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Avro Type D

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1911

Avro - Triplane IV - 1910 - Великобритания<– –>Avro - Burga monoplane - 1912 - Великобритания

A.Jackson Avro Aircraft since 1908 (Putnam)

Avro Type D

   In 1911 A. V. Roe abandoned the triplane configuration and designed a biplane which bore a close resemblance to the Roe IV. It was a two seater with triangular girder fuselage, twin undercarriage and the same type of cumbersome, triangular monoplane tail. This was replaced almost at once by one of rectangular shape. As on Roe IV, lateral control was by means of wing warping but the passenger seat was placed at the C.G. so that the machine could be flown solo without ballast. Power was supplied by a 35 h.p. Green, the radiator for which, placed vertically behind the engine at right angles to the direction of flight, distinguished this machine from later aircraft of the same type. It is probable that the engine was that knocked down to A. V. Roe for ?67 10s. when the assets of the Scottish Aviation Syndicate were auctioned at Brooklands on December 17, 1910.
   In later years aircraft of this type became known as the Avro Type D even though no reference seems to have been made to Types A, B, or C. These, of course, would have been designations posthumously applied to the early triplanes.
   The first Avro Type D was erected at Brooklands in March 1911 and first flown on April 1 by C. Howard Pixton (who later took Mrs. Roe up in it). He declared it stable, viceless and easy to fly, characteristics confirmed by Gordon Bell and effectively demonstrated on April 11 by Lt. Wilfred Parke R.N. who, without having been in an aeroplane before, flew the length of the aerodrome. Numbered 1, it was flown in the Brooklands-Shoreham race by Pixton on May 6, 1911 - the first event in which the Avro entry was not flown by the designer. Pixton lost time at the start because he was flying round in an attempt to win the ?500 Manville endurance prize with passenger. He had completed 26 minutes 30 seconds before noticing competitors taking off at the start of the race. He had no map, no cross country experience, and the Type D had never before been flown outside Brooklands Aerodrome. Nevertheless he made a hasty landing to refuel and set off after the others. He lost his way and took three hours for the trip, landing en route at Plumpton Racecourse, seven miles short of his destination. On the way back he spent two days at a flying demonstration at Oakwood, Haywards Heath, returning to Brooklands on Monday May 9 after a very turbulent trip via Dorking. On May 12 he flew the Type D to Hendon in 48 minutes to give a flying display before the Parliamentary Aerial Defence Committee, during which he carried the famous Cdr. Sampson R.N. as passenger and sent A. V. Roe solo in the machine for the first time. Pixton flew home to Brooklands next day and on May 19 made a nonstop flight of 1 hour 30 minutes towards the Manville prize. On June 11 the Type D climbed to a considerable height with the 12 stone Pixton and a 14 stone passenger.
   After a flight at Brooklands in June 1911, Cdr. Schwann (later A.V.M. Sir Oliver Schwann K.C.B., C.B.E.) of the Naval Airship Tender Hermione, bought the Type D for ?700. It was despatched by rail to Barrow-in-Furness where the original triangular tailplane was replaced, the wheels removed and the skids lashed directly to a series of float undercarriages designed by Schwann and his associates and built by naval personnel. The drag of the floats was partially offset by repositioning the radiator horizontally on top of the centre section and by covering the rear fuselage with fabric.
   During first taxying trials on August 2 in the 9 ft. deep Cavendish Dock on Schwann's narrow, flat bottomed Mk. I floats, the aircraft assumed such a tail-down attitude on the water that the small tail float caused excessive wash. This and the fin were therefore removed and the rudder moved upward along the hinge line to clear the water. Later the rudder was raised still further till the lower edge was in line with the bottom of the fuselage. Maximum speed was only 18 knots and the machine eventually capsized. Report R. & M. 69 deals at length with Schwann's further experiments with seven different types of single and twin float undercarriages. Limited success came on November 18, 1911 after the Green Engine Co. Ltd. had coaxed an extra 10 h.p. out of the engine by fitting additional open exhaust ports, and float design had reached the Mk. VII stepped type. On that day the Type D lifted on to the step for the first time and left the water rather unexpectedly, reaching a height of 15-20 ft. Schwann was not at that time a qualified pilot and the aircraft fell back into the water and capsized. After salvage and reconstruction, trials were resumed by S. V. Sippe who made the first of a series of short flights at Barrow on April 9, 1912 during which he reported favourably on the feeling of acceleration from the unstick speed of 25 m.p.h. to the flying speed of 40 m.p.h. It became the first seaplane ever to take off from British sea water. On April 12 Sippe made two or three circuits of the dock and reached a height of 160 feet. The seaplane was then handed over to the owner who had just qualified as a pilot at the Bristol School on Salisbury Plain. The feasibility of marine aircraft had been proved but the rate of climb of the Type D seaplane was poor due to an increase in all-up weight to 1,000 lb. (an accurate figure obtained by weighing the machine in the airship shed at Barrow). Endurance was but 20 minutes - the time taken for the cooling water to boil away, so a 50 h.p. Gnome rotary was fitted in an attempt to improve the performance, but there are no recorded flights with this engine.
   The sale of the Type D biplane reduced the Avro School to only one aircraft - the Roe IV triplane. Pending delivery of new machines from Manchester, A. V. Roe acquired a secondhand Gnome-engined Farman pusher purchased in Newcastle. The crates housing this relic were too big for railway trucks and travelled south by sea at a cost of ?25. This charge contrasted sharply with that for Avro aircraft, which broke down into sections to fit into a single crate, the Manchester-Brooklands rail charge for which was a mere ?1 16s. 6d.
