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Albatros D.I/D.II

Страна: Германия

Год: 1916

Истребитель

Albatros - C.VII - 1916 - Германия<– –>Albatros - D.III - 1916 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


"АЛЬБАТРОС" D.I/D.II / ALBATROS D.I/D.II

  Первый одноместный истребитель, разработанный германской фирмой "Альбатрос Флюгцойгверк", появился весной 1916 г. Автор проекта - руководитель и главный конструктор предприятия Роберт Телен при участии инженеров Шуберта и Гнейдига. Конструктивно-силовая схема самолета в целом аналогична более ранним двухместным многоцелевым бипланам "Альбатрос" серий "B" и "C". Фюзеляж представлял собой деревянный полумонокок хорошо обтекаемой формы, состоящий из ясеневых шпангоутов и стрингеров с работающей фанерной обшивкой горячего формования, выполненный зацело с килем. Бипланная коробка одностоечная. Стойки выполнены из стальных труб каплевидного сечения. Двухлонжеронные крылья имели деревянный силовой набор и полотняную обтяжку. Стабилизатор, рули и элероны также покрыты полотном.
  Самолет оснащался довольно мощным для своего времени 160-сильным шестицилиндровым рядным мотором водяного охлаждения "Мерседес" D.III, обеспечившим ему хорошие летные данные. Вооружение состояло из двух синхронных пулеметов LMG 08/15, размещенных над двигателем.
  Первый полет прототипа состоялся в апреле 1916-го, в мае завершились статические испытания, а в июле было развернуто серийное производство. В начале сентября первая эскадрилья "альбатросов" прибыла на западный фронт. За счет высокой энерговооруженности и хорошей аэродинамики новый немецкий аэроплан доказал свое преимущество в скорости и скороподъемности над основными истребителями Англии и Франции - "Де Хэвиллендом" DH.2 и "Ньюпором-11/16". Однако в горизонтальной маневренности более тяжелый "Альбатрос" уступал "Ньюпору".
  Важным достоинством немецкой машины было двойное превосходство в огневой мощи, поскольку английские и французские истребители тогда оснащались всего одним пулеметом.
  Фронтовые пилоты весьма позитивно оценили "Альбатрос", но у них вызвал претензии неважный обзор вперед-вверх, загораживаемый верхним крылом. Для устранения этого недостатка уже в конце сентября была создана, а в октябре пошла в серию модификация D.II. Ее верхнее крыло опустили ближе к фюзеляжу, что позволило пилоту смотреть над ним.
  D.I выпускались на заводе "Альбатрос" в Иоханнештале, a D.II - еще и на фирме LVG ("Эльфауге"). Всего было построено 50 D.I и 275 D.II. С целью снижения лобового сопротивления на поздних экземплярах D.II радиаторы, ранее укрепленные на бортах фюзеляжа, заменили одним более крупным радиатором, вписанным в габариты верхнего крыла. Причем, вопреки обыкновению, он стоял не поперек, а вдоль потока.
  Серийное производство шло быстрыми темпами и уже к январю 1917 года "Альбатрос" D.II стал самым распространенным германским истребителем. В истребительных эскадрильях западного фронта их насчитывалось более 200 штук. Благодаря "альбатросам" немцам удалось перехватить инициативу в воздушной войне, однако активная боевая служба D.I и D.II продолжалась недолго. Запуск в массовое производство усовершенствованной модификации D.III привел к быстрому вытеснению "единиц" и "двоек" из частей первой линии. К ноябрю 1917-го во фронтовых эскадрах их оставалось не более 20 штук.
  Помимо Западной Европы, "альбатросы" D.I и D.II применялись на Ближнем Востоке. Несколько экземпляров было передано туркам. Отдельные машины пережили войну, и после ее окончания фирма "Альбатрос" сменила их военные обозначения на гражданские. D.I переименовали в L.15, a D.II - в L.17.


