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Short S.27 / S.32

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1910

Short - S.9 Wright glider - 1909 - Великобритания<– –>Short - S.32 / S.36 / S.45 tractor biplane - 1910 - Великобритания


M.Goodall, A.Tagg British Aircraft before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


P.Lewis British Aircraft 1809-1914 (Putnam)


Short S.27

  The completion at Eastchurch of the S.27 for Cecil S. Grace in May, 1910, was an abrupt breakaway from previous Short Wright-type biplanes, and conformed to the successful Farman-style boxkite then proving popular. Several were built and were powered by the 40 h.p. "D" and 60 h.p. "F" E.N.V. engines, various modifications being made as experience was gained with the type.
  Grace quickly became proficient on his S.27, and flew it at the Wolverhampton Aviation Meeting held from 27th June until 2nd July, 1910, at Dunstall Park by the Midland Aero Club. Six months later, he disappeared while flying the English Channel on 22nd December, using the 60 h.p. E.N.V. version of the same machine. The endurance of the S.27 was good, seven hours being attained on twenty gallons of petrol.
  The type proved itself to be a useful and practical flying machine and, as the modified S.27, it was altered in succeeding versions, upper wing-tip extensions bringing the span to 46 ft. Other variants of the basic design were built, the engine being changed to the 50 h.p. Gnome. The occupants were protected by being seated in a nacelle instead of being exposed in the open as hitherto.
  The modified S.27 to achieve greatest fame was No. 38 of the Admiralty. This was fitted with three air-filled torpedo-shaped flotation bags attached to the undercarriage and the tail, and on 1st December, 1911, was flown by Lt. A. M. Longmore, R.N., from Eastchurch and landed on the River Med way. It afterwards flew back to Eastchurch. Just over a month later, on 10th January, 1912, Lt. C. R. Samson, R.N., performed the feat of taking-off in the same machine from a staging built over the forepart of H.M.S. Africa, the ship remaining at anchor in Sheerness Harbour. Lt. Samson used No. 38 to do the same from H.M.S. Hibernia on 9th May, 1912, at the Naval Review at Weymouth while the ship was steaming at 15 knots. The long-suffering machine was modified once again during 1912 to take the 70 h.p. Gnome, and the wing span was increased to 52 ft. A covered-in nacelle was installed, the aeroplane becoming one of the first to be fitted with wireless. Armament experiments were carried out, also, by fitting a gun for the observer's use. By the time that all of the alterations had been incorporated, in October, 1912, the modified S.27 No. 38 had become virtually the prototype for the S.38/T.2.
  Two S.27s belonging to F. K. McClean were used at Eastchurch for training the first naval pilots, Lts. R. Gregory, A. M. Longmore and C. R. Samson, R.N., and Lt. E. L. Gerrard, R.M.L.I. Under G. B. Cockburn for flying tuition and Horace Short for technical instruction, they started their course on 2nd March, 1911, and received their Royal Aero Club Aviators' Certificates after a few weeks. Samson and Longmore were awarded Nos. 71 and 72 respectively on 25th April, and Gregory and Gerrard Nos. 75 and 76 respectively on 2nd May. Six months later, in October. 1911, the Admiralty bought the S.27s from McClean and set up at Eastchurch what was to become the well-known naval flying-school. During 1912 the S.27 type was given the naval designation T.1.
  On 10th August, 1912, McClean created a sensation when he flew his S.27 up the River Thames, passing between the spans of Tower Bridge and under the rest of the bridges to Westminster.
  
SPECIFICATION

  Description: Two-seat pusher training biplane. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
  Manufacturers: Short Brothers, Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, Kent.
  Power Plant: 40 h.p. E.N.V. "D", 60 h.p. E.N.V. "F", 50 h.p. Gnome, 70 h.p. Gnome.
  Dimensions:
   (S.27) Span, 34 ft. 2 ins. Length, 40 ft. 6 ins.
   (Mod. S.27) Span, 46 ft. 5 ins. Length, 42 ft. 1 in. Wing area, 517 sq. ft.
  Weights: (Mod. S.27) Empty, 1,100 lb., with 50 h.p. Gnome; 1,150 lb., with 70 h.p. Gnome.
  Performance: (Mod. S.27) Maximum speed, 39 m.p.h., with 50 h.p. Gnome; 48 m.p.h., with 70 h.p. Gnome. Endurance, 4 hrs., with 50 h.p. Gnome; 5 hrs., with 70 h.p. Gnome.


