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Breguet U2

Страна: Франция

Год: 1911

Breguet - 3 - 1910 - Франция<– –>Breguet - G.4 - 1913 - Франция

L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)

Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing

M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)

Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing

O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


   The early type of Breguet biplane was used by the Naval Wing of the RFC from 1912. The first to be purchased from France (No.6) was delivered to Eastchurch in August 1912 and early in 1914 was stationed at Felixstowe. Originally fitted with the 80 hp Chenu engine, it later had the 110 hp Canton Unne installed.

Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913

BREGUET. Soc. Anonyme des ateliers d'aviation, Louis Breguet, 16 Boulevard Vauban, Donai (Nord). Capacity: about 200 machines a year. Paris office: 25, Boulevard Jules Sandeau. Schools at La Brayelle, pris Douai, Velisy-Villacoublay, pris Paris.

1913 models. G2 bis. G3 C-U1 C-U2 Aerhydro-
   2 or 3- 3-seater 2-seater 2-seater plane tandem
   seater biplane biplane. biplane. mono.
   biplane 2-seater,
   side by side.

Length...feet(m) 33 (10) 29 (8.75) 29 (8.75) 29 (8.75) 29 (8.75)
Span.....feet(m) 49 (15) 45 (13.65) 45 (13.65) 45 (13.65) 42 (12.80)
Area...sq.ft(m?) 376 (35) 377(36) 387(36) 387(36) 387(36)
Weight, empty...
.....lbs.(kgs.) 1323(600) 1212(550) 1430(649) 1160(522) 1700(798)
Weight, useful...
.....lbs.(kgs.) 662 (300) 882 (400) 662 (300) 882(400) 662(300)
Motor......h.p. 80 Gnome 100 Gnome 80 Canton 110 Canton 110 Canton
   Unne. Unne. Unne.
max. m.p.h.(km.) 62 (100) 69 (110) 62 (100) 71 (115) 87 (140)
min. m.p.h.(km.) ... ... ... ... 62 (100)
Endurance...hrs. 3? 4 7 7 7

Number built during 1912: A total of 41 sold during 1912 for military purposes.

In each case.--

Construction.--All steel.

Landing chassis.--C consists of three wheels each protected by skids. The two main wheels, placed on either side of the centre of gravity, are fitted with patent "Oleopneumatic" shock absorbers. The steering wheel and the front skid have a spring suspension.

Military machines.--The 1912 sales of these were:--32 to France; 5 British; 3 Italian; 1 Swedish.

Steering.--The patented control system consists of a wheel mounted on a pivoted lever. The backward and forward movement of the entire system operates the elevator: the sideway movement warps the rear edge of the upper wings, and the rotation of the wheel steers the machine. The latter operation also governs the front wheel of the landing chassis, so that when on the ground the machine can be steered like a motor car.

Portability.--The main planes can be folded alongside of the fuselage. The machine can then be towed on any ordinary road, or be housed in places such as farm buildings, stables, &c.

Журнал Flight

Flight, July 20, 1912.



   THOSE who attended the flying at the London Aerodrome on Saturday last were treated to a splendid display by Moineau on a machine that is relatively an uncommon one in England - a Breguet. This particular biplane is furnished with a 14-cylinder 100-h.p. Gnome, and drives two two-bladed propellers - virtually a four-bladed one - through pinion reducing gear. As it is the machine that will probably represent the Breguet firm in the forthcoming military trials a brief description will not be amiss.
   The photographs we publish give some idea of its appearance; the frontispiece this week shows the machine flying with Moineau as its pilot.
   In its design, the greatest ingenuity has been displayed in establishing a machine that will be to a great extent automatically stable, easy to control and transport from place to place, speedy and strong, that will lift much weight, and that will afford the pilot a large degree of safety. All these desiderata, and many more that, perhaps, are not so important as the above, M. Louis Breguet has provided for in the biplane that bears his name.
   In the first place, it is a tractor biplane, and for that the pilot may reassure himself with the thought that a lot has to "go" before any of the effects of an assumed smash reach him, that is, if he is suitably strapped to his seat. Again, this system of construction lends itself extremely well to facility of dismantling. A most noticeable point about the cam planes is the small number of vertical struts employed in bracing them. Only four very stout ones are used, and they are arranged in a single rack. In this present machine two extra struts are used to support the top plane extensions. The planes themselves are built about a single tubular spar of steel disposed at the average centre of pressure of the surface - about one-third of the chord from the leading edge. By the Breguet system of fastening the ribs to the spars a very supple supporting surface is formed - a feature which accounts for the remarkable steadiness of the machine in flight and for the ease with which it may be handled in a strong wind. Being so enormously strong, the steel framework needs but little wire bracing, and what there is is calculated to withstand ten times the strain it is likely to be called upon to bear. The body is of torpedo form, constructed of steel tubing, steel girders and ash, the whole covered in by fabric to reduce head resistance to the lowest possible degree.
   Here we might mention that wood plays very little part in the construction. It only appears to a very limited extent in the wing and tail skeletons, in the body, and in the landing gear. This latter is formed of three wheels - each protected by a skid. The two main wheels support the body of the machine through oleo pneumatic springs of special design, and they are disposed as near as possible under the centre of' gravity. The forward wheel, spring suspended, is rotatable in conjunction with the rudder, so that when the propeller thrust pulls it into contact with the ground, it may be used for steering on the ground, as one would a motor car.
   All three dimensions of control are centred on one column, surmounted by a vertical hand wheel. Rocking it to and fro controls the elevation, from side to side the warping and rotating the hand-wheel governs the rudder. Into all control wires steel coil springs are introduced, to make movements less harsh in action.
   The tail is an enormous cruciform organ mounted to the rear point of the fuselage by a massive universal joint.
   An idea of the ease with which a Breguet may be got ready for flight is conveyed by the fact that some time since at the La Brayelle aerodrome a machine was completely folded in five minutes and rendered ready for flight in another eight.

