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Martinsyde S.1

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1914

Fighter

Martinsyde - pusher biplane - 1914 - Великобритания<– –>Martinsyde - Transatlantic liner - 1914 - Великобритания


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


Martinsyde

S.1. 'In my eyes,' recorded Capt L. A. Strange of this single-seat scout (built 1914), 'all defects were outweighed by the fact that it had a Lewis gun mounted on its top plane, which could be fired forward and upward.' The installation mentioned was made in the spring of 1915, and it was during May of that year that Capt Strange had the historic experience of saving his life in an inverted spin by hanging on to an ammunition drum which had jammed on the gun. Concerning other forms of armament, specific details are lacking, but rifles were carried, and for Home Defence the following loads have been mentioned in connection with a 'Martinsyde Scout': '6 Carcass bombs (3.45-in R.L. tube for discharge); 12 Hale Naval grenades; 150 incendiary darts; carriers for five powder bombs.' Small bombs were apparently carried for attacking ground targets, and an S.1 of No.5 Squadron (Capt G. I. Carmichael) was adapted to take a 100-lb bomb, sighted through a hole cut in the floor. Previously provision had been made for 20-lb bombs under the wings.


P.Lewis The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)


The biplane formula was sweeping strongly into favour and by 1914 had demonstrated its qualities undeniably in the Bristol Scout, Sopwith Tabloid and the Royal Aircraft Factory’s S.E.s. Biplane construction was stronger and lighter than that of the monoplane, and brought with it a brisk performance on the available power. However devoted to the monoplane its disciples might be, the only hope of obtaining production orders for a design lay in submitting to the requirements of the R.F.C., and developing acceptable biplane prototypes, whatever views a designer might hold concerning relative merits.
  The Summer of 1914, therefore, found Martinsyde abandoning the monoplane and busily engaged at Brooklands on a new design, the S.1, to the officially-approved biplane formula for a single-seat scout. When the machine made its appearance in the Autumn it was seen to present a completely conventional aspect and certainly possessed no features which could be classed as radical. Its 80 h.p. Gnome was fully and neatly cowled, the cooling air being admitted through a horizontal slot. Standard wooden construction was used throughout, with the usual fabric covering for the airframe.
  At first glance, with its single-bay wings and overall compact appearance, the S.1 appeared to be remarkably similar to the Tabloid but closer inspection revealed detail differences. At their forward extremities, the undercarriage skids incorporated small auxiliary wheels and the fuselage exhibited a higher fineness ratio compared with that of the Tabloid. The S.1’s wingtips possessed considerable outward rake and the complete tail unit outline set the pattern which was adhered to for all of the subsequent Martinsyde scouts. Martinsyde had also finally relinquished wing warping in favour of ailerons, of which four were fitted to the S.1. The original style of landing gear was subsequently replaced by a simpler form of normal V type. Despite its trim appearance the S.1’s performance was inferior to that of the Tabloid. The top speed of 87 m.p.h. was 5 m.p.h. lower than that of the Sopwith, a consequence of the slightly larger overall dimensions of the Martinsyde, and the S.1 was considered to be unstable longitudinally and to be bedevilled with poor response from its ailerons.
  The Martinsydes began to come off the production lines in late 1914 and, by the end of the year, eleven had been delivered. The S.1. had not found sufficient favour to be ordered to equip any complete squadron and the four which found their way to the Western Front served with Nos. 1, 4, 5 and 6 Squadrons, R.F.C., early in 1915. On 10th May, 1915, the S.1 which had been given a home by No. 6 Squadron provided high drama for its pilot, Capt. L. A. Strange. The machine had been fitted with a Lewis gun on the upper surface of the top centre-section to give uninterrupted fire over the propeller. The ammunition drum jammed after being emptied in attacking a German machine and, while Strange stood up to free it, the Martinsyde turned over into an inverted spin. Its pilot fell out, clinging for dear life onto the ammunition drum which, luckily for him, remained lodged in place. After losing several thousand feet of height, Strange managed to swing himself back into the cockpit, regained control and lived to tell the tale.
  The total estimated production run of the rather colourless Martinsyde S.1 was about sixty machines, such a small number that, had the type possessed any particular fighting virtues, it would hardly have been able to demonstrate them to any positive extent.


F.Mason The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)


