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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Donnet-Leveque Type A/B/C

Страна: Франция

Год: 1912

Donnet-Denhaut - DD.2 - DD.10 - 1916 - Франция<– –>Dorand - powered kite - 1908 - Франция

В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.

Летающая лодка "Доннэ-Левек". Под этим названием во Франции было выпущено в конце 1912 г. - начале 1913 г. несколько последовательных типов первых в Западной Европе летающих лодок с двигателями "Гном" в 50, 70 и 80 л. с. Один из первых образцов был приобретен русским морским ведомством. Это был полутораплан двухстоечный с подкосами к концам верхнего крыла, без выноса, с толкающей силовой установкой. Коробка крыльев стояла на кронштейнах над корпусом лодки. Перед нижним крылом была двухместная кабина с сиденьями рядом. Лодка имела очень простые формы, однореданная, плоскодонная, в носовой части прямоугольного, в хвостовой - трапециевидного сечения - узкой гранью вверх.

   Самолет был доставлен в Гребной порт в Петербурге осенью 1912 г., летал в 1913 г. Имеются сведения, что в России был и более поздний образец летающей лодки "Доннэ-Левек".

Год выпуска||1912
Двигатель, марка||
   Мощность, л.с.||50
Длина самолета, м||7,3
Размах крыла, м||9,5/7,8
Площадь крыла, м2||17
Масса пустого, кг||380
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||40
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||200
Полетная масса, кг||580
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||34
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||11,6
Весовая отдача,%||35
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||95
Время набора высоты 1000м, мин||12

H.King Aeromarine Origins (Putnam)

The first 'classic' type of flying boat, with the tail mounted directly on the hull, cannot, in fact, be credited to Curtiss at all, but to Denhaut, who constructed the Donnet-Leveque machine of this type in 1912.

L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)

Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing

Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913


   A 1912. B 1912. C 1912. 1913.
   2-seater 2-seater 3-seater 2-seater
   hydro- hydro- hydro- hydro-
   biplane biplane biplane biplane

Length......feet(m) 26 (7.80) 27 (8.30) 27 (8.30) 34? (10.50)
Span........feet(m) 29? (9) 32? (10) 34? (10.50) 29? (9)
Area....sq.ft.(m?.) 194 (18) 215 (20) 237 (22) 194 (18)
Weight...lbs.(kgs.) 683 (310) 772 (350) 888 (380) 888 (380)
Motor..........h.p. 50 Gnome 70 Gnome 80 Gnome 50 Gnome
Speed...m.p.h.(km.) 69 (110) 75 (120) ... 50 (80)
Endurance......hrs. ... ... ... ...
Number built
   during 1912 ... ... ... ...

Notes.--Lateral control by warping ailerons. Motor in gap just below upper plane: propeller in rear, direct driven. Fabric: "Aviator" Ramie.

Floats.--One large central boat 27 feet (8.20 m.) long--two small ones at each extremity of lower plane.

J.Forsgren Swedish Military Aircraft 1911-1926 (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 68)