   The next Avro aircraft was a modified Type D built to compete in the ?10,000 Daily Mail Circuit of Britain Race. It was a sesquiplane with upper and lower spans of 33 and 23 feet, powered by a 60 h.p. E.N.V. eight cylinder, watercooled engine. Like all subsequent machines of the type, its fuselage was increased in length from 26 ft. to 28 ft., but it was the only one, apart from the prototype, to be fitted with the large triangular tailplane. Construction took place at Manchester during June 1911 under the watchful eye of the pilot, R. C. Kemp, and first taxying trials were made at Brooklands by A. V. Roe on July 18. First flights made by Kemp later in the day showed the machine to be fast, but the engine overheated and the rate of climb was poor with full load of petrol and oil. Without A. V. Roe's approval, extensions were hurriedly fitted to the lower wing, making it equal in span to the upper and increasing the wing area by 50 sq. ft. After an initial test circuit at 100 ft. on July 22, morning of the race, Kemp climbed to 800 ft. but during a fairly steep descent at half throttle the extension to the port lower mainplane failed at 150 ft. Although he jerked on full right rudder and full left warp, the machine spun into the ground wingtip first and broke up. Miraculously Kemp stepped unhurt from the wreckage.
   The third Type D, the assembly of which was completed at Brooklands on September 9, 1911, was almost identical with the first but distinguishable from it because drag had been reduced by fitting the radiator in a sloping position behind the engine. Minor differences included straighter front skids, a covered fuselage and no fin. First straight hops were made by F. P. Raynham on September 11 and after adjustments a flight to 600 ft. was made on September 17. Although intended as a school machine, it was entered for the Michelin Speed Prize but during his flight to Hendon to compete on September 21, Raynham ran into thick fog. In attempting to 'press on' with primitive instruments, he made what may have been the first recorded spin and recovery, afterwards landing at New Barnet to ask his way. Unsatisfactory experiments with a new airscrew, and sagging wing fabric compelled him to give up the attempt. He therefore returned to base, arriving over Brooklands at 1,000 ft. on the evening of September 24 and by the end of the month the Type D was in full time use by the Avro School.
   Delivered at Brooklands on September 30, 1911, the fourth Type D was a single seater but otherwise identical with the equal span school version, except for the radiator which was fitted vertically behind the engine in line with the direction of flight. The engine was a specially tuned Green giving 45 h.p. and identified by holes at the base of the cylinder walls which improved scavenging. After some trouble with slack fabric, satisfactory first flights on October 12 again raised Raynham's Michelin hopes and although he reached 1,000 ft. with 5 hours' fuel (13 gallons) during a practice flight two days later, bad weather on October 15, last day of the competition, ruined his chances. With an eye on the Michelin long distance prize, he coaxed the machine off on October 18 with 8 hours' fuel (24 gallons) but the attempt came to an abrupt end when the machine forced landed in the sewage farm with an iced-up carburettor on October 27, only three days before the closing date.
   The fifth Type D was an improved sesquiplane version generally similar to, and having the same dimensions as, the ill-fated Circuit of Britain machine. The engine was a 35 h.p. Green.
   The sixth machine was a single seater powered by a new 35 h.p. five cylinder Viale aircooled radial which had been delivered to A. V. Roe on September 30, 1911. The installation was done by Maurice Ducrocq (British concessionaire for Viale engines) and his apprentice Jack Alcock. Work was completed on October 6 but it was not until November 20 that first nights were made by F. P. Raynham. The Viale-powered Type D proved very manoeuvrable and flew strongly in the hands of a number of school pilots. On December 6 Raynham used it for joyriding by removing the fuselage petrol tank to make room for a passenger to kneel facing him. On December 27 Wilfred Parke climbed the machine to 2,500 ft. over Addlestonc as a prelude to his 'Superior Brevet' tests and S. V. Sippe gained his Aviator's Certificate on it on January 8, 1912. During at attempt to fly to Oxford as part of his tests on January 13, Parke followed the Thames until poor visibility forced him down at Abingdon where he broke two bracing wires. On the following morning the machine was dismantled in 65 minutes and temporarily stored in a local garage. No later flights by this machine are recorded and its Viale engine was installed in the Avro Type F cabin monoplane in the following April.
   The precise number of Type D biplanes produced by the Manchester works was never made known. None was built after 1912 and advertisements making a special offer of 12 Type Ds at a reduced price of ?400 each during October and November 1911 can only be regarded as a publicity stunt. There is no evidence that any orders were placed.
   In October 1912 the Avro School moved from Brooklands to the new aerodrome at Shoreham-by-Sea, Sussex, and became the Avro Flying School (Brighton) Ltd. with A. E. Geere as C.F.I. Last noteworthy nights before the transfer were made in mid-August by Wilfred Parke in the old sloping radiator Type D to Staines, Ripley, Hounslow Heath and Walton. The machine was used for instruction at Shoreham during 1913 and became well known along the South Coast as did the school's 45 h.p. Green engined Type D, Type D with 50 h.p. Isaacson seven cylinder radial, and the Avro Type E prototype described later.
   It is unlikely that the sixth Type D, undamaged in the Abingdon forced landing, would have been scrapped after the removal of the Viale engine. It seems more probable that its front fuselage, already modified for radial engines, invited the installation of a more powerful unit. In the absence of definite proof it can reasonably be assumed that this was the Isaacson machine.