ДВИГАТЕЛЬ: "Мерседес" D.III, 160 л.с.
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ: 2 синхр. LMG 08/15 "Шпандау".
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   D.I D.II
  Размах, м 8,50 8,50
  Длина, м 7,40 7,40
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 24,90 24,90
  Сухой вес, кг 694 673
  Взлетный вес, кг 921 898
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 160 165
  Время подъема на высоту
   2000м, мин.сек 9,30 9,10
  Потолок, м 5180 5200
  Продолжительность полета, ч 1,5 1,5
  Экипаж, чел 1 1


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Albatros D I and D II

  The year 1916 saw the introduction of the Albatros D I in a successful endeavour to wrest from the Allies the supremacy their Nieuports and D.H. 2s had now gained from the Fokker monoplanes. They began operations with the newly-formed Jagdstaffeln (of which Oswald Boelcke's Jasta 2 undoubtedly became the most well known). These units were equipped from the autumn of 1916. The new aircraft gradually replaced the older Halberstadt D II and IIIs and Fokker D II and IIIs as they became available, and usually they went to pilots in order of seniority.
  Designed by Messrs. Thelen and Schubert, this sleek, streamlined, semi-monocoque aircraft was looked upon at the time as being somewhat unorthodox, as indeed it was. Although the wing structure adhered to former practice, the fuselage was certainly of a revolutionary nature, differing so radically from the fabric-covered, braced box-girder type fuselage structures then in almost universal use. In employing the 150 h.p. Benz Bz III or 160 h.p. Mercedes D III engine it was the most powerful single seat fighting scout yet brought into use in the German Air Force, and this additional power enabled it to carry the extra load of twin fixed Spandau machine-guns without loss of performance. Such armament had previously been tried on the Fokker and Halberstadt D types, but due to their lower power, performance deteriorated considerably with the added weight of the second gun, so they continued to operate with a single gun, sacrificing fire-power for performance.
  Although, due to its heavier wing loading, the Albatros D I had not the manoeuvrability of the majority of its single-seat adversaries, it possessed the speed to attack when to advantage and, more important, to break off combat when expedient. It also had the fire-power of its twin machine-guns, with which to destroy much more quickly.
  Albatros had, of course, pioneered wooden fuselage construction, but the D I was the first attempt to strike a compromise between the usual slab-side and the extremely expensive true monocoque structure. How successful this compromise was may be gauged from the subsequent lineage of Albatros D type machines. The fuselage structure consisted basically of 3/8 in. thick ply formers and six spruce longerons, to which was pinned and screwed the outer covering of three-ply. In section it varied from a circular nose entry to a horizontal knife edge aft, with the middle cross-sections being of flat-sided oval shape. The engine was cleanly installed in the nose, with quickly detachable metal panels adjacent to the cylinder block and immediately aft of the large bulbous spinner, to facilitate servicing. Exhaust manifolds varied in that they sometimes were of the funnel type ejecting vertically and sometimes of the horizontal type exhausting sideways to starboard.
  The clean contours of the fuselage were spoilt to a certain extent by the box-shaped Windhoff radiators mounted on the sides between the wings. Built into the rear fuselage were the pleasingly curved tail surfaces. The fixed surfaces were of wood and the upper and lower fin - which supported the ash tailskid - were covered in plywood skin. The tailplane was fabric-covered. The control surfaces were of welded steel-tube framework with fabric covering, and small triangular balance portions were incorporated in both the one-piece elevator and the rudder.
  The wings were a fabric-covered wooden structure, following the usual Albatros formula of two box-spars positioned well forward and with a wire trailing edge; they were rectangular in shape, with just the smallest suggestion of rake at the tips. Ribs were of three-ply fretted with lightening holes and narrowly flanged with spruce. Ailerons were of steel-tube framework with a slight inverse taper, and were actuated by a crank arm located at mid-span. The top wing was built in one piece and secured to the trestle-type centre-section cabane by eye bolts which could be located in five different positions enabling the stagger to be adjusted from 0 to 12 cm. (approx. 4 3/4 in.).
  A conventional streamlined steel-tube vee-type undercarriage chassis was fitted to sockets mounted on the fuselage; a single spreader bar behind the axle tied the vees together, and the wheels were sprung with rubber shock cord.
  Throughout the winter of 1916-17 the Albatros D I and D II operated in increasing numbers, and with their twin machine-gun armament reaped a grim harvest among the ill-armed Allied B.E.2c reconnaissance planes. Although they completely outclassed the British D.H. 2 single-seat fighting scout in speed and armament, they did not have it all their own way with this opponent, which, due to its superior manoeuvrability, was often agile enough to elude their guns.
  Although the D I was a satisfactory and pleasant aircraft to fly, its main shortcoming in combat was that the top wing rather obscured the pilot's forward and upward field of vision. It was decided, therefore, to reduce the gap and re-position the upper wing closer to the fuselage. The outcome of this was the Albatros D II. The large semicircular centre-section cut-out was retained and the pilot was enabled to see over the top wing more easily and with a much-improved field of vision. The method of reducing the gap was to dispense with the trestle-type centre-section cabane and substitute two sets of outsplayed "N" centre-section struts. This achieved the desired suit, and it was additionally found that with the struts splayed out the pilot's forward view under the wing was materially improved too. Slight alteration was also necessary to the length of the streamlined steel-tube interplane struts. Apart from these modifications, the rest of the machine was virtually the same as the D I.
  At a later date an attempt was made to clean up and improve the D II by disposing of the cumbersome radiator system and installing an aerofoil-shaped Teeves and Braun radiator in the starboard side of the upper wing centre-section. In this ultimate version the D II certainly presented a neat and clean appearance.
  Many famous German pilots flew the D I and D II Albatroses, and initially they operated in mixed flights, together with Halberstadt and Fokker D IIs and IIIs, until sufficient Albatroses were available for a Jasta to standardise on the type. The first patrol to include the new Albatros scouts was led by Oswald Boelcke, who commanded Jasta 2, when a sortie was made on 17th September 1916. A few weeks later, on 28th October, Boelcke, whose victory score then stood at forty, crashed to his death when his Albatros was struck by that of Erwin Bohme as both converged in a diving attack on two D.H. 2s of No. 24 Squadron, R.F.C. The death of this redoubtable and chivalrous airman was soon avenged by none other than Manfred von Richthofen, who later went on to double Boelcke's score before he was shot down in April 1918. He was not destined, however, to become noted for his chivalry. One of the D IIs flown by Richthofen in Jasta 2 was 491/16, and he scored his first victory in this type on 17th September 1916. Manfred von Richthofen eventually became leader of Jasta 2, and on 23rd November 1916 he shot down Major Lanoe G. Hawker, V.C., in a D.H. 2 after a long individual combat, his eleventh aerial victory. It was generally supposed that the superior performance of von Richthofen's Albatros D II was the greatest factor in enabling him to overcome such an experienced pilot as Hawker. No less a pilot than Major J. B. McCudden, V.C., was able to testify to the fire-power of the Albatros when, on return from a patrol on 9th November 1916, he discovered twenty-four hits on his D.H. 2 after his first encounter with the type. Never again were so many hits registered on a machine of his.
  Prinz Friedrich Karl of Prussia was another redoubtable exponent of the D I and D II. He was actually C.O. of a Fl. Abt. unit, but kept a personal Albatros D I ready for his use with the nearby Jasta 2, with which Staffel he used to hunt when he was able to get away from his reconnaissance duties. He was eventually shot down, however, in a skull-inscribed D I of Jasta 2 on 21st March 1917.
  Although it has not been possible to ascertain how many were built, records show that in November 1916 50 D Is and 28 D IIs were serving at the Front; January 1917 saw 39 D Is in use and as many as 214 D IIs. By November 1917 the figures were reduced to 9 D Is and 11 D IIs, by which time the D III and D V were very much in prominence.

