the after end is a cross-bar carrying a pillar, on which the two vertical rudders are hinged. For protecting the after part of the machine from damage when landing, or when running over rough ground, a single-plane skid is hinged at the bottom of this central pillar, to which it is flexibly anchored by means of elastic. Should the shock be more than this simple device will absorb, the end of the framework is bent round to form a skid, and this should prove equal to the task. The chassis consists of two pairs of wheels mounted on short skids attached to the end, while additional struts from the central pairs of struts make the construction amply strong. Throughout the machine lugs are used for connecting up the various parts of the framework, and wire bracing is utilised freely to give added strength. In the scale drawing we have not included all these wire stays, as this would tend to confusion, but we have simply given the leads of the main bracing and connecting wires. Those who wish, however, for details of the various parts will be able to follow them by aid of the photographs. The engine and seating accommodation form one unit, being mounted on a couple of stout beams which are clipped to the main spars of the lower frame. It will be noticed, however, that the two radiators, which are by the Spiral Tube Co. and specially light, are separate, being clipped to the two central pairs of struts, while the petrol tank is slung from the top spars, the lubricating oil tank being mounted above the engine. As it is necessary for machines competing for the Baron de Forest prize to be entirely British-built, the engine is one of the latest E.N.V. type, of 60-h.p., which have been specially built in this country. It has eight cylinders arranged V-fashion, and Mr. Sopwith states that it went through its arduous trial without a falter, and in fact that he could have gone on for a much longer time had he so wished. This engine was described in our issue of October 15th last, and our readers will remember that the bore and stroke is 105 mm. by no mm., and that a special feature of the construction is the use of electrolytically deposited copper water-jackets. In connection with the engine, it is interesting to know that the complete power plant, including the accessories such as radiator, water, &c., weighs just over 400 lbs., and as Mr. Sopwith was carrying sufficient petrol and Vacuum oil for six hours, his trip was practically equivalent to one made with a passenger on a machine fitted with the lighter air-cooled rotary motor. Mr. Sopwith's machine has, as our readers will remember, shown itself very capable as a passenger carrier, Mr. Sopwith having made quite a feature of this side of his work at Brooklands. The machine is fitted with a Howard Wright propeller of 8 ft. 4 in. diameter, having a pitch of 4 ft. 8 in. The pilot's seat is placed above the lower front spar, while behind it, and arranged a little higher, is the second seat, for the passenger. The cross-beams are carried out in front to form a foot-rest, and on the board between his feet Mr. Sopwith fitted a compass to aid him in his cross-country journey. It is instructive to note, in regard to the compass, that during the cross-Channel flight the needle persisted in sticking at one point, so that the aviator was forced to rely upon the sun for guiding him on his way until that, in turn, hid itself.


Flight, January 7, 1911

THE BRITISH MICHELIN CUP.

  IN our last issue we were able to give brief particulars of Mr. Alec Ogilvie's splendid try for the British Michelin Cup, and it seemed then not improbable that his fine record would not be beaten. Both Mr. Sopwith and Mr. Cody were not to be so easily deterred, however, and on Saturday, the closing day of the competition, Mr. Cody secured the leading position, giving him the right to hold the trophy for 1911, as well as the cash prize of L500. Just as in France, the competition on the last day proved an exciting one, for the three British flyers we have mentioned were making simultaneous attempts to seem e the coveted trophy.

Mr. Sopwith's Final Try.

  HAVING been displaced from the leading position by Mr. Alec Ogilvie, Mr. T. Sopwith determined not to let the prize slip from his grasp too easily. On the 29th, at Brook lands, he started off at 9 o'clock in the morning, but after going for a matter of two hours found a gusty wind made the conditions too trying, and so came down after covering just on 70 miles. The following day he was up at 8 a.m., but, curiously enough, again was beaten by the wind when nearly 70 miles had been traversed. On the Saturday he started oft about twenty minutes to nine, but a necessary adjustment to the ignition brought him down after 17 miles. At twenty minutes to ten Mr. Sopwith was off again, and put up a splendid flight of over four hours, during which time he covered about one furlong over the 150 miles. This distance, although surpassing that of Mr. Ogilvie, was not sufficient to secure the cup, Mr. Cody having exceeded it by 30 miles or so. The course was a little over 1 mile 5 furlongs round, and 92 laps were made, the machine going on until the petrol was exhausted. The timing was done by Mr. G. F. Joseph, the Assistant Secretary of the Royal Aero Club. The Howard Wright machine used by Mr. Sopwith was the same which carried him across the Channel to Belgium in his try for the Baron de Forest prize, and was also used by him for his magnificent first attempt for the Michelin Cup. This machine was fully described in our issue of December 24th, while the E.N.V. engine, which ran so splendidly, was also described in these pages on October 15th last.