   Manufacturers: A. V. Roe and Company, Brownsfield Mills, Great Ancoats Street, Manchester; Brooklands Aerodrome, Surrey; and Shoreham Aerodrome, Sussex
   Power Plants:
   One 35 h.p. Green
   One 45 h.p. Green
   One 35 h.p. Viale
   One 50 h.p. Isaacson
   One 60 h.p. E.N.V. Type F
   Dimensions, Weights and Performances:
   Standard Seaplane Sesquiplane
   Span, upper 31 ft. 0 in. 31 ft. 0 in. 33 ft. 0 in.
   Span, lower 31 ft. 0 in. 31 ft. 0 in. 23 ft. 0 in.
   Length 28 ft. 0 in.(*) 26 ft. 0 in. 28 ft. 0 in.
   Height 9 ft. 2 in. - 9 ft. 2 in.
   Wing area 310 sq. ft. 310 sq. ft. 279 sq. ft.
   All-up weight 500 lb. 1,000 lb. 550 lb.
   Speed 45-50 m.p.h. 40 m.p.h. -
   Range 100 miles(**) - -
   (o)Prototype 26 ft. 0 in. (**)With Viale engine.

   No. 1 Prototype, 35 h.p. Green, transverse radiator, first flown 1.4.11, converted to seaplane, last mentioned 4.12;
   No. 2 Circuit of Britain machine, E.N.V. engine, first flown 18.7.11, crashed at Brooklands 22.7.11;
   No. 3 School machine, 35 h.p. Green, slanting radiator, first flown 11.9.11, withdrawn from use at Shoreham 5.14;
   No. 4 Single seater, 45 h.p. Green, fore-and-aft radiator, first flown 12.10.11, withdrawn from use at Shoreham 5.14;
   No. 5 Improved sesquiplane, believed that advertised for sale at Shed 4, Brooklands, 5.12 and that reported scrapped near the petrol store 12.12;
   No. 6 School machine, Viale engine, first flown 20.11.11, almost certainly re-engined with 50 h.p. Isaacson, withdrawn from use at Shoreham 5.14

H.King Aeromarine Origins (Putnam)

The first British powered floatplane to rise from the water was an Avro biplane owned by Cdr Oliver Schwann and tried at Cavendish Dock, Barrowill-Furness, during 191I. Like Fabre, Cdr Schwann had never previously flown. The engine was a Green, the power of which was increased by fitting additional exhaust ports.
   I find - to my continuing astonishment - that both air lubrication and hydrofoils were involved in these experiments.
   In one installation' ... an ample air supply was led through the floats to the after side of the steps'; and with this set of floats the first take-off was accomplished - on November 18, 1911.
   Of the hydrofoil installation I am able to give the following authentic description. The floats were 'fitted with two planes under the water... These were made of duralumin plate. Their span was 40 in., chord 4 in., and the distance apart 4 in. The plates were mounted one above the other at a depth of 20 in. below the water level and at an angle of 3° to the horizontal. Each plane was slightly curved to a depth of 5/16 in.'
   Apparently this British Avro was the first marine aircraft to use the 'stepped' form of planing bottom. For some years to follow most 'seaplanes' were built to the twin-float-plus-tail-float formula, and the floats in consequence were too short to exploit the principle to advantage. There were, however, notable exceptions.

