Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Gotha WD.7/WD.11/WD.14/WD.20

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Twin-engined torpedo aircraft

Gotha - WD.4 / U.W.D. - 1916 - Германия<– –>Gotha - WD.9 - 1916 - Германия

В.Обухович, А.Никифоров Самолеты Первой Мировой войны

Компания "Готаэр" по заданию флота сконструировала ряд двухмоторных гидросамолетов. При этом был использован опыт создания бомбардировщиков класса "G", хотя внешне гидросамолеты и значительно отличались от сухопутных машин. Двухмоторный поплавковый биплан W.D. 7 разрабатывался как разведчик и патрульный самолет. Оснащался двигателями Мерседес D.II с тянущими винтами. Отличительной чертой машины было довольно редкое, на то время, разнесенное по концам стабилизатора вертикальное оперение. Стрелок размещался в передней кабине, оснащенной подвижным пулеметом. Всего было произведено 8 самолетов W.D. 7.
  Из-за низких летных характеристик они в основном применялись в учебных отрядах. Известен случай, когда один из гидросамолетов, выполняя патрульный полет, совершил вынужденную посадку на воду вблизи французских кораблей. Экипаж попытался сжечь машину, но не успел.
  Морской бомбардировщик и торпедоносец W.D. 11 имел увеличенные размеры и оснащался более мощными двигателями Мерседес D.III с толкающими винтами. Несколько изменилась и форма фюзеляжа. Было изготовлено 12 машин этого варианта.
  Дальний торпедоносец W.D. 14 был создан по техническому заданию на основе гидросамолета W.D. 7. Фюзеляж был несколько изменен, внутри него подвешивалась торпеда. На самолете стояли двигатели Бенц Bz.IV с тянущими винтами. В состав экипажа дополнительно был введен хвостовой стрелок.
  Первая серия в 16 машин была выпущена в варианте разведчика, остальные - как торпедоносцы. Однако в этом качестве самолеты использовались мало: из-за слишком большой массы они были маломаневренны и тихоходны, корабли противника успешно отбивали их атаки. Поэтому вскоре и W.D. 14 начали применяться как дальние разведчики. Вместо торпеды в отсек подвешивался сбрасываемый топливный бак. Было произведено 69 машин. По конструкции все самолеты представляли собой деревянные бипланы с двухреданным поплавковым шасси и двухкилевым оперением.

Технические данные Гота W.D. 7
Двигатель 2 х Мерседес D.II (120 л. С.)
  размах х длина 16,8 х 11,3 м
Площадь крыльев 55,5 м2
  пустого 1275 кг
  взлетный 1785 кг
Максимальная скорость 128 км/ч
Потолок 3500 м
Дальность полета 475 км
  стрелковое 1 подвижный пулемет
Экипаж 2 чел.

O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)

Gotha WD 7
  During 1916, eight twin-engined WD 7s were built and used as school machines on which crews practised torpedo-dropping tactics prior to going on to the larger operational aircraft. Engines, two 120 h.p. Mercedes D II. Span, 160 m. (52 ft. 6 in.). Length, 11.3 m. (37 ft. 1 in.). Height, 3.585 m. (11 ft. 9 1/8 in.). Area, 55.5 sq.m. (599 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 1,440 kg. (3,168 lb.). Loaded, 1,970 kg. (4,334 lb.). Speed, 136 km.hr. (85 m.p.h.) Ceiling, 4,000 m. (13,120 ft.).

Gotha WD 11
  The WD 11 was the next development in the twin-engined torpedo aircraft series after the WD 7. It was a considerably bigger aeroplane, and its engines drove pusher airscrews. Some thirteen aircraft of this type were delivered between March and July 1917. Engines, two 160 h.p. Mercedes D III. Span, 22.51 m. (73 ft. 10 3/8 in.). Length, 13.43 m. (44 ft. 0 7/8 in.). Height, 4.75 m. (15 ft. 1 7/8 in.). Area, 103.4 sq.m. (1,117 sq.ft.). Weights: Empty, 2,437 kg. (5,361 lb.). Loaded, 3,583 kg. (7,883 lb.). Speed 120 km.hr. (75 m.p.h.). Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 12 min. Armament, torpedo carried under fuselage; one Parabellum machine-gun in nose.