Flight, February 11, 1911

KING GEORGE AND AVIATION.

  THE little trip from Brooklands to Windsor made by Mr. T. Sopwith on the 1st inst., demonstrated yet once again the utility of the aeroplane in getting quickly from point to point across country, and incidentally it showed that His Majesty the King takes the liveliest interest in matters relating to flying. Having received an invitation - not actually a command - from the King that he should fly to Windsor, Mr. Sopwith started up his machine at about 1 p.m. and was away for his visit forthwith. Although a thick fog obscured the ground at Brooklands, Mr. Sopwith had ascertained that it was clear at Windsor, In order to keep his landmarks in sight Mr. Sopwith remained at a height of about 150 ft. when leaving the aerodrome, but at Staines he found it beautifully clear, and so rose to a height of 1,000 feet. He could then see the Castle in the distance, but one of the radiators of the machine developed trouble through "frostbite," and Mr. Sopwith decided to make a halt on the Datchet Golf Links, descending there about 1.20 p.m. After having lunch he left Datchet at 2.55 p.m., and flying across the Home Park circled Windsor Castle, passed over the Round Tower, and alighted on the Royal Golf Links below the Eastern Terrace, where the King was waiting with Princes Henry, George and John to receive him. The aviator was presented to His Majesty, who at once descended from the Terrace, by Sir Charles Cust, and afterwards the King and the young Princes closely examined the Howard Wright machine and had the various details of it explained. His Majesty also congratulated Mr. Sopwith on his splendid win in the Baron de Forest competition and also upon his gallant attempts to secure the British Michelin prize. After taking tea at the Castle Mr. Sopwith remounted his machine and flew back to Datchet, where, on hearing that the fog was thicker at Brooklands than when he left in the morning, he decided to leave his aeroplane until the following day, when he duly returned without incident, although, even then, the fog was very thick.


Flight, June 22, 1912.

OUR FRIENDS ABROAD.

  From Rangoon, Burma, comes the following letter from Mr. W. C. England, of the Burma Motor and Engineering Company. Mr. England, it will be remembered, graduated at the Grahame-White School at Hendon, and took back to Rangoon with him the Howard Wright biplane fitted with a 40-h.p. E.N.V. engine. He says, "I might say I have experienced considerable difficulty in getting the engine to pull up to its maximum power owing to the difference in carburation in this hot country, and not until I received a new carburettor from England which could be adjusted could I get the machine to rise off the ground. I find that the air is much lighter here than in England, and you require to obtain a far greater speed in order to reach a decent altitude.
  "A day or two ago I had the machine out at Mingaladon on the golf club grounds there, and made a short flight. We did better, however, on the following Saturday morning. We had her out of the shed soon after half past five, and made several flights. On Sunday morning, too, we had her out again for trial, there being a number of the members of the Rangoon Golf Club and their friends present. Returning to the shed 1 had the misfortune to run into a rather large ant heap and snap a wire, which caught in the propeller and pulled the right half of the landing chassis out by the roots. However, I have spares, and I don't think it will take very long to repair the damage.
  "On one of my trials I reached 150 ft., which is the best I have been able to get on this machine up to the present, it being a Howard Wright biplane fitted with only a 40-h.p. E.N.V. engine. Another great drawback I have had to contend with is, being unable to get a suitable aerodrome, the ground being so hard in the dry weather, and in the wet weather it is so cut up by the cattle. You must remember we get six months' continuous rain, and the ground gets very soft that the cattle cut it up terribly. Then six months' sun comes along and bakes it, so that it is just like running over a brick field.
  "This year's rain is just about to start, and I intend, near the end of the wet season, to roll the ground in order to get a good surface for next year. I am just waiting to see the results of this trial flight, and if the public come forward, as I expect them to, I will try and get out a more powerful machine for passenger carrying and cross-country flights.
  "I am enclosing a photograph of my machine on the ground.
  "I may say that some time ago I read in your columns of a gentleman from India stating that he has had a lot of trouble with ants in eating away the wood. This I have not had happen here in Burma, my machine having stood in my hangar for over six months now, and there is absolutely no sign of their interference, bar that anthill I came to grief over.
  "This machine was absolutely dismounted at the Hendon aerodrome before I left England, taking all the planes into sections, also stripping off all the old canvas. I have completely reconstructed it here, and instead of re-covering it with single canvas with pockets for the ribs, I covered it double. This, I think, has greatly improved the machine's flying and stability, as I can assure you I never sat in a more comfortable machine. It rises from the ground absolutely without the slightest use of the ailerons."


Flight, July 20, 1912.

AIR EDDIES.