M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)

Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing

P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)

Avro D

   Early in 1911 the Avro D two-seat biplane appeared, as a result of Roe's reluctant conclusion that the triplane was not to offer further very successful development in the face of the undeniable performances being put up by biplanes.
   The new machine was a direct adaptation in form of the No. 4 Triplane, and incorporated once again the weight-saving triangular-section fuselage. Two-bay, unstaggered wings of equal span were fitted, with warping conferring lateral control. The engine was a 35 h.p. Green, and the Type D was quite a successful and consistent flyer, being flown at Brooklands by Lt. W. D. Beatty, C. Gordon Bell, F. Conway Jenkins, Lt. Wilfred Parke, R.N., and C. Howard Pixton. Pixton piloted a Type D in the Brooklands-to-Brighton cross-country race on 6th May, 1911, but lost his way and finished last. In November of the same year a Viale-engined version appeared at Brooklands and was tested by F. P. Raynham, who had joined the firm recently as a test pilot. On this machine also, Sidney V. Sippe performed his Royal Aero Club Certificate No. 172 tests on 9th January, 1912. The Viale engine installation was carried out by Maurice Ducrocq and by his apprentice Jack Alcock. Yet another Type D was powered by the 60 h.p. E.N.V. "F" and differed also in having strut-braced extensions to the upper wings which brought the span to 33 ft., that of the lower wings being 23 ft. Both sets of wings were made up of sections 5 ft. each in length, the idea being to ease replacement in the event of damage in an accident and also to facilitate packing for transport. A non-lifting tail was incorporated, with extensions forward along the fuselage decking, the whole machine possessing a cleaner appearance than that of the earlier examples. Flown by Ronald Kemp, this machine crashed at the start of the 1911 Circuit of Britain race. The streamlining process was taken a step further in another model of the D which was given a 35 h.p. Green, complete with aluminium cowling. In this machine the forward tailplane extensions were discarded, although it retained the extra panels on the upper wing-tips. Another alteration in the quest for better performance was the installation of smaller pairs of landing wheels of 14 ins. diameter in place of the heavier ones used previously.
   An Avro D formed the subject of the first trials of a British seaplane when, in mid-1911, the prototype with a 35 h.p. Green engine was bought by Commander Oliver Schwann. R.N., and officers of H.M.S. Hermione, and fitted with a pair of floats of Schwann's design which were made by the Navy. The machine was taken to Cavendish Dock, Barrow-in-Furness, for testing in September, 1911. The trials were not particularly successful, but after several changes of floats a short flight was made eventually on 18th November, 1911, when the seaplane rose to 20 ft. and was damaged in landing after making the first British take-off from water. A new pair of floats made from duralumin by the Vickers Company proved to be better than those fitted earlier, and the machine made satisfactory flights at Barrow in April, 1912, piloted by S. Y. Sippe and by Commander Schwann.


   Description: Two-seat tractor biplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
   Manufacturers: A. V. Roe & Co., Brownsfield Mills, Manchester.
   Power Plant: 35 h.p. Green, 60 h.p. E.N.V. "F".
   Dimensions: Span, 31 ft. Length, 31 ft. Wing area, 279 sq. ft.
   Weights: Empty, 800 lb.
   Performance: Maximum speed, 48-5 m.p.h.

Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913

AVRO. Aeroplanes. A.V. Roe & Co., Clifton Street, Miles Platting, Manchester; also Shoreham, Sussex. A.V. Roe designed his first machine, a biplane, in 1906. It was the first British machine to leave the ground. He then experimented with triplanes in Lea Marshes, where he managed to fly with only 9 h.p. in 1908-9. In August, 1910, built Roe III, and in September, Roe IV, also triplanes (see 1911 edition for full details). In 1911 he abandoned triplanes for the Avro biplane. School: Shoreham.

   D 1911-12. E 1912. F 1912. G 1912-13. E 1912-13.
   Model. 2-seater 2-seater Totally Totally Hydro-biplane.
   biplane. biplane. enclosed enclosed
   mono. biplane.

Length.....feet(m.) 31 (9.45) 29 (8.84) 23 (7) 29 (8.84) 33 (10)
Span.......feet(m.) 31 (9.45) 30 (11) 28 (8.50) 36 (11) 47-1/2 (14.50)
Area....sq.ft.(m^2.) 279 (26) 335 (32) 158 (14-1/2) 335 (32) 478 (34-1/2)
Weight, empty lbs.(kgs.) 800 (363) 900 (482) 550 (249) 1191 (540) 1740 (789)
Weight, fully loaded, lbs. (kgs.) ... 1300 (589) 800 (363) 1700 (771) 2700 (1224)
Motor...........h.p. 35, any 50 Gnome 40 Viale 60 Green 100 Gnome
Speed....m.p.h. (km.) 48 (78) 61 (97) 65 (105) 61.8 (100) 55 (90)
Number built
   during 1912....... several 6 1 1 1

Remarks.--Of the above, 4 of the 50 Gnome E type were purchased by the British Royal Flying Corps, and one by the Portuguese Government; the other went to Windermere on January, 1913, for hydro experiments. Climbing speed of this type is 440 feet per min. (134 m.) Dual control fitted. D type are no longer being built. Climbing speed of F type, 300 feet per min. (91.5 m.) Gliding angle, 1 in 6. G has a gliding angle 1 in 6.5. On October 24th, 1912, made British record to date, 7'31-1/2" (=450 miles). The hydro. was delivered to the British R.F.C. naval wing early in 1913.