TECHNICAL DATA
  Description: Single-seat fighting scout.
  Manufacturers:
   Albatros Werke G.m.b.H. (Alb.).
   Luft-Verkehrs Gesellschaft (Lvg). (1)
   Oesterreichische Flugzeugfabrik A.G. (Oeffag) (1) (built for Austro-Hungarian forces and powered with 185 h.p. Austro-Daimler).
  Power Plant: One 150 h.p. Benz Bz III or 160 h.p. Mercedes D III 6 cylinder inline water-cooled engine, D I: 160 h.p. Mercedes D III only D II.
  Dimensions: Span, 8.50 m. (27 ft. 10 3/4 in.). Length, 7.40 m. (24 ft. 3 1/8 in.). Height. 2.95 m. (9 ft. 6 3/8 in.), D I; 2.641 m. (8 ft. 6 3/8 in), D II. Wing area, 22.9 sq.m. (247 sq.ft.), D I; 24.5 sq.m. (264 sq.ft.), D II.
  Weights: Empty, 647 kg. (1,423 lb.), D I; 637 kg. (1,401 lb.), D II. Loaded, 898 kg. (1,976 lb.), D I; 888 kg. (1,954 lb.), D II.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 175 km.hr. (109.4 m.p.h.). Initial climb, 1,000 m. (3,280 ft.) in 6 min. (5 min. for D II). Ceiling, 17,000 ft. Duration, 1 1/2 hr.
  Armament: Two fixed Spandau machine-guns synchronised to fire through airscrew.
(1) D II only.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


ALBATROS D I Germany

  Designed by Herren Thelen, Schubert and Gnadig in a successful endeavour to wrest from the Allies the aerial superiority gained over the Fokker monoplanes by the Nieuport 11 Bebe and the Airco D.H.2, DI was the first fighter to be developed by the Albatros-Werke. Introduced in August 1916 were 12 pre-series aircraft ordered in the previous June after April Typen-Prufung by the Idflieg. Aerodynamically clean for its time, the D I had a semi-monocoque wooden fuselage which differed radically from the fabric-skinned, braced box-girder type fuselages then in almost universal use. The wings were conventional fabric-covered wooden structures, the power plant was either the 150 hp Benz Bz III or 160 hp Mercedes D III six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, and armament consisted of paired 7,92-mm LMG 08/15 synchronised machine guns. Fifty series D Is were ordered in July 1916, and these were delivered to the Front (where 50 pre-series and series D Is were in service in November), but no further production of this fighter was undertaken as the DI had been overtaken by the D II which, in fact, arrived at the Front at the same time as the earlier type.

Max speed, 109mph (175km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1000m), 6.0 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,422 lb (645 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,809 lb (898 kg).
Span, 27ft 10 2/3 in (8,50 m). Length, 24 ft 3 1/3 in (7,40 m).
Height, 9 ft 6 3/8 in (2,95 m).
Wing area, 246.50 sq ft (22,90 m2).


ALBATROS D II

  One of the most serious design faults of the DI was the poor forward and upward fields of vision provided for the pilot, and to rectify this deficiency the upper wing was lowered and the wing cellule was staggered, reducing overall height by 14 in (36 cm). With this and other more minor changes, the fighter was redesignated D II, and an initial production batch of 100 was ordered in August 1916, arrangements being made for the DII to be licence-built by LVG (Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft). It was also to be built by Oeffag (Oesterreichische Flugzeugfabrik) for the Austro-Hungarian K.u.K. Luftfahrttruppen with a 185 hp Austro-Daimler engine. The standard D II had the 160 hp Daimler D III and armament remained a pair of LMG 08/15 guns. Twenty-eight D IIs were at the Front in November 1916, and the strength of this type peaked in January 1917, when 214 were recorded at the Front.

Max speed, 109 mph (175 km/h).
Time to 3,280 ft (1 000 m), 5.5 min.
Endurance, 1.5 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,404 lb (637 kg).
Loaded weight, 1,958 lb (888 kg).
Span, 27 ft 10 2/3 in (8,50 m).
Length, 24 ft 3 1/3 in (7,40 m).
Height, 8 ft 6 in (2,59 m).
Wing area, 263.72 sq ft (24,50 m2).


J.Herris Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Vol.4: Fighters (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 27)