  ONE of our photographs this week illustrates well the curious accident that overtook Lewis Turner when flying the Grahame-White School Howard Wright biplane over to "Hylands" some three weeks ago. It was misty, and he had to descend near Harlow. Starting again, he rose above the trees, but was blown down below their tops. He could have landed on a limited space between them, when some people crossed in front of him. In avoiding them he struck the trees about 30 ft. from the ground. He was thrown forward, but managed to clutch an armful of small branches, and so saved himself from falling to the ground. The machine fell - but with little damage. He merely climbed down, little the worse for it all.

P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Howard Wright Biplane with 50 h.p. Gnome and broad-chord ailerons.
S.Ransom, R.Fairclough - English Electric Aircraft and their Predecessors /Putnam/
'Jack Dare' with his Howard Wright 1910 Biplane, the second built, at Eastchurch in October 1910.
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
Capt E. M. Maitland's Howard Wright biplane at Brooklands, flown by Lieut H. E. Watkins in the 1910 contest for the L4,000 Baron de Forest prize.
S.Ransom, R.Fairclough - English Electric Aircraft and their Predecessors /Putnam/
Lieut Maitland's and Lieut Watkin's Howard Wright 1910 Biplane on the occasion of being handed over to the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers.
S.Ransom, R.Fairclough - English Electric Aircraft and their Predecessors /Putnam/
T. O. M. Sopwith's Howard Wright 1910 Biplane undergoing repairs to an aileron at Brooklands.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. Sopwith, on his E.N.V. engined Howard Wright biplane, after his record flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Half-side view of the Howard Wright biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Mr. W. C. England on his E.N.V.-englned Howard Wright biplane at Rangoon, Burma, where he has been introducing aviation at the Rangoon Golf Club at Mingaladon.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
THE HOWARD WRIGHT BIPLANE. - Side view of Mr. Sopwith's E.N.V. engined machine, on which he flew from the Royal Aero Club's Eastchurch grounds to Belgium on Sunday.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Front view of the Howard Wright biplane, with Mr. Sopwith in the pilot's seat.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Rear view of the Howard Wright biplane.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
The Howard Wright racing biplane shown at Olympia in 1911 was fitted with a Gnome rotary instead of the usual ENV.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
The Howard Wright biplane with which T. O. M. Sopwith won the L4,000 Baron de Forest prize on 18 December, 1910. Tom Sopwith used his Howard Wright biplane very successfully in Britain and America.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The Howard Wright biplane, which will be steered by Lieut. Reynolds in the Daily Mail Circuit of Great Britain.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Mrs. Stocks just before starting for a flight in the Howard Wright biplane at Hendon last week-end is introduced to the Daily Mirror's "Baby Jumbo," but unfortunately (?) Mrs. Stocks already had the passenger seat occupied, and Jumbo therefore was not invited for a spin.
S.Ransom, R.Fairclough - English Electric Aircraft and their Predecessors /Putnam/
Howard Wright 1910 Biplane bought and assembled by the Walsh brothers at Auckland New Zealand, in 1911.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
THE WEEKLY FLYING MEETINGS AT HENDON. - Mr. Lewis Turner on the Howard Wright just getting away in the cross-country handicap.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. Sopwith in flight in the mist on his Howard Wright biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
BRITISH RECORD FLIGHT. - Mr. Thomas Sopwith, on his Howard Wright biplane, completing his 90th mile at Brooklands. Note the score board which conveyed to the flyer, mile by mile, his distance traversed.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Lieut. Watkins, on his Howard Wright biplane, flying over the troops at Shorncliffe during his trips preparatory to trying for the Baron de Forest L4,000 Cross-Channel Prize.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. T. Sopwith, the winner of the Baron de Forest L4,000 Prize, on his E.N.V.-engined Howard Wright biplane during his second attempt at Brooklands for the British Michelin Prize. Note the old method of locomotion, the automobile stuck in the mud being assisted by the original "h.p.'s."
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Lieut. Watkins flying well at Brooklands on Saturday last on Capt. Maltland's "No.2" Howard Wright.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
AT BROOKLANDS ON SATURDAY. - Tom Sopwith in flight on his Howard Wright, and the Spencer-Stirling machine on the ground.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
CARS AND FLYING AT BROOKLANDS. - Brooklands has now become quite a centre of activity by reason of the flying attractions daily in operation there. Two pictures, taken on Saturday last, above give some idea of the gatherings which assemble day by day around the actual flying village. In the upper photograph Mr. Tom Sopwith is flying his E.N.V.-engined Howard Wright biplane, one of the very successful Bristol machines being seen to the right. In the bottom picture Mr. Low, one of the expert pilots of the Bristol Co., is making one of his fine flights round the aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Low, on his Bristol biplane, getting well into the air at Brooklands. At rest are Mr. Sopwlth's Howard Wright biplane, and in the distance the Hanriot monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