Журнал Flight

Flight, April 22, 1911.


Brooklands Aerodrome.

   THE flying at Brooklands on Easter Monday was limited during the afternoon to a couple of lengthy flights by Mr. Pixton on the Avro biplane, built by Messrs. A. V. Roe and Co. The breeze was fairly strong and treacherous during the time the motor racing was on, and Mr. Pixton was the only one to venture aloft, he making one flight of about an hour's duration, and the second of about half an hour, and he consequently took the L30 prize for aggregate flight. During these trips Mr. Pixton occasionally attained a very good height, at one time being in the neighbourhood of 1,000 ft. above the ground. The second prize was won by Mr. Gustav Hamel, who went up at ten minutes to six on his Bleriot monoplane, with the intention of beating the world's record for height. Although the wind was still pretty strong, he climbed steadily until an altitude of 6,300 ft. had been reached, when he was obliged to give up the attempt, and came down in a long spiral glide, having been in the air for 19 minutes. Mr. Sopwith brought out the Martin-Handasyde monoplane, but in landing tipped the machine over on one side and damaged a wing. The Macfie biplane was out, and carried a passenger during a straight flight, while Mr. Eric G. England on a Bristol and M. Ducrocq on his Henry Farman biplane made several short demonstration flights in the evening.

Avro School. - On the first Thursday of this month Pixton brought out the new Avro biplane, fitted with 30-h.p. Green, for the first time, intending to try for a three-hour flight. No sooner had he started than the wind sprang up to 25 m.p.h., backed by a snowstorm, and so he returned to the more congenial atmosphere of his hangar after a few minutes.
   On the following Saturday, in spite of a stiff wind, there was quite a large attendance, so to minimise their disappointment as much as possible Pixton determined to try a show with the Avro biplane. Starting at the Byfleet end, he rose in a wind that was blowing up to 35 m.p.h. This lifted him up and down bodily, and he landed at the Paddock end, as he was unable to turn owing to the wind being too strong, so the machine was wheeled back.
   On the Sunday morning the wind was 15 m.p.h. Lieut. Beatty, Conway, Jenkins, and Pixion had the Avro biplane out giving each other flights, and the two former made straight flights alone. Tuesday afternoon, the n t h inst., the Avro was first out after the rough spell, as usual. Pixton did a few circles, and then handed the machine over to a new pupil, Lieut. Parke, R.N., he having had instructions to only roll for a start. To everyone's astonishment, he opened the engine full out, making a series of flights, and, landing by the Paddock, turned round and flew back, this being his first time on an aeroplane.
   Wednesday, the 12th, Lieut. Parke, at his third attempt, kept up for half a circle on the Avro biplane in rather a stiff wind, greatly to his instructor's surprise. While over the sewage farm, his sleeve caught the switch, the machine divine; down before he was able to bring her nose up again, the skids sticking into the ground. Fortunately, only the tip of a skid was broken and a propeller. On Friday and Saturday Pixton was carrying passengers on the Avro biplane. Sunday he took up the Avro biplane 1,500 ft., vol planing down from that height.
   On Monday, 17th, Bank Holiday, the wind was very tricky, almost a calm at times, and blowing 23 m.p.h. at others. Pixton was first out on the Avro biplane, and others followed, but they found the wind too uncomfortable. Pixton, therefore, had the field to himself. His first flight was nearly half-an-hour, and his second nearly an hour. Considering he had only a 30-h.p. Green, the performance was certainly a very meritorious one, and says a great deal for English piloting, design, and workmanship. The sooner manufacturers turn their attention to light, cheap machines that will fly with little power the sooner will aeroplaning become increasingly popular.

Flight, April 29, 1911.


Brooklands Aerodrome.

Avro School. - Messrs. A. V. Roe and Co. have added a genuine Farman driven by a Gnome to their school, for pupils who prefer this type of machine, which is to be used for carrying passengers as well.
   Sunday morning Lieut. Beatty and Conway Jenkins had the Avro biplane out, and each flew several straight flights, and were carrying each other as passengers, in spite of a nasty wind.
   Quite a number of people turned up on Sunday afternoon, although there was a tricky wind blowing. Pixton, as usual, with his disregard of the elements, and in order to lessen their disappointment, gave a clever display, flying several circuits.
   Monday morning Conway Jenkins proved himself a very promising flyer, for at his second attempt on the Avro biplane he covered several circuits and made figure eights, landing quite well. There are now several pupils of the Avro School who are competent to go for their certificates if they can manage to get to Brooklands during a decently fine spell.
   Lieut. Parke, who last week gave such an able display on the Avro biplane during his first three lessons, owing to a previous arrangement went through the formal tests for his brevet on a Bristol biplane.
   In the evening Mr. Jenkins put in some pretty work on the Avro biplane, finishing with vol planes., while Pixton was flying around the track and district for an hour and ten minutes, preparing himself for the Brighton flight.