O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


SHORT S.27

  This box-kite biplane, fitted with an eight-cylinder E.N.V. engine, first appeared in 1910, and provided the basis for a series of Short biplanes, all of which were used in the earliest days of naval flying in Great Britain when Royal Navy officers were trained at the Royal Aero Club aerodrome at Eastchureh, at first on aeroplanes privately owned by Mr Frank McClean and loaned to the Admiralty. Maximum speed, 40 mph. Span, 34 ft 2 in. Length, 42 ft 1 in.


SHORT IMPROVED S.27 SERIES

  These aeroplanes were a development of the S.27 from which they differed in having strut-braced extensions to the top wings. Later models were also to be seen with a small nacelle for the pilot and passenger. The most famous of the modified S.27s was S.38 (RNAS No.2), which was fitted with three air-bags (attached to the undercarriage struts and beneath the tail) enabling it to alight on water. On 1 December 1911 this feat was achieved by Lt A M Longmore (later Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Longmore), who flew the S.38 on to the River Medway. On 10 January 1912 Lt Samson used the same aeroplane to make the first take-off from the deck of a British warship (HMS Africa) whilst it was at anchor off Sheerness. On 9 May 1912 this performance was repeated from the deck of HMS Hibernia as it was steaming in Weymouth Bay at 10 l/2 knots, and again from HMS London on 4 July 1912. The improved S.27 was fitted with a single 50 hp or 70 hp Gnome rotary engine. Maximum speed, 48 mph. Span, 46 ft 5 in.


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913


SHORT BROS. Works and flying grounds: Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, Kent. London office: Queen's Circus, Battersea Park. Took up construction at a very early date. Wright agents in 1909. Have built numerous biplanes and monoplanes to specifications. Produced their own first machine (see 1911 edition) in 1910.

   S 34. Standard School.
   50 h.p. 70 h.p.
   2-seater. 2-seater.

Length................feet(m.) 42 (12.85) 42 (12.85)
Span..................feet(m.) 46? (14.20) 46? (14.20)
Area.............sq. feet(m?.) ... ...
Weight, machine......lbs.(kg.) 1100 (500) 1150 (523)
   useful.......lbs.(kg.) ... ...
Motor.....................h.p. 50 Gnome 70 Gnome
Speed, max............(m.p.h.) 39 (63) 48 (78)
   min............(m.p.h.) 34 (55) 38 (61)
Endurance.................hrs. 4 5
Number built during 1912 ... ...

Solely designed for school work. Seats side by side.


Журнал Flight


Flight, June 4, 1910

A NEW SHORT BIPLANE, "No. 27."

  A NEW biplane has just been constructed by Messrs. Short Bros., and flown by Mr. C. S. Grace, who bids fair to become one of our leading, if not actually the most expert aviator in Great Britain. The biplane is, as a mere glance at our accompanying photograph is sufficient to show, an entire departure in design so far as Short Bros.' previous practice is concerned. It embodies features, however, that are at any rate superficially suggestive of the Sommer and Henry Farman machines, and when we speak of these designs it is, perhaps, only fair to give credit to the pioneer house of Voisin, on whose original plans they were grafted.
  It should be quite unnecessary to say concerning any work executed by Short Bros., however, that the design and construction are in every detail as original as if they bore no likeness to anything that anyone else had done. The machine, as the illustration shows, is a biplane that has a monoplane tail. Above and below the tail plane are the rudder planes, and in front of the main planes is a monoplane elevator. The trailing edges of both main planes, from the extremity to the next strut, are hinged so as to serve as balancing flaps. The machine is driven by an 8-cyl. E.N.V., mounted on a special framework. To the design of this framework the greatest possible care and attention is devoted, for the pilot sits in front of the engine, and in the event of a catastrophe it is most important that he should be rendered as little liable as possible to have it break away and fall on top of him. After a series of very successful flights, a mishap occurred that would have resulted in this very calamity, had not the structure behaved in the manner that was intended.
  It will be observed from the photograph that the position of the machine at rest is such as to give a very considerable angle of incidence to the main planes. The tail plane is so adjusted, however, that it lifts when the slip stream of the propeller is coupled with a very low velocity over the ground, and consequently when the machine has advanced only a few yards it assumes its flying position automatically, and is very quickly in the air. The attitude of the main planes in flight is such as to give an extraordinarily small angle of incidence - this, together with the remarkable speediness of the machine (about 45 miles an hour) being the outstanding feature of this latest important Short development.