  Originally designed by F Denhaut as a pure flying boat, the airplane very quickly caught the attention of Mrss Donnet and Leveque. Further development resulted in the Donnet-Leveque A, the world’s first amphibian. Further development included the Donnet-Leveque B and C variants, which featured ailerons. After Donnet left in early 1913, the company became known as Hydroaeroplanes Leveque. Soon afterwards, Leveque joined forces with Louis Schreck. The basic Donnet-Leveque airplane proved the stepping stone for the FBA flying boats.
  Using some of the funds raised through the armored ship collection, one Donnet-Leveque amphibian ordered in 1913. The engineless airplane was delivered in October 1913, being transferred to the naval flight school at Oscar- Fredriksborg at Vaxholm, east of Stockholm. The 50 h.p. Gnome engine removed from the Nyrop No:3 was fitted to the Donnet-Leveque. The designation L I was issued to the amphibian, with the serial number S22 being assigned shortly afterwards. Apart from flight training, the amphibian was also based at Marsgarn in the Stockholm archipelago, and used for maritime reconnaissance. Wear and tear saw L I being withdrawn from use in April 1916.
  Prior to the delivery of L I, another Donnet-Leveque had been imported to Sweden. This particular airplane was bought in the summer of 1913 by Carl Cederstrom, who intended to use the amphibian at the state-supported Skandinaviska Aviatik AB flying school. (Although unsubstantiated in contemporary sources, it is believed that L I was originally intended for Cederstrom, but rejected by him as being underpowered.) Named Flygfisken (The Flying Fish), the airplane was flown from Malmen aerodrome, as well as nearby Lake Roxen.
  Although not confirmed, it may have been a Donnet-Leveque Type C, with the upper wing being fitted with ailerons. In late 1913, the amphibian was acquired by the navy for 10,000 kronor, eventually being taken on charge in February 1914. Designated L II and issued with the serial number S23 (later changed to 10), the amphibian was initially based at Marsgarn. It was later based at Gothenburg and Karlskrona respectively, before being struck off charge in August 1918, having accumulated just over 131 hours in the air. The Donnet-Leveque led a quite adventurous existence, being involved in several accidents. On May 14, 1914, Carl-Gustaf Krokstedt attempted to fly to the island of Gotland. Due to a broken oil pipe, Krokstedt was forced down in the Baltic Sea. He spent the next seven hours scooping water from the airplane before being rescued by a ferry. In 1915, the Donnet-Leveque was primarily used for flight training. Apparently, this was not very successful, as the amphibian was very heavy due to having become waterlogged.
  Two major accidents involving L II took place in 1916. On the first occasion, on May 11,1916, the hull ruptured during a heavy take-off, with the amphibian quickly overturning in the swells. The pilot, Arvid Flory, was making his first take-off in the Donnet-Leveque, had a lucky escape when he was thrown clear of the wreck. Being somewhat dazed, Flory nevertheless managed to climb onto the airplane. When the rescue boat arrived, the crew roared with laughter when they saw that the seat was still attached to Flory’s rear end. Flory later wrote of an interesting construction detail; the support wingtip floats were made out of papier mache. Repairs lasted for several months. The next accident, also involving Flory, occured on November 5, 1916, when the airplane overturned on take-off from Karlskrona. The third accident took place on July 26, 1917, when Lieutenant Sandstrom crashed at Nynashamn while taking off in foggy weather.
  This particular Donnet-Leveque has been preserved.

Donnet-Leveque Technical Data and Performance Characteristics
   Engine: 1 x 50 - 80 h.p. Gnome
   Length: 7,90 m
   Wingspan: 11,60 m
   Height: 2,90 m
   Wing area: 17,00 m2
   Empty weight: n/a
   Maximum weight: 560 kg
   Maximum speed: 108 km/h



  On September 15, 1919, the last of the two Donnet-Leveque amphibians, serial number 10, was donated to the National Maritime Museum in Stockholm. Along with the Nyrop No:3, the Donnet-Leveque was transferred to the National Museum of Science and Technology. The amphibian remained on public display from 1936 until April 1983, hanging from the ceiling of the museum’s Machine Hall. By 1983, it was in fairly poor condition. Following lengthy negotiations, the Donnet-Leveque was transferred to Flygvapenmuseum ownership in December 1997.
  In 2010, the volunteer Tullinge Group initiated a thorough restoration of the unique amphibian. Following restoration by Tullingegruppen, the Donnet-Leveque was put on display at Flygvapenmuseum on December 10, 2013.

E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918

Aufstellung der Flugzeuge bei den k.u.k. Seefliegern
8 Donnet-Leveque/F.B.A. Gn 80
10 Donnet-Leveque/F.B.A. Gn 50
11 Donnet-Leveque/F.B.A. Gn 50
12 Donnet-Leveque/F.B.A. Gn 80
A 22 Donnet-Leveque, Mickl/Arsenal Rh 85
A 23 Donnet-Leveque, Mickl/Arsenal Gn 80, Pr 100
A 24 Donnet-Leveque, Mickl/Arsenal Gn 80
S 26 Donnet-Leveque/Arsenal Gn 50
S 27 Donnet-Leveque/Arsenal Gn 80
S 2 Type Donnet-Leveque/Arsenal Neubau FI 85
S 8 Type Donnet-Leveque/Arsenal Neubau Gn 50

Журнал Flight

Flight, August 3, 1912.


Paris to London in a Hydro-Aeroplane.

   ON the Donnet Leveque hydro-aeroplane Capt. Conneau, better known by his nom de vol of Andre Beaumont, started off from Juvisy on Friday last on a projected trip from Paris to London. He followed the Seine to Bezons, where he came down on the water after covering 36 miles. He intended to continue his journey along the Seine to Havre, cross the Channel, then keep round the English coast and up the Thames to Westminster, but the bad weather of the week-end has intervened and prevented any progress being made with this part of the programme.

Flight, August 17, 1912.


Disaster Overtakes M. Beaumont.

   AFTER waiting for several days at Berons, a suburb six miles west of Paris, "Beaumont," otherwise Capt. Conneau, was able to make a start for London on the 9th inst. His Donnet-Leveque hydro-aeroplane was wheeled down to the water, and at 4.30 a.m. it rose from the Seine for a trial run. Everything was working in good order, so the pilot did not return but set his course along the Seine for Havre. Passing Meulan, Mantes, Vernon, Gaillon and Caudebec, the machine reached Quillebceuf at 6.40, where a stop was made for replenishments. A quarter of an hour later it was in the air again, and Havre was reached at five minutes to nine, the machine alighting in front of the Casino. The mechanics, hearing of the stop at Quillebceuf, had gone there, so that M. Beaumont had to rely on amateur help at Havre. Some slight damage was done through the machine colliding with the shore, but everything was in order after lunch when at 2 p.m. a re-start was made for Boulogne, to which a non-stop run of 1 hr. and 55 mins., without the slightest incident, ensued.
   At Boulogne the enthusiastic fishermen came out to render what assistance they could, but their zealous but unprofessional efforts only resulted in one of the floats being damaged, so that no further progress could be made that day. Repairs were, however, executed over night and on Saturday afternoon M. Beaumont prepared for the cross-Channel trip. The wind buffetted the machine very considerably and after making a circuit the pilot had to bring his machine down to the water, which was very choppy. Suddenly the biplane was caught by a very strong squall and completely overturned. The pilot was able to swim clear and superintended the towing of the wrecked machine back to the shore. It is to be repaired and M. Beaumont will then make another attempt to fly to London.

Flight, November 16, 1912.



   The hydro-biplane shown on this stand is of rather more interest than usual, for it was one of the first machines of its type to meet with a measure of success, and for the fact that the British Admiralty have bought one of them. The one shown is of quite light build and is arranged as a two-seater, driven by a 50-h.p. Gnome. That supplied to our Navy was of much stronger and heavier build, equipped with an 80-h.p. Gnome and intended more for open sea work than for service on river or lake, or stretches of water where the surface does not get unduly disturbed. So that it may be used for atterrissage as well as amerrissage, it is fitted with a clever type of disappearing chassis which may be hauled up clear of the water by releasing a catch and turning a handle mounted at the rear of pilot's head. Perhaps our sketch will make this point clearer than would be possible by word description. The coque is built throughout of mahogany, which wood also enters into the construction of the tail in those parts which are likely to get splashed with or immersed in water. In front the section of the coque is rectangular, but aft of the main planes it takes on a section represented by a triangle standing on its base. There is a step in the float at a point just below the entering edge of the main planes. At the side of the body it is about 6 inches deep but in the centre it is considerably less, for the bottom of the hydroplane has the peculiarity that it is concave. Naturally there is no tail float in the accepted sense of the term for the coque itself acts in that capacity. There is, however, a small wooden plane, shaped more or less like a penguin's tail, which assists in getting the tail off the water when starting off. Inside, the coque is divided into watertight compartments, to eliminate the chance of it becoming completely flooded should it strike any hard obstacle and become punctured. Small egg-shaped floats are fitted to the tip of the lower planes to steady the machine on water. The engine is mounted in a position about two-thirds up the gap between the main planes, and provision is made so that the pilot may start it without leaving his cockpit.