Flight, August 10, 1912.



   Both the Breguet biplanes met with misfortune in being got to Salisbury Plain. The one flown over by Moorhouse met with a contretemps at Ashford in Kent. The other started from London on Tuesday, July 30th, being conveyed on a trolley drawn by a steam tractor. At both Basingstoke and Andover, wheels gave out, while some time later one of the axles broke. These accidents, of course, occurred to the trolley, and when the biplane was examined at Lark Hill it was found not to be damaged in any way. The delay, however, had prevented it from being present while the assembling tests were in progress.
   Neither machine presents any very great difference from the customary Breguet design, excepting that the motors are fitted in a horizontal position, instead of a vertical, as heretofore.
   The drive to propeller, instead of being direct, has therefore to operate through a bevel which is geared down 1 to 1.8. The propeller speed is about 720 revs, per minute.
   A point to notice is the system whereby the pilot may, if necessary, disconnect the passenger's control while in flight by means of a foot pedal.
   Brakes to assist in pulling up after landing are fitted. They are also operated by a foot pedal.
   It is possible to start the engine from the passenger's seat.

Main characteristics :-
Overall length 34 ft.
Speed 72 m.p.h.
Span 47 ft.
Weight without complement or fuel 1,300 lbs.
Area 400 sq. ft.

Flight, November 16, 1912.


British Breguet.

   As we mentioned earlier in our reports, two British firms recognised the wisdom or were in a position to avail themselves of the wisdom, of exhibiting their goods at the Paris Salon. One firm was the Bristol Co., the other Breguet Aeroplanes, Ltd., of 1, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, W. Under the direction of M. Gamier, the latter firm exhibited a beautifully constructed Breguet three-seater warplane, equipped with one of the new 110-h.p. horizontal Canton-Unne motors. In its main features it is a machine very similar to that which the British Breguet firm sent to Salisbury to compete, last August, in the Military competition there. But as regards its landing gear there is a change, for the single front steerable wheel has been replaced by a pair of wheels mounted on a short axle which is connected to a heavy gauge steel tube extending downwards from the nose of the fuselage by means of a transverse laminated steel spring. We print a sketch to illustrate this point. The rear pair of wheels of the chassis remain as they were formerly, supporting the main weight of the machine through heavy oleo-pneumatic springs of patented design. The body of this machine is covered in entirely with aluminium sheeting, and a very warlike looking job it makes. However, in future machines they intend to cover the fuselage with "Durehide," a type of "synthetic" leather. This material, as a matter of fact, is used on the present machine to bind the leading edge of the planes, in place of the aluminium sheeting that was formerly employed. One of the most noticeable features of this excellent biplane is the care with which the fuselage has been designed and shaped to avoid as much head resistance as possible. This is the chief reason for the setting of the engine in a horizontal position. Another interesting exhibit on the stand was a clever system of dual control, the subject of a patent held by the British Breguet Co. It is so arranged that while the pilot and the observer may have control of the machine, either separately or in unison, the pilot always has command of the situation. By means of a small hand lever he is able at any moment, if the observer is driving, to deprive him of the use of his controls. Further, it is arranged, that should the pilot, in action, be killed or so seriously wounded as to render it impossible for him to continue in charge of the machine, the observer may, by reaching behind him and altering the position of the hand lever, transfer the entire control of the machine to his own column.

Flight, February 22, 1913.



   Breguet Aeroplanes, Ltd., who since July of last year have been constructing military biplanes under licence from the French Breguet firm, have on exhibition an 85-h p. Breguet Warplane, the seventh machine they have built since their works at Willesden were put in operation. The outstanding feature of the machine is that it is built throughout of steel, wood being only employed for the manufacture of its ribs. Since he first turned his mind to aeroplane construction, Louis Breguet has favoured steel as the medium of construction of his machines, and to him must be given the credit of having "set the fashion," as it were, for this system of manufacture. He, also, was one of the first to construct a tractor biplane, a type of machine which he has helped, in no small manner, to popularise. At first he was laughed at for his pains; his biplane was jokingly spoken of as a "coffee pot." But since, he has earned the recognition that he so well deserved.
   Next in order of importance of the features of his machine is the peculiarity that the supporting and directional surfaces are flexible. The controls, even, are not directly connected to the planes that they operate; steel tension springs are inserted in the control wires, so that, however harsh may be the pilot's movements of his controlling lever, the directional planes change their attitude gently. It is claimed for the Breguet machine that it has been designed as one harmonious whole, not merely as a series of separate units, such as body, chassis and planes, afterwards assembled together.
   The body is of two distinct parts, that forward of the pilot's seat, and the portion that extends away behind it. The latter section is formed by a single steel tube, some three inches in diameter, which is braced by numerous steel wires to a four-armed steel fitting welded over the tube just behind the pilot's seat. By the application of sheet aluminium over these wires a very good streamline covering is obtained. The aluminium covering is further supported by longitudinal wood stringers. To the rear end of the large diameter central tube is attached the tail, universally jointed. In front of the pilot's seat, the foundation of the fuselage is formed by two U-section steel girders, wood filled. At right-angles to them, in front of the passenger seat, are fitted the two uprights to which the top planes are attached. Still further in front they converge to form a substantial base to which the motor is bolted. From a casual glance at the machine, no one would think that the body is built in two sections, so gracefully is it streamlined from end to end. At the forward end the motor, an 85-h.p. 7-cylinder Canton Unne, is fitted, driving direct a propeller, the boss of which is covered by a semi-spherical cowl which effectively preserves the excellent lines of the body. Seated in a comfortably upholstered seat, the pilot controls the machine in its three dimensions of altitude, balance, and direction, by a hand-wheel, mounted on a pivoted column, and by foot pedals. On French built Breguets the warping of the planes is operated by rocking the vertical column laterally. On this point it is evident that the designers of the British Breguets have different ideas, for the plane warping on the biplane exhibited at Olympia is effected by means of the foot pedals. The hand-wheel rotates laterally, and is used to steer the biplane in a manner exactly similar to that of a car. The machine is made to rise or descend by rocking the column to and fro.
   The landing gear is of a type by itself, since no other aeroplanes are, to our knowledge, fitted with an undercarriage that resembles it in the least. At rest the main weight of the machine is supported by two large diameter tyred-wheels, which are connected to the body by a pair of tubular oleo-pneumatic springs. Some part of the main weight is further taken by another pair of wheels in front of a much less track, which are jointed to a laminated cross spring bolted laterally across a tubular strut which extends downwards from the extreme nose of the body. These two front wheels are so designed that they pivot in conjunction with the rudder, and in this manner the machine may be effectively steered over the ground at slow speeds.
   The planes are built about single tubular steel spars, which are universally jointed to the body. Over them fit the wooden I-section ribs, and they would be free to revolve around the spars were they not kept in position by steel leaf springs. These springs are so arranged that the faster the machine is driven through the air the less incident the ribs, and consequently the planes, become to the direction of the air flow. Owing to this system of plane conduction, which is fully patented, by the way, the machine is rendered unusually stable and at the same time is given a remarkably wide speed range.

Flight, September 6, 1913.

The Maidenhead Smash.

   IT was tragical that after his success in the Speed Contest at Hendon on Saturday Debussy should have met with disaster later in the afternoon when taking the machine across to Farnborough. He started from Hendon on the Breguet with Mr. H. de Havilland, who only recently qualified for his brevet, and Mr. R. G. Crouch, of the Breguet Co., as passengers, at about half-past five and all went well until over Maidenhead, when the engine began to give trouble, subsequently found to be due to a broken exhaust-valve. As the engine stopped, the pilot apparently tried to plane down into a field near Bray, but from a height of 60 ft. the machine, after flattening out, dived into a field of mangolds. All three occupants were seriously injured, Mr. Debussy sustaining concussion of the brain and a bad sprain of the right ankle, Mr. de Havilland had his left arm fractured, while Mr. Crouch had his right leg broken, both the latter being also cut and bruised a good deal.

Flight, November 19, 1915.