Martinsyde S.1

  The association that grew up between H P Martin and George Handasyde before the First World War resulted in the establishment of Martinsyde Ltd at Brooklands, a company which achieved distinction with a series of attractive monoplanes. With the appearance of the outstanding Sopwith Tabloid at Brooklands, however, it was not long before Martinsyde joined the growing number of companies determined to compete for military orders for small tractor biplane scouts.
  Superficially resembling the Tabloid, particularly in the engine cowling, the first single-seat scout was the Martinsyde S.1, powered by an 80hp Gnome; it differed, however, in the undercarriage design which incorporated two mainwheels and a pair of skids in front of which were added two smaller, balancing wheels. Later this unwieldy arrangement was discarded in favour of conventional V-struts on each side and plain twin-wheel undercarriage, also dispensing with the skids.
  On account of its ability to mount a Lewis gun on the upper wing from the outset, the S.1 quickly earned production orders, and the first of about sixty Service aircraft appeared towards the end of 1914, all being produced by the parent company. Fewer than a dozen joined RFC squadrons on the Western Front, and one of these gave rise to a famous incident. Capt Louis Strange was flying an S.1 of No 6 Squadron and, finding that the ammunition drum on the Lewis gun had jammed, stood up in his cockpit to gain a firmer grip on the drum so to release it - holding the control column between his knees. The aircraft began to climb steeply, stalled and entered an inverted spin and, not having the benefit of seat straps, Strange was thrown out of the cockpit, still retaining his hold on the drum. Fortunately this, which only moments earlier he had been trying to free, remained jammed, and after losing about 5,000 feet the aircraft righted itself and the pilot managed to struggle back into his cockpit.
  Four S.1s were shipped to the Middle East Brigade in 1915, equipping one Flight of No 30 Squadron in Mesopotamia. More than forty were supplied to training units in Britain that year and the S.1 was withdrawn from operational use in France during the summer of 1915, but a small number was shipped out to Mudros in the Aegean in 1918 to equip No 144 Squadron. Several other examples were tested at the Royal Aircraft Factory with early front gun interrupter equipment.

  Type: Single-engine, single-seat, single-bay tractor biplane scout.
  Manufacturer: Martinsyde Ltd., Brooklands, Surrey.
  Powerplant: One 80hp Gnome engine driving two-blade propeller.
  Structure: All-wood with fabric covering; ailerons on upper and lower wings.
  Dimensions: Span, 27ft 8in; length, 21ft 0in; wing area, 208 sq ft.
  Performance: Max speed, 87 mph.
  Armament: One 0.303in Lewis machine gun on upper wing, firing above propeller.
  Prototype and Production: One prototype, believed to be No 710. 61 production examples: Nos 724, 741, 743, 748-749, 2448- 2455, 2820-2831, 4229-4252 and 5442-5453 (some of these may not have been completed).
  Summary of Service: S.ls served in small 4, 6, 9, 10, 14, 16, 23, 24, 30, 67 and 144 numbers on each of the following: Nos. 1, 2, Squadrons, RFC.


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919


Late in 1914, the firm produced a small fast, biplane "Scout," with an 80 h.p. Gnome motor, which was an immediate success, and was promptly ordered in large quantities by the War Office. It played an important part in the war in 1915, till the increased speed of the German machines rendered it out of date. It was superseded by a more powerful type of Martinsyde scout, fitted at first with a 120 h.p. Beardmore engine and later with a 100 h.p. Beardmore.
  
  
Nation: Britain
Manufacturer: Martinsyde Ltd.
Type: Fighter
Year: 1914
Engine: Gnome rotary, 80 hp
Wingspan: 27' 8" (8.43 m)
Length: 21' (6.4 m)
Height: 8' 2" (2.49 m)
Speed: 84 mph (135 km/h)
Armament: 1 machine gun
Crew: 1

F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
The Martinsyde S.1 with the initial four-wheel undercarriage.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Martinsyde SI single-seater scout biplane of 1914 with early-type undercarriage.
P.Lewis - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
Martinsyde S.1.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A Martinsyde S.1 Scout with 80 h.p. Gnome engine, and later with 100 h.p. Monosoupape Gnomes, one of the most sucessful small fighting machines of the 1915-16 campaign.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
"DOING SOMETHING FOR MOTHER." - Mr. Sykes on the Martinsyde making a heavily banked turn over the trees at Hanworth Park on "Mothers' Day."
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Camouflaged Martinsyde S.1 '2449 of 4 Squadron at St Omer in early 1915.
F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
The Martinsyde S.1 with the later two-wheel undercarriage.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Clearly influenced by the success of the Sopwith Tabloid and Bristol Scout, the Martinsyde S I prototype unarmed single-seat scout emerged during the late summer of 1914. Initially, the S I had a clumsy-looking four wheel landing gear, happily replaced by the time this machine, serial no 4241, was photographed. With an 80hp Gnome rotary, the S I's top level speed was 87mph at sea level and its performance was generally considered inferior to both of its illustrious forebears. Only 61 S Is were built, with deliveries to the RFC lasting for about a year between late 1914 and October 1915. Never to equip a complete squadron, S Is were used by five French-based RFC squadrons, plus another RFC squadron in Mesopotamia.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Martinsyde S.1 Scout '4250. This was one of the first single-seat scout (fighter) types to serve with the RFC and first appeared in early 1915 as air combat was becoming of increasing importance. Armed with a single Lewis gun on the upper wing, the S.1 was used only in small numbers and was not a great success.
The campaigns in the Middle East continued to include air participation, albeit still on a small scale but often with decisive results. This Martinsyde S1 ('4250) is pictured at an unknown airfield in Egypt where it was probably in use for training. However, the 30 Squadron detachment in Mesopotamia had used two of this type with some success and this aircraft may have been destined for the same unit.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
The first aeroplanes in the campaign in Mesopotamia where they have been used for carrying supplies to General Townshend's forces besieged in Kut.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны