S.80 / S.81
Эта машина была развитием первого поплавкового самолета фирмы S.33, созданного на базе сухопутного самолета S.27 и более поздних машин S.35 и S.38 - учебных машин для британского флота. На базе этих машин и был создан двухпоплавковый трехстоечный полутораплан. Это был ферменный бесфюзеляжный самолет цельнодеревянной конструкции. Гондола имела деревянный каркас и фанерную обшивку и вмещала от 3 до 4 человек. В средней части гондолы устанавливались топливные баки, а в хвосте - силовая установка из двух 7-цилиндровых ротативных двигателей воздушного охлаждения "Гном-Моносупап" мощностью по 100 л. с., работающих на один винт. Крыло двухлонжеронное, цельнодеревянное, обтянутое полотном, причем верхнее крыло имело размах больший, чем нижнее, и соединялось кроме стоек еще и подкосами. Растяжки - стальной трос. Хвостовые параллельные фермы имели смешанную конструкцию из стальных труб и дерева. Оперение также имело деревянную конструкцию, аналогичную конструкции крыла. Стабилизатор устанавливался по верхнему поясу ферм, а рули поворота (2 шт.) навешивались на задние стойки ферм. В носовой части гондолы на выносных фермах устанавливался дополнительный руль высоты. Управление рулем осуществлялось через тросовые тяги от ручки управления и педалей. Элеронами оборудовалось только верхнее крыло. Элероны фармановского типа свободнопровисающие.
Главные поплавки понтонного типа имели деревянную конструкцию и крепились к гондоле шестью стойками и сложной системой растяжек. Хвостовые поплавки имели цилиндрическую форму и изготавливались из металла. Вооружение не устанавливалось.
Машина совершила первый полет 2 октября 1913 года, а 19 ноября - первый полет с тремя пассажирами. С началом войны командование ВМС планировало использовать S.80 как торпедоносец, но незначительная скорость и недостаточная грузоподъемность, а также отсутствие защитного вооружения не позволили применять самолет для этих целей. Поэтому S.80 использовался как учебный в течение 1914-1915 годов.
Показатель S.80 1913г.
размах крыльев 21,49
Площадь крыла, м2 50,20
максимальный взлетный 1635
число х мощность, л.с. 2x100
Скорость, км/ч 96
Экипаж, чел. 4
Вооружение 335-мм торпеда
M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)
S80. Pusher biplane, the Nile seaplane
In 1913 F.K. McClean planned an aerial exploration of the Rivet-Nile, for which S32 was originally intended, but this aircraft proved to be inadequate for the purpose and a new seaplane was built. This was S80 (McClean No. 16), which flew for the first time as a seaplane on 2 October 1913, piloted by Gordon Bell and although basically a four seater, it was soon flown with five aboard. The aircraft arrived in Egypt on 27 December 1913 and was flown from Alexandria to Khartoum by stages, suffering some damage and repairs en route. It was dismantled at Khartoum and returned to England in March 1914. At Eastchurch major repairs and modifications were carried out, including conversion to a two-seater side-by-side layout.
As originally built, S80 was a typical Short pusher biplane with a nacelle and with a front elevator on an outrigger on the nose. There were the usual tailplane and elevator carried on top of the tail booms, which were parallel in plan and elevation. Twin balanced rudders were fitted. The two bay wings carried top wing extensions braced by struts and wires with single acting ailerons on the top wings only. The main floats, parallel in width, tapered to a curved stern and were each mounted by three struts. The tail was supported by two air bags of circular section below the tail booms.
During the rebuild, on return to Eastchurch, the fuel tanks were lowered into the compartment previously housing the rear seats, and the front elevator was removed. In this form McClean presented the machine to the Navy in August 1914, when it was identified as No.905, although never marked as such. In October the original 160hp Gnome was replaced by one of 100hp. A large rectangular fin was mounted with most of the area above the tailplane. The tail booms were tapered inwards towards the tail bringing the rudders, which were of a new shape, closer together.
Power: 160hp Gnome fourteen-cylinder two-row air-cooled rotary. Replaced later by 100hp Gnome Monosoupape nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary with a four-bladed propeller.
Length 33ft 9in
Weight 2,200 lb.
Weight allup 3,6001b.
Speed 60 mph
S81. Pusher biplane. Gun carrying seaplane
A machine generally similar to S80 was constructed for the Admiralty for aerial gunnery experiments, and was first flown at Calshot in May/June 1914. Tests of the Vickers one and a half pounder, Lewis machine gun and Davis six pounder guns were carried out at various times, also tests of a dynamo and searchlight, before the machine, No.126, was discarded in October 1915.