   Yet a different form of undercarriage was that of the Breguet biplanes, which was of the four-wheeled variety, as shown in one of the accompanying sketches. The main load is taken by two wheels mounted on a tubular axle, which is, in turn, supported on a pair of telescopic steel tubes with which are incorporated coil springs.
   Another pair of wheels is mounted well out in front for the protection of the propeller and to prevent the machine from turning over on its nose in a rough landing. In order to facilitate steering on the ground at low speeds these front wheels are so mounted that their axle can oscillate in a vertical as well as in a horizontal plane. The detail sketch will help to make the exact method clear.
   The Breguet chassis as well as the whole machine was, it may be recollected, made entirely of steel, the tubes, in the case of the undercarriage, being given an . approximate streamline form by means of aluminium casings.

Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The Colossal "Double Monoplane" which has emanated from the Breguet Workshop for the purpose of upholding the firm's honour in the Military Tests. - This machine, whose appearance was foretold in "Air Eddies" columns, is furnished with a Gnome engine of 130-h.p. Its weight, with pilot, passengers, and fuel aboard is 2,420 lbs. Although this machine has been designed to lift three passengers, Breguet is confident of its ability to carry eight.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
A 140-h.p. Gnome-engined double Breguet monoplane in tow for the weighing operations at the French military tests at Rheims.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Double Breguet monoplane, fitted with 110-h.p. Salmson motor (Canton-Unne system) at the French military tests at Rheims.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Lieut. Hynes at Salisbury Plain, just about to start on a Breguet machine in connection with the Army work. Lieut. Hynes is, we believe, the first Englishman to fly a Breguet in this country.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
THE ARMY BIPLANE AT FARNBOROUGH. - Capt. Rayleigh in the pilot's seat prior to an early morning trip over the Common.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
A NEWCOMER AT HENDON AERODROME. - The big Breguet warplane flying under the pilotage of M. Moineau.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Breguet with horizontal Salmson engine. British-built and generally similar to other current Breguet types.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
THE MILITARY COMPETITION MACHINES. The 100-h.p. Breguet biplane that Moineau will probably fly at Salisbury next month.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
THE MILITARY COMPETITION MACHINES. The front part of the 100-h.p. Breguet biplane, showing the engine mounting, the reduction-gear to the 4-bladed propeller, and the landing chassis.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
THE MILITARY COMPETITION MACHINES. Detailed view of cruciform tail.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Representative stand at the Salon - the Breguet-R.E.P.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Two views of the Breguet biplane, fitted with a 90-h.p. Canton Unne engine, on which M. Richet has been making some successful flights up at the Hendon Aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
One of the latest Breguet biplanes which differs from its predecessors in the central steel tube being replaced by a framework of steel tubes tapering to the tail. It is also fitted with a brake operated by a lever under the pilot's seat. The engine is a 110 h.p. 9 cyl. Canton-Unne.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
Breguet U-2; this may be the No 45 described in the text.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
M. A. Debussy flying the Breguet biplane at Hendon prior to his cross-country flight to Farnborough on Saturday last.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Mr. Norman Spratt flying the Breguet biplane at Hendon aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Gustav Hamel, on his Bleriot, and M. Richet, on the Breguet, during the race at Hendon for the Aero Show Trophy.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
M. A. Debussy on the Breguet, overtaking Carr (below), on the Grahame-White biplane, in a speed handicap at Hendon.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Mr. Norman Spratt on the Breguet (below) and Mr. Marcus D. Manton on the Grahame-White biplane, flying for the Shell Trophy at Hendon on Saturday last.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
A DEAD HEAT AT HENDON. - An exciting finish at the Easter Monday Meeting, when Verrier, on a Maurice Farman, and Collardeau, on a Breguet, crossed the line at the same time in the Grand Speed Handicap, Verrier being on the right quite low.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
M. A. Debussy in the pilot's seat of the Breguet biplane with which he came to grief on Saturday last.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Military 2-seater. 1914 type with rigid wings and ailerons. Used for reconnaissance at start of war by French, British and Italian services. RFC nickname "Tin Whistle". 110 h.p. Salmson-Canton-Unne radial engine, offering 68 mph.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A Siamese Breguet Biplane, used for training.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
M. Moineau, the clever pilot who is flying the new Breguet warplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
M. Richet, the pilot who was flying the new Breguet at Hendon Aerodrome.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
The 110-h.p. British Breguet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
The 85-h.p. Breguet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
The new form of chassis fitted to the British Breguet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
The new form of landing gear that the French Breguet firm are adopting.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Flexible suspension of the front pair of steerable wheels of the Breguet biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
A study in tails.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
Various French undercarriages.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
1912-13. G3 type 3-seater military.