Albatros D.I

  When it arrived on the Western Front in late August 1916 the Albatros D.I was a significant advance over existing Allied fighters. Key features that made it so formidable included the first use of the powerful and reliable 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine in a fighter, fitting two synchronized machine guns, and the strong, streamlined semi-monocoque fuselage constructed of wood frames covered by a thin plywood skin. The result was a compact, robust, streamlined fighter of very good performance and firepower that was easy to fly.
  The speed, climb rate, diving speed, and firepower of the Albatros D.I were all superior to the performance of the DH.2 and Nieuport fighters that were the best and most numerous Allied adversaries and that gave the Albatros immediate technical superiority. Together with the Halberstadt and Fokker biplane fighters that had arrived slightly earlier, Albatros appeared at the front just in time to help supply the first specialized German fighter units with fighters. The first 16 Jastas, formed in September and October 1916, were primarily equipped with those types and some leftover Fokker Eindeckers. Eventually the Albatros demonstrated superior performance and combat effectiveness over these competitors and consequently was built in much greater numbers. The combination of specialized fighter units with aggressive unit tactics developed by ace Oswald Boelcke and the new Albatros fighters enabled the German air service to quickly establish air superiority. However, the Allies had so many more aircraft than Germany that they were able to perform their reconnaissance and artillery-spotting missions despite the increasing losses to the German fighters.
  The Albatros D.I design did have room for improvement. It used conventional wood and fabric wing construction typical of the time, the high-mounted wing and cabane strut design obscured the pilot's field of view, especially upward to the front, and the ear-type radiator installation was problematic. The ear radiators created significant drag and when leakage occurred from solder failures or combat damage, allowed water to drain from the engine's cylinder head, quickly resulting in overheating and engine seizure when it occurred. In fact, the widespread problems with ear and side radiators in different aircraft types resulted in Idflieg banning them from all German combat aircraft on 10 November 1916. However, Idflieg’s order did not affect aircraft already built or in advanced stages of construction, and some manufacturers continued to use them for some time.
  The Albatros also had a high wing-loading compared to the light, rotary-powered Allied fighters, giving a wider turning circle. The more agile Allied fighters used their maneuverability to defend themselves from attack, whereas the Albatros used its superior performance to attack when desired and to disengage when in an inferior tactical position. The slow, stable Allied reconnaissance planes found themselves at a severe disadvantage when attacked by Albatros fighters and their losses spiked.
  After 50 production D.I fighters were built, production shifted to the improved D.II. Meanwhile, the D.I was adapted with floats and larger wings and tail surfaces as the Navy's W.4 floatplane fighter.


Albatros D.II

  The Albatros D.II was a refinement of the D.I developed to address some of its shortcomings. In particular, the cabane structure was redesigned to improve the pilot's field of view forward and upward, the upper wing being lowered to just above the pilot's eye-level. Although early production D.II fighters retained the drag-producing ear radiators of the D.I, the ear radiators were later replaced in production by the Teves and Braun airfoil-shaped radiator that fit flush in the upper wing. In other respects the D.II was essentially identical to the D.I, and German production increased to 275 fighters, of which 75 were built under license by LVG. These were initially designated LVD D.Is but the designation was rationalized to Albatros D.II(LVG).
  The D.II arrived at the front very soon after the D.I and continued its success, the increased quantity available forming the backbone of the new German Jastas. The immediate success of the Albatros fighters in combat impressed Germany's Austro-Hungarian allies and license production of the Albatros D.II and later D.III was expedited for the Austro-Hungarian air service; details are given in that section.


Albatros Fighter Production Orders
Date Ordered Type Qty Serials(1)
July 1916 D.I 50 D.421-470/16
Aug. 1916 D.II 50 D.472-521/16
1916 D.II 50 D.890-939/16
Sept. 1916 D.II 100 D.1700-1799/16
Aug. 1916 D.II(LVG) 75 D.1024-1098/16
Notes:
  1. Serials D.384-391/16 assigned to prototype fighters.
  3. D.I total of 50, D.II total of 275, D.III total of 1,340 (500 by Albatros & 840 by OAW).
  4. D.V total 900, D.Va total 1662 (1,062 by Albatros Si 600 by OAW). Total of all Albatros fighters 4,227.


Albatros Fighter Specifications
D.I D.II D.II(LVG) D.III
Engine 160 hp Mercedes D.III 160 hp Mercedes D.III 160 hp Mercedes D.III 160 hp Mercedes D.III
Span (Upper) 8.50 m 8.50 m 8.50 m 9.00 m
Span (Lower) 8.00 m 8.00 m 8.10 m 8.81 m
Chord (Upper) 1.6 m 1.6 m 1.6 m 1.5 m
Chord (Lower) 1.6 m 1.6 m 1.6 m 1.1 m
Wing Area 24.9 m2 24.9 m2 25.2 m2 20.9 m2
Length 7.40 m 7.40 m 7.40 m 7.33 m
Height 2.95 m 2.64 m - 2.90 m
Empty Weight 694 kg 673 kg 710 kg 673 kg
Useful Load 227.5 kg 225 kg 227.5 kg 235 kg
Loaded Weight 921.5 kg 898 kg 937.5 kg 908 kg
Wing Loading 39.7 kg/m2 - 37.3 kg/m2 44.2 kg/m2
Power Loading 5.76 kg/hp 5.61 kg/hp 5.86 kg/hp 5.68 kg/hp
Max. Speed 175 km/h 175 km/h 175 km/h 175 km/h
Climb, 1,000 m 4 minutes 4 min. 50 sec. - 2 min. 30 sec.
Climb, 2,000 m 9 min. 30 sec. 9 min. 10 sec. - 6 minutes
Climb, 3,000 m 15 minutes 12 min. 40 sec. - 11 minutes
Climb, 4,000 m 23 minutes 26 minutes - 17 minutes
Climb, 5,000 m 40 minutes 37 minutes - 24 min. 30 sec.
Type-Test Accept. April-June 1916 Mid-1916 November 1916 September 1916
Note: All were armed with two machine guns


Журнал Flight


Flight, January 4, 1917.