A PASSENGER FLIGHT AT BROOKLANDS. - Lieut. Watkins, with a passenger, on Mr. Maitland's Howard Wright biplane, making one of his graceful flights past the hangars. At temporary rest is the Weiss monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Mr. Lewis Turner finishing first and Mons. Verrier second in the second heat of the Speed Handicap at Hendon on Saturday last.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
BROOKLANDS AS SEEN FROM ABOVE. - A view when passing over the flight colony at Brooklands Aerodrome on Mr. Tom Sopwith's Howard Wright. Note the "magnetic" sewage farm on the left, and in the far distance the motor test hill, finishing straight, &c.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
BROOKLANDS AS SEEN FROM ABOVE FROM MR. TOM SOPWITH'S HOWARD WRIGHT BIPLANE. - Passing over the winding Wey and the Brooklands Club House. Note the bridge across the Wey leading to the aviation grounds.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Guests at Mr. Claude Grahame-White's wedding at Sir Daniel Gooch's residence, "Hylands," watching Mr. B. C. Hucks flying on his Bleriot during the afternoon. On the ground in front of the mansion is Mr. Grahame-White's Howard Wright biplane on which he flew over, and on the right is the Aircraft Co.'s Maurice Farman biplane on which M. Verrier during the afternoon gave some remarkable exhibitions in a strong wind.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
BY THE KING'S COMMAND. - Mr. Tom Sopwith's visit to Windsor Castle on his E.N.V.-engined Howard Wright biplane on Wednesday of last week, in response to an invitation from King George to fly over from Brooklands. King is seen (X) shaking hands with Mr. Sopwith immediately after landing in front of the terrace.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
View from behind of the central portion of the Howard Wright biplane, showing the propeller, E.N.V. engine, Spiral Tube.Co.'s radiators, &c.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Tail details of the Howard Wright biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
UNDER-CARRIAGES AT OLYMPIA. - The typical Farman-Wright type as built by Howard Wright.
H.King - Sopwith Aircraft 1912-1920 /Putnam/
T. O. M. Sopwith seated in the 60 hp Howard Wright biplane which was just beaten by the Cody biplane in the 1910 Michelin Cup No.1 event, wherein he began to feel that he was 'a really experienced pilot.'
S.Ransom, R.Fairclough - English Electric Aircraft and their Predecessors /Putnam/
T. O. M. Sopwith seated at the controls of his modified Howard Wright Biplane with which he won the #4,000 Baron de Forest prize for the longest flight into Europe.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. Thomas Sopwith in the pilot's seat of his Howard Wright biplane, fitted with E.N.V. engine, after creating a new British record for distance and duration by his flight at Brooklands Aerodrome on Saturday of 107 3/4 miles in 3h. 12m. 55s.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. Sopwith takes up his sister, Miss May Sopwith, for a flight at Brooklands on his Howard Wright machine.
S.Ransom, R.Fairclough - English Electric Aircraft and their Predecessors /Putnam/
Lieut H. E. Watkins.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Lieut. Hugh E. Watkins, who is flying his E.N.V.-engined Howard Wright biplane in the Baron de Forest L4,000 Cross-Channel Prize contest.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Lieut. Watkins, with Mr. Cecil Pashley as passenger, just prior to a flight at Brooklands last Saturday on Capt. Maitland's "No.2" Howard Wright.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Lieut. B. T. James, who qualified for his pilot's certificate on a Howard Wright at Hendon on June 1st after the fourth day only in an aeroplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Baroness Schenk, one of the lady aviators who are practising at Hendon Aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
How Grahame-White's School Howard Wright biplane appeared after it had dashed into trees. Apart from the broken elevator, splintered propeller, two or three ribs smashed, and a damaged tail tip, no further damage was done.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
MR. C. HEMIN'S BLERIOT AND HOWARD WRIGHT MODELS. - The latter is fitted with a compressed-air motor with which some good flights have been obtained.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Sketch of the tail of the Howard Wright biplane showing elevator and rudder.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Sketch showing the arrangement of the framework at the tail of the Howard Wright machine.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
UNDER-CARRIAGES AT OLYMPIA. - A comparison in tail skid construction.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES IN THE DAILY MAIL CIRCUIT ROUND GREAT BRITAIN. - From these every machine can be readily identified either in flight or on the ground.
S.Ransom, R.Fairclough - English Electric Aircraft and their Predecessors /Putnam/
Howard Wright 1910 Biplane (Sopwith's Aircraft).
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Howard Wright Biplane
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
THE HOWARD WRIGHT BIPLANE. - Elevation and plan to scale.