Flight, August 12, 1911.


A Hydro-Aeroplane at Barrow.

   BARROW is not so completely taken up with the naval airship as to ignore the heavier-than-air type of craft, and on Thursday of last week some interesting experiments were made with the Roe biplane which was recently purchased by Commander Schwann and fitted with a couple of floats. No attempt was made to get the machine in the air, but both Commander Schwann and Lieut. Boothby made trials with it, the former contenting himself with a straight run, while Lieut. Boothby made a circular trip on the surface of the Cavendish Dock. On Wednesday during some tests with the floats reversed the machine capsized but the pilot escaped with a ducking.

Flight, November 4, 1911.


   THREE things at least stand to the credit of A. V. Roe, the development of the first successful triplane, the application of the monoplane type body on multiplane machines, and the construction of commercial aeroplanes for men of moderate means. Aeroplaning is considered the sport of the few, but all along it has apparently been A. V. Roe's object to make it the pastime of the many, for it has been his ambition to build machines that are inexpensive in initial cost and reasonable in upkeep.
   Regarded purely from the technical standpoint, the design of the Avro biplane is characterised by its slender gracefulness, which is perhaps less appreciated by those inartistic souls who regard extreme robustness as the first principle in construction. Nevertheless, the designer seeks to acquire more than mere pleasing lines, for efficiency has ever been one of the principal objects that this pioneer constructor has sought to obtain with his machine. In his present model not only has the attribute of efficiency been combined with symmetry of outline and the safety of the pilot obtained by the monoplane type body construction, but a real attempt has been made at remedying the unwieldiness and awkwardness of transport that has so long characterised machines of cellular construction. To effect this, the main supporting surfaces are constructed in sections that are readily attachable and detachable by means of the simple clip illustrated.
   A subsidiary advantage that this method of construction possesses is the ease with which the wing can be repaired by merely replacing a damaged section. This feature alone should place the Avro design in favour with those who have experienced the tedious stripping, boom-grafting, rib-refitting and recovering process associated with the general run of such machines. The planes are covered on both sides with cotton fabric, which is sized and varnished after being stretched in position over the wooden wing skeleton. Warping is utilised to preserve lateral balance, the end sections of the planes being flexed much after the manner adopted by the Wright Brothers. To accommodate the warping movement the rear boom of each end section is hinged to its rigidly-braced continuation in the inner wing sections by the simple hinge shown in the accompanying sketch, so that in the process of wing flexing that portion of the rear boom moves helically. The compression struts that brace the main planes are held in position by welded steel sockets and ears, to which the bracing wires are attached, and are formed integrally with the base of each socket - a really neat method.
   The main body, of equilateral triangular section, is roughly boat-shaped, and assumes its maximum beam and draught just forward of the pilot's seat. At its front end, mounted on stout bearers which are in reality continuations of the top pair of body longitudinals, is the engine, a 35-h.p. Green, coupled direct to an 8 ft. 6 in. Avro propeller.
   A very convenient point about the Roe body, from a constructor's point of view, is that its upper surface is flat from end to end and forms a "level line" from which all adjustments can be made. Thus the engine is merely placed in position on its bearers and no vertical adjustment whatever is required to ensure the propeller revolving in a plane normal to the line of flight. Similarly the flat, non-lifting tail needs no further adjustment after it has been fixed in position on the upper surface of the body.
   Apart from this consideration, the main body of the Avro biplane possesses further interest in that it is cross-braced in a very neat manner. This is illustrated in Fig 3. An aluminium socket, in which the transverse struts are assembled, is applied to the longitudinal member by a single bolt, which also keeps in position a mild steel wiring lug. In this way the whole of the longitudinal spar can be removed or replaced by simply withdrawing the several bolts that keep it in position, without disturbing the remainder of the body. Each wire is tightened by a wire strainer.
   The front end of the body is armoured with a "nose" of pressed steel, while, for a length of 2 ft. aft of this, aluminium panelling is applied to serve as a drip tray for oil leaking from the engine and to preserve the approximate stream line form of the body. From this point to its rear end the fuselage is covered with fabric.
   Opinions vary as to the advisability of carrying this covering further than a point just to the rear of the pilot's cockpit on the grounds that an adverse affect is experienced in side winds. Such discussion can hardly be applied in this case, for the Avro biplane has proved, both in the hands of Pixton and Raynham, a most stable craft in wind. In any case it cannot be more harmful than those vertical stabilising fins that are still used to advantage by such constructors as the Antoinette Co., Robert Esnault-Pelterie, and Blackburn, while its correcting effects in case of a side dive are undoubted and easily apparent.
   The landing carriage needs little description, as it has much in common with Henry Farman's conception, but being lower in build it is possibly stronger. Two fairly thick struts connect the front of the main body with the forward parts of the skids to protect the former from strain in the event of a rough landing.
   The tail group is unique as regards the shape and area of the flat fixed plane, to the rear edge of which are hinged the two elevators. The former organ is rectangular and of a fairly high aspect ratio. Its area seems rather on the small side and, as has been discovered by experience, the elevator is thus rendered more sensitive. The reason for the employment of such a small directional surface is, it appears, an effort to eliminate the depressing effect on the tail produced when a large flat surface is working in the down draught of the wake from the main planes.
   Both the rudder and the pair of elevating flaps swing on sets of hinges, having one pin to each series. A wooden skid, anchored by a stout elastic band to the bottom member of the body and loosely attached to the mast, which forms the rudder post, and to which the horizontal tail surface is braced, protects the tail unit.
   The controlling surfaces are operated by a central lever, at the upper extremity of which is mounted a rotatable wheel, which governs the wing warping. A backward and forward motion of this lever controls elevation and depression. For the reason that the hand-wheel lever is conveniently placed and that the movements are to a great degree natural, this form of control is steadily gaining favour, and has been adopted by many of the leading constructors, among them Messrs. Short Bros, on their latest machine, and the Maison-Deperdussin, A pivoted foot bar operates the rudder.

