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Curtiss J / JN

Страна: США

Год: 1914

Curtiss - H America - 1914 - США<– –>Curtiss - M - 1914 - США

P.Bowers Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 (Putnam)

Model J. The Model J tractor was the first aeroplane designed for Curtiss by his imported British engineer, B. Douglas Thomas, and logically bore a great resemblance to the established British Sopwith and Avro tractor designs.
   Two Js were built and demonstrated desirable characteristics from the start. The 90 hp Curtiss O engine fitted behind a new nose radiator and the crew sat in tandem cockpits equipped with shoulder-yoke aileron controls. The ailerons were built into all four panels of the original equal-span wings, which used a modified French Eiffel 36 aerofoil. In an attempt to avoid infringement of the Wright patent, the ailerons of the Model J operated independently and moved only upward from the neutral position.
   Flown in the spring of 1914, the first J was tried both as a landplane and a single-float seaplane. The upper wing span was soon extended to help carry the added weight of the float and the lower wing ailerons were removed. The longer wings were retained when the US Army bought both Js for $6,725 each and assigned them Army serial numbers 29 and 30.
   The key features of the Model J were combined with the Model to create the immortal JN design described later.

   Model J
   Two seats.
   Span 40 ft 2 in (12,24 m); length 26 ft 4 in (8,02 m); wing area 340 sq ft (31,58 sq m).
   Empty weight 1,075 lb (487,6 kg); gross weight 1,635 lb (741,6 kg).
   Maximum speed 70 mph (112,65 km/h); climb 3,000 ft (914 m) in 10 min; endurance 4 hr.
   Powerplant 90 hp Curtiss OX.
   US Army serial numbers: 29, 30.

The Jenny

   The Curtiss Jenny, to apply the popular name to the entire production JN series, was a design that achieved immortality through circumstances rather than by the normal criteria of competitive performance or a spectacular combat record.
   The long production life of this model, its step-by-step evolution, its status as the principal American and Canadian primary trainer of World War I, and its unique position in the early postwar years of American civil aviation justify the devotion of a separate section of this book to this particular design.
   The JN series began with the merging of the better features of the J and N models of 1914 into a new design. The name Jenny was an entirely logical phonetic corruption of the model designation JN. By coincidence, it was also a name eminently suited to that particular aeroplane. As with boats, aeroplanes are regarded by their crews as having feminine characteristics and Jenny was exactly right for the personality of the aeroplane.
   The N series continued to develop separately but the Model J was dropped in favor of the JN. There was no officially designated JN or JN-1 model. The first JNs were ordered by the US Army late in 1914 as Service observation types; however, their successors were trainers. It has been said that over 95 per cent of the US and Canadian pilots trained during World War I flew a JN in some phase of their training. The JN-4 series became Model 1 in the 1935 designation system starting with the JN-4A.

JN-2 - Eight modified Js were ordered by the Army in December 1914. Since Curtiss considered these as having significant features of the model N, the type was eventually designated JN-2. Deliveries to the First Aero Squadron began in April 1915. The JN-2s moved with the squadron from San Diego to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and then to the Mexican border, where early in 1916 they became the first US Army aeroplanes used in tactical operations.
   The JN-2s had equal-span wings with the Eiffel 36 aerofoil and four strut-connected ailerons with shoulder-yoke control. Performance was poor and drew criticism from all levels of the Army. Curtiss improved matters somewhat in late 1915 by progressively updating the six survivors with JN-3 wings and then 100 hp OXX engines. In spite of certain obvious differences, the refurbished JN-2s were thereafter regarded as JN-3s.
   US Army serial numbers: 41/48

JN-3 - The JN-3s were evolutionary improvements of the JN-2 and featured a return to the unequal-span wings of the original modified J with upper-wing ailerons only. The control system was improved by a change to Deperdussin control featuring a wheel for aileron control and a foot bar for the rudder.
   Britain bought 91 JN-3s starting in March 1915 and the US Army bought two in August. To expedite production for Britain, Curtiss established a branch factory in Toronto and twelve of the estimated 99 JN-3s were built there.
   RNAS serial numbers: 1362/1367, 3345/3423 (Curtiss), 8392/8403 (Canada)
   US Army serial numbers: 52, 53

Production Model Ns (Models 1D, 5)

   The expansion of US aerial forces in 1915-16 resulted in later versions of the Model N being produced independently of the JN series. Models designated N-1 to N-7 are not known to have been built; the known production models are the N-8 and -9 described below.