Variations from S80 included rubber sprung floats and wingtip air bags. This machine was the last pusher design to be produced by Shorts.
Power: 160hp Gnome fourteen-cylinder two-row air-cooled rotary with a four-bladed propeller.
Data As for S80
P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)
In 1913 F. K. McClean decided to attempt a tour of Egypt by air by using a seaplane to be flown along the River Nile, and Horace Short was asked to design the machine. In appearance, it was reminiscent of the S.38, but the span of the wings was increased to 70 ft. 6 ins., making it, in this respect, the largest successful aeroplane built in the United Kingdom before the 1914-18 War. Three and a half bays were used in the wings, the upper tip extensions of which were braced by struts, an unusual feature being the provision of small additional ailerons set between the centre section and the main ailerons. These main ailerons were of considerable length and extended from mid-way of the upper span to the tips. The nose of the nacelle carried a small elevator mounted on outriggers as an auxiliary to that hinged to the rear of the tailplane. The engine fitted at the back of the nacelle was the 160 h.p. Gnome, the most powerful version available.
The S.70 was finished towards the end of the year and was tested at Eastchurch with a land undercarriage. On 19th November, 1913, although built as a three-seater, it took off from the same aerodrome in the course of its proving flights with five passengers - Lt. I. T. Courtney. R.N., F. K. McClean, Alec Ogilvie, Cdr. C. R. Samson, R.N., and Horace Short. The machine was then dismantled and packed for transporting by ship to Alexandria, where it was reassembled for the expedition. Frank McClean was accompanied by Alec Ogilvie as additional pilot and by A. Smith, who was the mechanic. The floats for the Nile landings consisted of a large pair at the front of the S.70 and two more fitted at the rear under the tail side-by-side.
The trip up the Nile started on 3rd January, 1914, Cairo being reached in 2 hrs. 55 mins. Unfortunately, the engine subsequently gave considerable trouble and the floats were damaged on several occasions. The tourists pressed on with their flight and reached Khartoum on 23rd March, having covered about 1,400 miles. They then decided that they had travelled far enough, and the S.70 was accordingly taken to pieces and returned home to England with its crew by ship.
Description: Three-seat pusher hydro-biplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
Manufacturers: Short Brothers, Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, Kent.
Power Plant: 160 h.p. Gnome
Dimensions: Span, 70 ft. 6 ins. Length 35 ft. 6 ins. Wing area, 725 sq. ft.
Weights: Empty, 1,050 lb.
Performance: Maximum speed, 58 m.p.h. Endurance, 5 hrs.
Short S.81 Gun-carrier
The S.81 Gun-carrier was designed by A. Camden Pratt and built by Short Brothers during 1913. The machine was a two-seat hydro-biplane developed specially for experiments with armament, and was the last Short pusher floatplane. Three-bay folding wings were fitted, with extensions on the upper planes braced by struts. Twin floats were used at the front and also at the tail. The nacelle was strong enough to withstand the recoil of the Vickers 1-5-pounder gun with which it was tested at Great Yarmouth "Naval Air Station. During 1915 the Davis 6-pounder gun was mounted for trials in the S.81. The sole example constructed was numbered 126, and was powered by the 160 h.p. Gnome.
H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)
S.81 Gun-carrier. A pusher seaplane of this description (No. 126) was built in 1914 with a specially stressed nacelle for the mounting and firing of a 1 1/2-pounder Vickers gun. This development was preceded by the mounting of the gun on the Sopwith pusher seaplane No.127. It was reported in 1914 that 'excellent practice has been done in firing at targets both in the air and on the sea'. During March 1915, a 6-pounder Davis recoilless gun was tested in the same machine.
Flight, January 10, 1914.
Mr. McClean Starts.
The first stage of Mr. F. K. McClean's trip up the Nile to Khartoum was made on Saturday last, when accompanied by two passeneers Mr. McClean piloted the 160 h.p. Short waterplane from Alexandria to Cairo, the distance of about 160 miles taking 2 hrs. 55 mins. Restarting from Cairo on Tuesday morning, with three passengers on board, the machine had to battle with the wind and eventually a stop was made at Minieh.
Flight, January 24, 1914.
Mr. Frank McCIean's Progress along the Nile.
ON the 16th inst. Mr. McClean arrived on his Short waterplane at Luxor, and later went on to Assuan, while two days later he made some nights to the delight of the great crowd which had gathered to see the machine. On Monday he started to continue his flight south to Khartoum, but after flying about 130 miles had to return to Assuan, owing to trouble with the motor. He has had very bad luck with his motor, and had to spend several days at Assiut on account of a broken ball race which distributed itself in the crankcase.