Gotha W.D. 14

  Although the Gotha firm was principally famous for its twin-engined bombers, it also produced some eighteen types of twin-float seaplane. The majority were no more than one-off prototypes, and apart from a small production batch of thirteen W.D. 11s, the only seaplane to be produced in any quantity was the twin-engined W.D. 14. This aircraft had been designed as a torpedo attack machine, and some sixty-nine examples were built.
  The W.D. 14 was developed from the earlier, and smaller, W.D. 7 and W.D. 11 prototypes and conformed to an orthodox layout. The fuselage was basically a rectangular braced box-girder of spruce longerons and spacers with fabric-wrapped plywood-veneer covering. A rounded decking was incorporated on top of the fuselage forward and also underneath (as far aft as the trailing edge) to partially fair in the torpedo slung under the belly in a special dropping gear. The pilot was located back under the wings, side-by-side with the torpedo-man, who went forward to the nose cockpit to superintend the actual release of the missile. A further gunner's cockpit was located behind the pilot. The long two-step floats were carried on a complex strut chassis, designed without any spreader struts or wires between the floats to allow the torpedo to fall clear. Each float chassis therefore had to be an independent structure.
  The angular tailplane was attached to the top longerons and was fitted with a one-piece, unbalanced elevator. Twin fins and twin horn-balanced rudders gave the empennage a distinctive profile; these surfaces were mounted as "end plates" on the extremities of the tailplane, extending both above and below, and were braced with light steel-tube struts. One aircraft also had a centre fin.
  The centre-section of the three-bay wing structure embraced the mounting of the two 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV engines which were located directly on the lower wing as normal tractor units. The engines were additionally braced to the wing spars with streamlined steel-tube struts. Large frontal radiators were slung well above the cylinder-heads, and the engines themselves were well cowled in except for the upper part of the cylinders. A generous cutout was made in the upper centre-section in an endeavour to improve the pilot's upward field of vision.
  An unusual feature of the outer wing panels, which were arranged to fold from the centre-section, was the taper of some 5° on the leading edge only. The wings themselves were based on the conventional twin main spar structure, the spars also being angled back at some 5° and the spruce-flanged plywood ribs, of a high lift section, were closely spaced to ensure as little aerofoil section loss as possible. The horn-balanced ailerons were hinged to an auxiliary spar parallel to the main spars.
  No great success was achieved with torpedo attacks. The W.D. 14s were largely under-powered when loaded, and only pilots of exceptional skill were able to make suitable attack runs and torpedo drops from a height of some 20-30 ft. A long course of training had to be undergone by both pilot and torpedo-man, and eventual results in no way justified the efforts involved. After the first two torpedo attacks from North Sea bases and in the Gulf of Riga, the Allied counter-measures became so effective as to negative much chance of success. As a result, in the last year of the war, torpedo-carrying machines were abandoned, as losses far outweighed results.
  In order not to waste useful airframes, torpedo aircraft were modified to undertake long-range reconnaissance duties over the North Sea in an endeavour to find an efficient substitute for the airship, which, during 1917, had become too vulnerable. Jettisonable fuel tanks fitted in the torpedo slings enabled flights of upwards of ten hours to be achieved. The seaplanes were unable to remain airborne on one engine even after the auxiliary fuel tank had been discarded. On having to alight on any surface other than a near flat-calm, they soon broke up. They were also tried in the role of mine-layers without success, but before being given up altogether were employed for a short time as coastal convoy escorts.

  Purpose: Twin-engined torpedo aircraft.
  Manufacturer: Gothaer Waggonfabrik A.G. (Gotha.).
  Power Plant: Two 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV 6 cylinder in-line water-cooled engines.
  Dimensions: Span, 25.5 m. (83 ft. 8 in.). Length, 14.45 in. (47 ft. 5 in.). Height, 50 m. (16 ft. 4 7/8 in.). Area, 132 sq.m. (1,425.6 sq.ft.).
  Weights: Empty, 3,150 kg. (6,930 lb.). Loaded 4,642 kg. (10,212.4 lb.).
  Performance: Maximum speed, 130 km.hr. (84.35 m.p.h.). Initial climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 13.1 min.; 1,500 m. (4,920 ft.) in 23 min. Duration, 8 hr.
  Armament: One torpedo. Two manually operated Parabellum guns in nose and rear cockpits.

  N.B. Data applies to aircraft Marine number 1946.

  Gotha WD 20
  Only three WD 20s were built (Nos. 1515-1517), and they were, in effect, purely long-range reconnaissance versions of the WD 14, with extra fuel tank carried under the fuselage in place of a torpedo. Engines, two 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV. Span, 25.5 m. (73 ft. 8 1/8 in.). Length, 14.45 m. (47 ft. 5 in.). Height, 5.0 m. (16 ft. 4 7/8 in.). Area, 131.7 sq.m. (1,422 sq.ft.). Weights: limply, 3,030 kg. (6,666 lb.). Loaded, 4,540 kg. (9,988 lb.). Speed, 126 km.hr. Climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 15 min. Duration, up to 10 hr. Armament, one manually operated Parabellum machine-gun in nose and one aft of wings.

H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Seven of these three seat Gotha WD-7s, 670 to 676, were built as torpedo-dropping trainers during 1916. Powered by two 120hp Mercedes DIIs, the machines had a top level speed of 85mph, while their normal operating range was 295 miles. The aircraft seen here was operated from the Norderney naval seaplane base.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Gotha WD 7
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
ON THE ICE. - German seaplanes outside their station. Note the twin-engine seaplane on the left.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Gotha WD 11
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
WD. 11 в испытательном бассейне / A Twin-engined Gotha WD.11 Seaplane of 1917 Pusher Type.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Something of an all-rounder, the Gotha WD 14 is seen here in prototype form, wearing its naval serial 801. First flown in January 1917, this twin 220hp Benz Bz IV three seater was designed to fulfil the roles of torpedo bomber, minelayer, or long range reconnaissance. Top level speed was 72mph at sea level, while the range was an impressive 806 miles. Following satisfactory testing and acceptance of the prototype, a further 68 production WD 14s were delivered with the navy serials 1415-1430, 1617-1631, 1651-62 and 1946-1970.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Gotha W.D. 14.
A.Imrie - German Naval Air Service /Arms & Armour/
Large calibre bombs were not used against ship targets; from the beginning the principle of dropping a stick of at least five bombs straddling a target was maintained. Experience with the bombsights then in use showed that this was the correct approach. Torpedo-carrying aircraft could carry eight 58kg bombs, and it was the fifth bomb of an eight-bomb stick that sunk the Russian destroyer Stroiny. A Gotha WD 14 bomb load of approximately 300kg is shown here, made up of 10kg bombs, a size commonly used on seaplanes. They are retained by a simple carrying strap across the tail of the bombs. no specially designed bomb cradles being required.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Gotha WD 20
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/