N-8 (Model 1D) - In April 1915, the Army bought four N-8s (serial numbers 60/63) that were essentially duplicates of the contemporary JN-3 except for the 90 hp OX-2 engine, RAF 6 aero foil, and retention of the shoulder-yoke aileron control. The first one had the wing span increased 10 ft (3 m) for better altitude capability by using a longer-span centre section and two 5 ft (1,52 m) extra sections for the lower wings inboard of standard-size outer panels. The increased span was soon deleted.
   The N-8s were assigned to the Mexican Punitive Expedition of 1916 but were not operated over Mexican territory before being transferred to training duties.

N-8 (standard wing)
   Observation aircraft. Pilot and observer. 90 hp Curtiss OX-2.
   Span 43 ft (13,1 m); length 27 ft (8,22 m); wing area 350 sq ft (32,5 sq m).
   Empty weight 1,335 lb (606 kg): gross weight 1,932 lb (876 kg).
   Maximum speed 70 mph (112,65 km/h): endurance 4 1/2 hr at cruising speed.

G.Swanborough, P.Bowers United States Military Aircraft Since 1909 (Putnam)


   The Model J was the first Curtiss tractor design after the Model G, and the preliminary design was undertaken in England when Glenn Curtiss hired B. Douglas Thomas from Avro. The original version of the J delivered to the Army (number 29, illustrated) had equal span wings with ailerons on both and the landing gear shown. A modified version (30) had a shorter lower wing, ailerons on the upper only, and deleted the skids. No. 30 developed into the JN-1 while 10 production JN-2s (41/50) with modified landing gear evolved from No. 29. Model J (Number 29): Span, 40 ft. 2 in.; length, 26 ft. 4 in.; gross weight, 1,345 lb.; high speed, 84 m.p.h.

O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


   The JN-3 was the forerunner of the more famous JN-4 Jenny trainer, and six (Nos. 1362 to 1367) were ordered for the RNAS in 1914; deliveries followed in March 1915. A further 79 (Nos.3345 to 3423) were produced to Admiralty orders by the parent firm and 12 (Nos.8392 to 8403) by Curtiss (Canada) at Toronto. All were fitted with the 90 hp Curtiss OX-5 engine.

K.Molson, H.Taylor Canadian Aircraft since 1909 (Putnam)

Curtiss JN-3

   The Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors Co had been formed at Toronto with the intention of making training aircraft for the Curtiss Aviation School at Toronto and for the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). Production of the current Curtiss model, the JN-3, got under way in May 1915 but then the Curtiss Canada was given priority, which delayed production of the first and only batch of JN-3s.
   The Curtiss JN aircraft family got its start by combining some of the best features of the Models J and N which resulted in the Model JN. This was then developed into the JN-2 which grew into the JN-3 and which in turn developed into the familiar JN-4 series of trainers. In the spring of 1915 the JN-3 was just entering production in the United States for the RNAS.
   The JN-3 was an unequal-span biplane of quite conventional wire-braced wooden construction and was fabric covered. All machines made for the RNAS and the Curtiss Aviation School at Long Branch, Ontario, had Deperdussin controls fitted, but the US Signal Corps aircraft had shoulder yoke controls.
   A batch of 18 aircraft was laid down at Toronto, 12 for the RNAS and six for the Curtiss Aviation School. This was the first series production of aircraft undertaken in Canada. One or two aircraft were completed before the Curtiss Canada, and the balance completed as a group after the Canada had left the shop in August 1915. The Canadian prototype JN-3, RNAS 8392, was first flown at Long Branch on 14 July, 1915, by Anthony H. Jannus.
   Some of the RNAS machines were recorded as being at Hendon on 1 November, 1915. Probably all were shipped there but it is possible that 8394 may have gone directly to Killingholme air station. Flt Lt Sydney Pickles did most, if not all, of the acceptance flights and they were later assigned to RNAS stations at Chingford, Detling, Eastchurch and Killingholme. One aircraft, 8403, has been reported as being transferred to the French Government.
   Some of the Canadian-built JN-3s were modified in Britain for various reasons. A number of strengthening modifications were recommended as a result of tests conducted on a US-built machine in the summer of 1915. Four-bladed propellers of British manufacture were frequently installed.
   The Curtiss Aviation School machines continued to serve there until the School closed towards the end of 1916. Some modifications were introduced. The diagonal tube from the bottom of the front centre-section strut to the top of the rear centre-section strut, which severely restricted access to the front cockpit, was replaced by a system of wires. Also it seems that one or more of the JN-3s at Long Branch may have had ailerons on the lower wings as later used on the JN-4 (Canadian) prototype.
   When Canadian Aeroplanes took over the Curtiss company in December 1916 and the RFC (Canada) began its training operations, the School’s JN-3s were not purchased, but were transferred to the Curtiss School at Newport News, Virginia, which had been set up in December 1915 by Capt Thomas Scott Baldwin. At least one aircraft, Curtiss Aviation School’s No. 8, remained at Long Branch until sometime in January 1917 and Bertrand Acosta used it to take Frank W. Baillie (later Sir Frank). President of Canadian Aeroplanes, for his first flight.