Flight, February 8, 1913.


   THE representatives of the Donnet-Leveque Hydro-aeroplane Company in England, Aeros, Ltd., of St. James's Street, W., are, we learn, forming a company to manufacture these well-known water flying machines over here. On the Continent they have met with a considerable measure of success, as is evident by the fact that, not long since, eight of these machines were ordered by the Austrian Government. One was delivered some few months ago to the British Admiralty. From the number of machines built for water flying that will ultimately be required for the defence of our country's coast we feel inclined to think that the proposed company should enjoy good business in a craft of this nature. When all details have been settled we hear that they intend to commence operations by establishing works and a flying school at Shoreham.
   Our sketch gives an idea of the general arrangement of the Donnet-Leveque hydro-biplane. The float, which supports the machine on the water, is extended right back to the tail, so fulfilling the double purpose of float and fuselage. It is built throughout of mahogany, and, inside it is divided into a number of watertight compartments in order that, should the coque become punctured by coming into contact with any hard obstacle it will not become flooded out with sea water. A peculiarity in the construction of the coque is that the hydroplane surface is concave on the under side, a feature which makes it particularly efficient as a skimmer over smooth water. The planes of the machine are built up cellule fashion and are mounted above the body at about one-third of its length from the nose. High up between them the engine is mounted, driving direct a propeller which, mounted in that position runs no risk of being broken by spray thrown up by the passage of the machine over the water. A special magneto and starting handle are fitted to the motor, so that it may be started by the passenger without any necessity for him to leave his seat in the cockpit. In order that the machine may be capable of landing on land as well as on water a special form of disappearing wheelbase is fitted, which, after the machine has left the ground may be wound up out of action by a handle operating a drum, arranged conveniently within reach of the passenger. Although the machine is strongly constructed, yet it is of quite light weight, for the 50-h.p. model does not weigh more than 682 lbs., while the 80-h.p. machine turns the scale at only 836 lbs.

E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Donnet-Leveque S 10 Pola 1914
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
J.Forsgren - Swedish Military Aircraft 1911-1926 /Centennial Perspective/ (68)
The Donnet-Leveque at Flygvapenmuseum on March 23, 2017. Jan Forsgren
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
A Donnet-Leveque Type B.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Capt. Conneau (Beaumont) on his "Donnet-Leveque" in full flight over the Seine in connection with his Paris to London river and sea flight.
H.King - Aeromarine Origins /Putnam/
The French Donnet-Leveque flying boat of 1912 was the first 'classic' machine of its type - that is, having the tail mounted directly on the hull. Curtiss has been extensively and wrongly credited with this arrangement.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
A Donnet-Leveque Type C.
P.Jarrett - Pioneer Aircraft: Early Aviation Before 1914 /Putnam/
This Salmson-powered Leveque flying boat was photographed at the Deauville meeting in August 1913.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE PARIS-DEAUVILLE WATERPLANE RACE. - General scene at the start from Paris.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
A Donnet-Leveque marked with the race-number 10; the hull resembles that of Type C, but this machine has ailerons.
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
Летающая лодка французского происхождения "Доннэ-Левек", тип 1912 г.
J.Forsgren - Swedish Military Aircraft 1911-1926 /Centennial Perspective/ (68)
With its fish scale color scheme, Carl Cederstrom’s Donnet-Leveque amphibian was appropriately named Flygfisken (Flying Fish). The airplane was later sold to MFV. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
J.Forsgren - Swedish Military Aircraft 1911-1926 /Centennial Perspective/ (68)
Two Donnet-Leveque amphibians were used by MFV. This is L II, which was previously owned by Carl Cederstrom. Via Arlanda Flygsamlingar
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Seeflugzeug A 22, Type Arsenal, 1914 beim Start vor Monumenti
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
The Donnet-Leveque hydro-biplane.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
By favour of "Aeronautics," U.S.A.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
The disappearing landing-chassis of the Donnet-Leveque hydro-biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
The water-skid at the tail of the Donnet-Leveque hydro-biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
HYDRO-AEROPLANES. - Fig. 5. - Types of Aeroplanes.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/