Flight, June 25, 1910

NEW BRITISH ALTITUDE RECORDS.

MOUNTED on his Bleriot machine, Mr. Armstrong Drexel on Saturday evening, at the New Forest Aviation School ground, succeeded in beating the British height record and taking it to 1,070 feet; but on Monday evening this was bettered by Mr. Cecil Grace at Eastchurch, on his new Short machine, which was fitted with an aneroid barometer. Mr. Grace steadily rose to a height of 1,180 feet, and then, switching off the ignition, glided down to earth. The gliding angle of his machine is about 15°. There was a strong wind blowing, and at times the machine was quite stationary in the air.


Flight, November 19, 1910

FROM THE BRITISH FLYING GROUNDS.

Royal Aero Club Ground, Eastchurch.

  THE weather here during the past week has been very squally, but the short spells experienced in which it was at all possible to venture out have been taken full advantage of by Mr. McClean on his Gnome-engined "Short" biplane.
  On Wednesday, the 9th inst., he brought out this machine, and despite a stiffish breeze immediately rose to about 100 ft. He was content, on this occasion, to remain within the immediate vicinity of the grounds, flying in circles and figure eights and executing several successful vols plane, at which, by the way, he is becoming quite an adept. One of these exhibitions was particularly clean, the machine approaching to within 15-20 ft. of the ground before the engine was re-started. Later in the day Mr. McClean was again seen to advantage, on this occasion making several short trips carrying a lady passenger.
  On Thursday, the 10th, Mr. McClean again brought out his machine and made a splendid flight of over an hour's duration. He frequently passed over Harty and the surrounding country, returning each time along the coast line, and ultimately effecting a good landing from a steady vol plane of some 150 ft.
  Friday was an impossible day, but on Saturday Mr. McClean beat all his previous performances by remaining aloft for well over an hour and a quarter. His journeyings on this occasion extended over Harty and Shellbeach on the one side, and Queenborough and Sheerness on the other.
  Mr. McClean's performances this season have been consistently good, and his total mileage since July now stands well over 600. His machine has behaved splendidly, and has not given the slightest trouble since leaving the works.
  Mr. Jezzi was out for some time on Saturday on his biplane testing the efficiency of the power plant in its new position, this having recently been altered to the front of the machine. Mr. Grace is trying a similar experiment on one of his "Short" biplanes, and we shall hope to give some particulars of the trials of both these machines, which will be held during the next week if weather conditions are favourable, in our next issue.
  Sunday and Monday were blank days, the weather being wretched.
  On Tuesday, the 15th inst., Mrv McClean brought out his latest "Short" biplane. This is on the lines of the Farman, but embodies all the original features of Short Bros', productions. The machine was only completed on Monday, but after devoting about half-an-hour to the tuning up of its Gnome engine, Mr. McClean essayed a short trial. She rose at the first attempt in about 100 yards or so, and flying at about 50 ft. Mr. McClean completed several circuits before bringing her down. After lunch Mr. McClean was quickly off the mark, rising sharply to a height of some 150 ft. Keeping at this altitude he completed eight or nine circuits of the ground in good time, when he landed for a few further adjustments to the engine. Shortly afterwards he made a further flight, and this time gave a good exhibition of "planing." These three flights represented a total of some three minutes short of the hour - not bad for the first spin. The machine rides the wind beautifully, answers to the helm readily, and from all appearances will develop a good turn of speed when the engine is thoroughly tuned up.


Flight, December 31, 1910

THE DE FOREST CROSS-CHANNEL PRIZE.

The Disappearance of Mr. Grace.