   One 90 hp Curtiss OX. Span, upper 43 ft 10 in (13-36 m) approx, lower 33 ft 11 1/4 in (10-34 m); length 27ft 2 1/2 in (8-29 m); height 9ft 11 in (3-02 m); wing area 360sqft (33-5sqm) approx. Empty weight 1.300lb (590kg);* loaded weight 1,918lb (871kg).* Maximum speed 72-9 mph (117-3km/h);* climb 3.000ft (914m) in 9min 10sec.*

*Figures for a US-built JN-3, RNAS 3348. tested in England on 30 July, 1915. Canadian-built JN-3s should have been the same.

Журнал Flight

Flight, December 11, 1914.


   FOR some time past the Curtiss Co. of Hammondsport, NA., have been experimenting with tractor biplanes - a type that has only just recently come into favour in the U.S.A. - and have as a result of their experience turned out some machines that compare very favourably with European practice. These have given very satisfactory results, and several have already been delivered to the U.S. Government. Two or three different types of these Curtiss "model J" tractors have been manufactured, but they only differ in dimensions and details. The model shown in the accompanying sketch-plan and elevation is a two-seater reconnaissance type with pilot and passenger seated in tandem. The planes are similar in construction to those employed on the Curtiss flying boats, but having a different wing section. They are of one-piece construction, with main spars of I section ash, hand-grooved and shaped. The ribs are built up of spruce, and all the important joints are copper bound, whilst the whole frame-work is strongly braced with piano wire internally and with stranded cable for the interplane bracing. The planes are covered with unbleached linen doped with Curtiss oil and water proof dope. Large ailerons, measuring 10 ft. by 2 ft, are hinged to the rear spars of the top plane, which has a greater span than the lower. Top and bottom planes are separated by two pairs of laminated spruce struts on either side of the fuselage, and in the centre by four struts forming extensions of the fuselage struts. The interplane struts are mounted in quick detachable fittings bolted to the spars. The planes are perfectly straight: that is, they have no dihedral angle, but the top plane is slightly staggered forward.
   The fuselage is of rectangular section tapering to a vertical knife-edge at the rear, and with a turtle-back extending behind the pilot's seat. It is built up of ash longerons and nine sets of ash and spruce struts joined by steel clamps in such a manner that the longerons are not pierced. Cross bracing is by steel wire and Binet turn-buckles, which permit easy adjusting for the necessary rigidity. Mounted in the nose of the fuselage, on a laminated ash and spruce bed, is the 90 h.p. 8-cyl. V water-cooled Curtiss OX engine, immediately in front of which is the radiator. The whole of the engine is enclosed by a Duralumin bonnet, in the sides of which are louvres. The front of the engine bed is bolted to the fuselage nose plate, to which are anchored the longerons. At the rear the engine bed is supported by a hard wood cross member connected to the second vertical pair of fuselage struts, which are made extra strong for the purpose. Coupled direct to the engine is an 8ft. Curtiss tractor screw. Just behind the engine is the passenger's cockpit, and behind the latter, at the rear of the main planes, is the pilot's, both being protected by streamline cowels. Dual controls are provided, either of the Curtiss shoulder-yoke type or Deperdussin pattern. The maximum depth and width - at the cockpits - of the fuselage is 2 ft. 11 ins. and 2 ft. 2 ins. respectively.
   The tail consists of a semi-circular stabilising plane, to the trailing edge of which are hinged two elevator flaps, mounted on the top longerons of the fuselage, and a partly balanced vertical rudder pivoted to the last strut of the fuselage. This strut is also extended below the latter in order to carry a sprung tail skid. The chassis consists of two skids 6 ft. long, attached to the lower longerons of the fuselage by three pairs of struts each. Sprung to the skids by means of rubber bands is a tubular steel axle carrying a pair of disc wheels. The principal dimensions of this machine are as follows :- Span, upper plane, 40 ft. 2 ins.; lower, 30 ft.; chord, 5 ft.; area of main planes, 346 sq. ft.; area of stabilising plane, 30 sq. ft.; area of elevator, 16 sq. ft.; area of rudder, 7 sq. ft.; overall length, 26 ft. 4 ins.; speed range, 45-75 m.p.h.; climbing speed, 400 ft. per min.
   Another model made is a scout, which differs from the model just described in that the main planes have a span of 24 ft. top and bottom, and that ailerons, 7 ft. by 2 ft., are fitted to both top and bottom planes. The chassis is also somewhat modified. This model has a speed range of 45 to 80 m.p.h. and a climbing speed of 500 ft. per minute. Both these models can be converted into hydro-biplanes for over-water flying by the fitting of a single pontoon float to the chassis in place of the wheels, and as such have been very successful.

Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Fig. 2. - One of the Curtiss model J scouts.
P.Bowers - Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 /Putnam/
The first successful Curtiss tractor, the Model J of early 1914, was designed by B. Douglas Thomas, an experienced designer imported by Curtiss for that particular purpose.
G.Swanborough, P.Bowers - United States Military Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
The latest Curtiss biplane, of which we gave details in our issue of December 11th, in full flight. With a 90 h.p. Curtiss motor this machine is claimed to have a speed range of from 40 to 90 miles per hour.
G.Swanborough, P.Bowers - United States Military Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
Curtiss JN, prototype Jenny.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
A batch of Curtiss fuselages, in various stages of completion, at the Curtiss works at Buffalo, N.Y.
G.Swanborough, P.Bowers - United States Navy Aircraft since 1911 /Putnam/
Curtiss JN-1S seaplane, first Navy single-engined Jenny. When the Model J was tried as a seaplane, the span of the upper wing was increased to carry the added weight of the floats.
P.Bowers - Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 /Putnam/
The first aeroplane with a J designation was the JN-2 of 1915. The US Army bought eight with the equal-span two-aileron wings shown. The shoulder yoke for aileron control can be seen in the rear cockpit.
G.Swanborough, P.Bowers - United States Military Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
Curtiss JN-2 serial 42.
The Army's remaining JN-2s were all fitted with JN-3 wings of unequal span having ailerons on the upper surfaces only.
P.Bowers - Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 /Putnam/
A JN-3 used by the Royal Naval Air Service in 1915-16. The four-blade propeller was not standard.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
During 1914, the Curtiss Company had produced a couple of two seater biplanes, known as their Model J and Model N. However, even before the year had ended, the company had merged the best features of the two machines to produce the Curtiss JN. Sales of what was to become the legendary JN started slowly, with an initial eight being bought by the US Army in December 1914, primarily for reconnaissance duties. The first large order for the machine came from Britain's RNAS, whose first order for 79 JN-3 trainers was placed in March 1915. This, of course, was only the start, with more than 7.500 examples of the JN in all its variants going on to be built. Seen here is RNAS JN-3, serial no 3376. The RNAS JN-3s used a 100hp Curtiss OXX-2, giving them a top level speed of 82mph at sea level.
K.Molson, H.Taylor - Canadian Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
A Curtiss JN-3 at the Curtiss Aviation School, Long Branch, Ontario.
K.Molson, H.Taylor - Canadian Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
Curtiss JN-3s being assembled at Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors works in Toronto. This was the first serial production of aircraft in Canada.
K.Molson, H.Taylor - Canadian Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
The Canadian prototype Curtiss JN-3, RNAS 8392, in much modified form at Redcar, England. The wings have increased dihedral and wire trailing edges, a new, heightened undercarriage has been fitted, a strut bracing the tailplane leading edge has been added and a four-blade propeller installed.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
P.Bowers - Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 /Putnam/
The N-8 was developed for the US Army. This is the prototype with its original long-span wings which were later removed.
P.Bowers - Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 /Putnam/
The second N-8, with standard two-bay wings. The number 61 on the fuselage is the US Army serial; no national markings were in use at the time.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Some aeroplanes of the Fifth Army of France: Curtiss (training).
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
A finishing glide at Hendon Aerodrome by Mr. Sydney Pickles, on one of the Curtiss machines.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Mr. Sydney Pickles flying a Curtiss at Hendon Aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Mounting and housing of water-cooled engines.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Fig. 1. - Sketch-plan and elevation of the Curtiss model J reconnaissance tractor biplane.
P.Bowers - Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 /Putnam/
Final Model J.