THE NEW ALBATROS SCOUTING BIPLANE.

  In our last issue we gave a few particulars of some of the more recent German aeroplanes, including the new Albatros scout, of which we are able, this week, to give an illustration. Until comparatively recently, the Germans have not paid any particular attention to the reduction of head resistance, the aim of their aeroplane designers having been more particularly directed along lines of stability, as witness the early Tauben and "Arrow" biplanes. While fighting adversaries who were, long before the outbreak of war, specialists, so to speak, in high-speed machines, the gentle. Hun has evidently at last realised the utility, on occasion, of a good pace, always coupled, of course, with other qualities such as climb and manoeuvring power, and at any rate, in the machine illustrated, "Speed" appears to be the keynote of the design. The large powerful engine, the stream-line body, the small wings, and the reduction of struts to a minimum, all point towards it. In the case of the body, it will be noticed that the method of stream-lining has even been carried to the extent of a hemispherical nosepiece over the propeller boss - a refinement which is not normally met with in German machines. The lines near the tail plane give indication that as far as construction is concerned, the body is not a true monocoque, but has four main rails in the usual fashion, and that the streamlining is effected by a superstructure. The nature of the latter is not quite clear, but it appears to be a metal cover, probably aluminium. A detail which was quite clear in the original photograph, but which has been obliterated in the reproduction, is the new fitting for the interplane struts.
  Instead of the old familiar steel cup in which rests a ring forming the anchorage for the bracing wires, a much smaller fitting is employed, consisting, apparently, of an eye-bolt, with forked ends passing through the spar, the eye-bolt in the end of the strut fitting into the forked end of that in the spar. The Mercedes engine is almost totally covered in, the radiator, mounted above the engine, only just clearing the fuselage covering. The tail planes, it will be observed, are neatly joined to the body, the appearance being, in fact, that the body covering is run upwards to form the covering of the fin as well. The rudder is partly balanced, wholly on top of the body and some little distance ahead of the elevator, as mentioned in our brief description last week.

  

Flight, June 28, 1917.

THE ALBATROS D.I "CHASER" BIPLANE.