  THE one absorbing topic among those interested in aviation and flying matters during the past week has been the mysterious disappearance of Mr. Cecil Grace, and although we are still hoping against hope that he may yet be found, the worst fears have to be entertained, as it is patent to all who have experience of such matters that so long without news of any sort is terribly ominous of the worst. It is now a matter of history of how in his attempt to beat Mr. Sopwith's record for the Baron de Forest's prize Mr. Cecil Grace left Dover about 9 o'clock on the morning of December 22nd and flew over to France, where after making a wide circle over the country he landed at Las Baraques, near Calais. Mr. Grace decided to come down, as the conditions and the wind militated against any chance of doing better than Mr. Sopwith. By half-past two, taking advantage of a lift in the haze, Mr. Grace determined to fly back to Dover in order to be ready for a fresh attempt on the prize. He had previously arranged with the captain of the mail boat "Pas de Calais" to start from France some time after the boat left and follow its course by the smoke. The mail boat, however, was some ten minutes late in leaving Calais and Mr. Grace passed out to sea before she left, there to encounter a bad sea fog by which he appears to have been entirely engulfed. Since then nothing has been heard of Mr. Grace except that it was reported from the North Goodwins Lightship that an aeroplane had passed over the vessel, while a coastguard at Ramsgate declared that he heard the noise of an aeroplane's engine at a point which he estimated to be six miles off the shore. The skipper of a Ramsgate fishing smack also reported having seen a biplane when fishing to the south-west of the East Goodwins Lightship.
  On Friday, the 23rd, on the urgent representations of the Royal Aero Club, the Admiralty officials at Sheerness and Chatham readily did everything that they could to assist in a most strenuous search for Mr. Grace. On Sunday morning the Aero Club officials were startled to receive a cable message from Lima, Ohio, to the following effect:- "Grace landed with machine in crevice under high cliff, exact location unknown." To this a reply was sent asking for further details, when the following message was received:- "Dropped on shore, not water. Could not rise above cliff. Request British east coastline people to search water's edge minutely." Under the distressing circumstances, even so curious a chance as this was not passed by. In fact, after an emergency meeting with the brothers of Mr. Grace, steps were taken by the Royal Aero Club to communicate with the coastguard and naval officers, and a thorough examination of the entire coastline was made, but without any trace of the missing aviator or his aeroplane being found. The Aero Club officials have, indeed, not spared themselves throughout the whole holidays in organising search parties, and in doing everything humanly possible to assist in the unfortunately fruitless search for Mr. Grace. There still remains the last glimmer of a hope that he may have been picked up by some slow sailing vessel or a fishing boat, to be heard of possibly in a day or two, and it is to this faint comfort only that the lost aviator's friends and coworkers must cling for a while longer.


Flight, August 26, 1911.

FROM THE BRITISH FLYING GROUNDS.

Royal Aero Club Flying Ground, Eastchurch.

<...>
  On Saturday morning Lieuts. Samson, Gerrard, Longmore and Gregory were out early putting in their usual practice flights. At 4.50 a.m. Lieut. Samson, carrying one passenger, on the Short No. 38, made a long tour of the island, returning at 6 a.m., having been up one hour and ten minutes. He was so pleased with the way the machine was flying that he expressed his intention of trying, without a passenger, for the British duration record, and he started away again immediately, getting into the air at 6.7 a.m. For the next hour the weather conditions were fairly good, but at 7.30 a change for the worse set in, the sky becoming overcast with stormy clouds, and a strong ground wind springing up. The indefatigable Samson had no intention, however, of coming down, and continued to fly with almost monotonous regularity to and fro above the aerodrome. By 10 a.m. the air conditions had become still worse, and the sun breaking through the clouds in patches appeared to cause upward and downward trends in which the aeroplane rose and fell vertically, but, by the skill of the aviator, was kept constantly on an even keel. Shortly after 10 o'clock the observers on the ground heard a voice coming from the aeroplane each time it passed overhead, but owing to the roar of the engine they could not make out what the aviator was shouting. Someone suggested that he was merely singing as he worked away at the elevator, but at last, by the aid of an ear trumpet, the words were caught. It appears that the aviator's watch had stopped, and he wanted to know the time. A blackboard was at once secured from the lecture room, and on this the time was chalked every five minutes, so that the aviator was kept well informed of his progress. Shortly after 11.15 a.m. Lieut. Samson descended, having been in the air 4 hrs. 58 1/2 mins., thus creating a new British duration record with a fine flight under difficult conditions. Lieut. Samson was not at all tired, although he had been flying almost continuously for over six hours. He had also plenty of petrol and oil left, but the treacherous air currents made a continuance of the flight inadvisable.

Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Short Biplane, "No. 27."
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Early Short S.27 fitted with E.N.V. engine.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Short S.27 (Grace No.2) with 60hp ENV F.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
WOLVERHAMPTON FLIGHT MEETING. - General view of the aerodrome looking towards the hangars. Mr. Cecil Grace in flight on his Short biplane.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Short S.26-S.29 and 34 were fitted with various engines. This is CS. Grace's S.27 with French ENV engine without wing extensions.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Cecil Grace, on his "Short" biplane, gets up for the Altitude Contest.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
FLYING IN THE FACE OF THE SETTING SUN. - A "November setting," by Dr. William J. S. Lockyer, to Mr. Frank K. McClean and his Short biplane at the Royal Aero Club's ground, Eastchurch. This picture is a fine example of a Genuine photograph, and was secured by Dr. Lockyer on the evening of November 6th just before sunset. It was on this machine that Mr. McClean has recently been making his long cross-country flights.
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
Short S.27 with 50 h.p. Gnome engine and extended wings heralded the start of the company's long and mutually beneficial relationship with the Admiralty's air arm.
M.Goodall, A.Tagg - British Aircraft before the Great War /Schiffer/
Short S.29 was similar with a British ENV.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Territorials at the Royal Aero Club's Eastchurch flying grounds practising with "Short" biplane, No. 32.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. Cecil Grace ready in the pilot's seat prior to his start for the De Forest Cross-Channel Prize,
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Lieut. A. V. Barrington-Kennett qualifying for his pilot's certificate on the Short dual control biplane at the Royal Aero Club's Eastchurch flying grounds.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Commander Samson, R.N., making a spiral vol plane at Eastchurch recently on one of the Short biplanes.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Lieut. Samson, R.N., making his British duration record of nearly five hours on a Short biplane at Eastchurch Aerodrome last Saturday. At the top he is seen making a good turn; below, Mr. Travers is seen chalking on a board the time Lieut. Samson had been in the air, this being rendered necessary by reason of the aviator's watch having stopped, a fact which he communicated to the observers by shouting from his aeroplane. On the right Lieut. Samson is seen in the act of dismounting after his splendid flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
THE FLYING MEN AT BOURNEMOUTH AND THEIR "MOUNTS." - Cecil Grace (Short).
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Mr. Frank K. McClean and his first passenger, Dr. William J. S. Lockyer, with whom, on his Short biplane, he flew on October 22nd at the Royal Aero Club grounds at East' church, Sheppay. Mr. McClean has been, as we record, making some splendid cross-country flights, one lasting for 1 hr. 6 mins.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Lieut. Samson, R.N., on a "Short" biplane. He left East church flying grounds for Brooklands on Thursday week at 4.30 p.m., alighting at Horley for the night. Having replenished, he was off again on Friday morning, but missed his way and landed at Hawthorn Hill racecourse, from there making a good flight, and arriving safely at Brookiands,
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Lieut. Gerrard, R.M.L.L, in the pilot's seat of the Short biplane upon which he made his world's record cross-country duration flight of 4 hrs. 13 mins. with a passenger, Lieut. Wildman Lushington, R.M.A., at Eastchurch flying grounds on August 16th. Lieut. Gerrard was competing for the Mortimer Singer prize, which is open only to British officers.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Mr. Cutler on the Short biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Capt. Gordon at Eastchurch flying grounds, another competitor for the Mortimer Singer Naval and Military Aviation Competition.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Capt Gerrard on his Short biplane at Eastchurch, where he is one of the foremost competitors for the Mortimer Singer Aviation Prize for Naval and Military Officers.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Engineer Lieut. Briggs, R.N., with Leading Seaman Russell, on Short biplane No. 34, upon which he took his pilot's certificate on July 27th.