Flight, April 13, 1912.


   Sippe is getting on very nicely with the experiments with Commander Schwann's AVRO hydro-biplane, tests of which he is superintending at Barrow. On Tuesday of last week he had the machine out and made several short flights. The machine has now been fitted with floats of Duralumin at Messrs. Vickers works. Sippe's chief trouble seems to be to know how to avoid the propeller becoming chipped through contact with the spray thrown up. The ends of the propeller have been bound, but this precaution is not apparently quite satisfactory.

Flight, April 20, 1912.


When one comes to weigh up matters, one cannot but agree that the results obtained by Sippe on the Avro hydro-biplane constitute something of a record, of which we Britishers should be proud. The machine is the result of British brainwork, it, including the engine, all-British throughout, and is being flown by a British pilot under the direction of a British officer, who is, out of patriotism, financing the tests himself. It compares very favourably with foreign aquaplanes when a British biplane that has already seen much service, of 310 square feet of supporting surface, and fitted with an engine nominally rated at 35-h.p., but giving more by virtue of drilling auxiliary ports, can get off the water after a run of under a hundred yards. Sippe was up 200 feet on Friday of last week, in spite of his engine temporarily missing fire somewhat badly.

Flight, January 8, 1915.


   It was in 1911 that the Avro biplane first came into being, and it soon became a very popular machine among Milestones the Brooklands' pilots, some of whom, notably Pixton and Raynham, made some excellent flights on it in all sorts of weather, thus proving its airworthiness. The body of the biplane was of similar construction to that of the triplanes, that is to say, it was of triangular section built up of longitudinals connected by struts and wired diagonally. Only the nose of the body was covered in by fabric up to a point near the pilot's seat, the rear portion of it being left open. In the nose of the body, mounted on stout bearers, was the engine, a 35 h.p. Green. Pilot's and passenger's seats were arranged tandem fashion, the pilot occupying the rear seat just behind the trailing edge of the main planes.
   The chassis was of the wheel and skid type, the latter projecting some distance out in front of the propeller, so as to protect this vulnerable member from damage in case of a rough landing. The tail planes consisted of a flat, non-lifting stabilising plane, to the trailing edge of which was hinged the divided elevator. The stern post of the body was extended up and down to form a pivot for the rudder, which worked in the opening between the two parts of the elevator. Control was by means of a single column surmounted by a hand-wheel, and a foot-bar operated the rudder. Lateral stability was maintained by warping the main planes, the rear spars being hinged at the end sections to avoid bending the spars, which were thus left rigid in the centre portion, whilst in the end sections they moved helically. The main planes were made in sections easily detachable, in order to facilitate transport and storage. One of the best flights made on this machine was a cross-country trip from Brooklands to Brighton made by Mr. Pixton.

P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Avro D at Brooklands with F. P. Raynham in the cockpit and S. V. Sippe alongside.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
W. D. Beatty, with Conway Jenkins as passenger, in the Avro D during March, 1911.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The original Avro Type D biplane with transverse radiator.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
The first Avro Type D as originally built.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
STARTING FOR THE BRIGHTON RACE. - Mr. H. Pixton getting away for Brighton from Brooklands on the Roe biplane.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
Type D (1911). Photo, Alan H. Burgoyne, Esq., M.P.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
FLYING AT BROOKLANDS ON EASTER MONDAY. - In spite of the high wind whteh prevailed at Brooklands, Mr. Pixton, on the Roe biplane, put up a good flight for the Endurance Prize, securing it with 1h. 27m. 32s. In our photograph Mr. Pixton is seen during this flight, the machine on terra firma being one of the famous Bristol biplanes.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
CARS AND AEROPLANES AT BROOKLANDS. - Pixton on the Roe biplane during the duration flight at Brooklands on Easter Monday. Below will be noted a race finishing up the straight, with the crowds in the enclosures, and the long wide string of motor cars stretching away beyond the paddock.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Pixton and the Avro biplane at rest for the night in Mr. England's grounds at Oakwood, Hayward's Heath, May 7th and 8th, en route for Brooklands upon his return flight from Brighton after the recent Brooklans-Brighton Race. On the left the Avro anchored for the night, and on the right ready for the start next morning.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Avro Type D biplane with 60hp ENV type F in 1911.
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
The modified second Avro D prepared for R. C. Kemp to pilot in the 1911 Circuit of Britain.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The special Type D with E.N.V. engine at Brooklands on the eve of the Circuit of Britain Race, July 1911.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Modified Avro D at Brooklands flown by Ronald Kemp in 1911 Circuit of Britain.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Avro Type D. Third aircraft with sloping radiator at Shoreham. Pilot A.E. Geere.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
F. P. Raynham seated in the fourth Type D at Brooklands in October 1911.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
The fifth Type D was the improved sesquiplane version.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Avro Type D. Seventh aircraft with 50hp Isaacson radial at Shoreham.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
The first Avro D Hydro-biplane equipped with original floats at Barrow for seaplane trials.
H.King - Aeromarine Origins /Putnam/
Seen at Barrow-in-Furness, where it first left the water on November 18, 1911, Commander Oliver Schwann's Avro was tried with several different sets of floats. Hydrofoils and air lubrication were both employed.
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Avro D Hydro-biplane at Cavendish Dock with replacement floats by Vickers.
D.James - Schneider Trophy Aircraft 1913-1931 /Putnam/
Commander Oliver Schwann taxi-ing his much modified Avro Type D floatplane at Barrow-in-Furness during August 1911. Numerous float designs were tried before the aircraft would take off.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
HYDRO-AEROPLANE EXPERIMENTS AT BARROW. - On the left Commander Schwann's machine, an Avro hydrobiplane, leaving its dock, with Sidney V. Sippe at the lever. On the right the machine is seen skimming the water just prior to taking the air, with its tail well up and the elevators just moved in the position for ascent.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
A NAVAL AERO-HYDROPLANE BEING TESTED AT CAVENDISH DOCK, BARROW-IN-FURNESS. - Commander Schwann, of H.M.S. "Hermione," carrying out early morning trials on the Roe biplane, which has been fitted with float attachments of his own invention. The uninitiated should note that the smoking chimney stack has no connection with the biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Sippe well up on the Avro hydro-biplane over Cavendish Dock, Barrow.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. F . Conway Jenkins, one of the latest aviators to qualify for the Royal Aero Club pilot's certificate, on the 30-h.p. Green-engined Avro biplane, upon which he passed the tests on the 30th ult. in a 12-15 m.p.h. wind. This was only Mr. Jenkins' fourth time on the Avro machine, and previous to the official tests he was in the air at Brooklands for forty minutes at about 1,000 ft. height, rising to about 1,800 and finishing with a neat vol plane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Sydney V. Sippe, who has just secured his certificate on an Avro biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Mr. Pixton, just about to carry a lady passenger for a short trip, on the new Roe biplane, with which he so successfully flew at Brooklands on Easter Monday.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
AT THE AVRO FLYING SCHOOL, SHOREHAM. - From left to right, Messrs. Geere (Instructor,) Elliot, Mellersh, England, Rolshoven, and (under fuselage) Shaw.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
TUITION BY MOONLIGHT. - From the original drawing by C. Fleming Williams. This charming picture depicts Mr. Rowland Ding of the Seaplane School, Windermere, giving lessons by moonlight over Lake Windermere - work unique to this special school.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES IN THE DAILY MAIL CIRCUIT ROUND GREAT BRITAIN. - From these every machine can be readily identified either in flight or on the ground.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Constructional details of the Avro biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The method employed on the Avro biplane of assembling the wing sections.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Arrangement of the tail unit of the Avro biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The Avro method of cross-bracing the main body.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Fig. 2. - Sections of tail planes: A, Avro tail, 1910-11. B, Nieuport tail, 1910-11. C, B.E. tail, 1911. D, B.E. tail, 1912.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
From the Aviator's Storehouse, the projects for Avro monoplane and biplane.
A.Jackson - Avro Aircraft since 1908 /Putnam/
P.Lewis - British Aircraft 1809-1914 /Putnam/
Avro D
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Fig. 4. Avro biplane, 1910-11.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE AVRO BIPLANE. - Plan and elevation to scale.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
Avro. Type D (1911-12)., x1, U.A.S.