  PERHAPS one of the most formidable of the various types of Hun machines our pilots have been "up against" has been the Albatros "Bu" chaser scout. Although, being comparatively heavy, it cannot claim the high speed and other performance qualities possessed by the "star" machines of the Allies, it has, nevertheless, proved itself a good fighter, and one that is decidedly handy on the control.
  Through the courtesy of our authorities we have been able to make a thorough examination of one of these scouts - D. 1/391, 1916, No. 2944, brought down some six months ago on the British front - which has enabled us to add from personal inspection yet another detailed description of an enemy machine to those that have already appeared in "FLIGHT."
  Having examined the Albatros "D. 1," it must be admitted that one could not but help admiring its general design and construction. Simplicity and strength formed the keynote throughout, complicated fittings and highly-finished parts being conspicuous by their absence. The "D. 1" bears signs of previous Albatros practice in several instances, mostly in a modified form, but there are also some radical innovations. Perhaps the most noticeable features consist of the monocoque fuselage - which is built up entirely of wood without any wire bracing - and the arrangement of the planes.
  The latter, contrary to Hun practice, have neither sweep-back nor dihedral - the top plane, in fact, being one complete unit. The wing curve is similar to the Albatros "C. III," but having a flatter camber, whilst the angle of incidence varies from 5° 3' at the centre to 4° and 2° at the left and right hand wing-tips respectively. A somewhat novel feature consists of the method of adjusting the stagger of the top plane from 0 to 12 cm., by moving it along the top of the cabane. This is effected in the following manner: In each end of the top horizontal tube of the cabane is formed a slot, which receives an eyebolt passing through the main spar of the plane. At each slot are five holes passing horizontally through the tube, one of which - according to the adjustment required - receives the bolt that locks the eyebolt in the cabane. The arrangement is shown in one of the accompanying sketches.
  In order that the correct gap should be maintained in each adjustment for stagger, the lower end of the interplane struts and the cabane struts can be adjusted accordingly at their attachments to the planes and fuselage respectively. As may be seen in two of the accompanying sketches, this is done by means of the screw adjustment on the ends of the struts as shown. Only one pair of struts on each side of the fuselage separate top and bottom planes, these struts being of streamline steel tube. The attachment fittings are shown in the sketches, from which it will be seen that the top fittings are slightly different from the lower ones, which, as previously stated, are adjustable. As in other Albatros machines the main spars are located well forward, the front one being some 4 ins. from the leading edge, and spaced 2 ft. 7 1/2 ins. from the rear one. They are of the usual Albatros rectangular section, fabric bound, and are bevelled off on the top at the extremities. The ribs, which are spaced 16 1/4 ins. apart in the top plane and 13 3/4 ins. in the bottom plane - except where the interplane struts are attached where the rib is displaced by a tubular compression member - are built up of slotted-out webs and somewhat narrow flanges. Between the leading edge and the front spar the upper surface of the plane is stiffened by a false rib between each of the ribs proper.
  The lower plane is attached to an abutment built out from, and flush with the side of the fuselage. The mounting, which is shown in one of our sketches, consists of a form of bayonet socket-joint, access to which is obtained by means of doors on the under sides of the plane. As on other Albatros machines, the ailerons are given a wash out at the tips and have operating cranks working in slots in the plane. They are hinged on auxiliary spars on the top plane only. The span of the top plane is 28 ft. 4 ins. and that of the lower 26 ft. 9 ins., the chord of both being 5 ft. 9 in., and the gap 5 ft. 3 ins. The total supporting surface is 269 sq.ft.
  The stabilising plane, semi-elliptical in plan form, is divided into two parts, and is exceptionally thick (5 3/4 ins.). It is non-lifting, and is mounted, in the line of flight, without any external bracing. The framework is of wood and the covering fabric. Hinged to the trailing edge of the stabilising plane is a single elevator balanced by small triangular extensions forward of the outer extremities. A rounded vertical fin, like the stabilising plane very thick, is mounted on the top of the fuselage some distance forward of the extremity of the latter. It has 'a wood framework and a covering of three-ply. To its trailing edge is hinged the rudder, which is balanced by a triangular portion extending forward, and at the top of, the rudder post. The rear edge of the rudder does not extend further than the extremity of the fuselage. A small triangular fin, also of three-ply, is formed under the fuselage by the supports for the tail skid. The framework of the elevator and rudder is of steel tubing, covered with fabric. The rudder control cables are inside the fuselage; two small doors on the top of the latter allow for inspection and adjustment. The elevator cables also pass inside the fuselage. The junctions of the fins and stabilising planes with the fuselage are rounded off with three-ply.
  In the fuselage are to be found many points of interest. It is a modification of the standard Albatros system of fuselage construction, but differs in that it approaches nearer the true monocoque. It is, in fact, a compromise between the two, and suggests itself as an excellent solution to the problem of the "commercial" monocoque - simple in construction, low in cost, and of great strength. In section it varies from circular at the nose, to a horizontal knife-edge at the rear - being flat-sided, with rounded top and bottom in the centre. It is built up of six longerons, three a side, the central ones being of small rectangular section spruce (3/4 x 5/16 in. aft of cockpit, forward of which they are 3/4 x 3/4 in. L-section). The top and middle longerons are placed one above the other, but the bottom ones are closer together. Top and bottom members are, except at certain points, of L-section, and up to the cockpit are of spruce, forward of which ash, 1 3/16 x 1 9/16 in. is employed.
  The longerons are supported in simple transverse "formers" or ribs, reinforced at the junctions with the longerons, spaced at intervals of, roughly, 2 ft. These formers are 3/8 in. thick and 3/4 in. deep. At the tail there are two thicket formers of the shape shown in one of the sketches. Forward of the cockpit there are four transverse formers, or supports, of three-ply, carrying the engine bearers, similar to those employed on other Albatros machines. Over the whole of this framework is laid a covering of three-ply, which is tacked and screwed to the longerons and formers. There is no wire bracing, nor are there any struts, except for two forming continuations of the front cabane struts extending to the chassis strut attachment. The pilot's seat is supported by two transverse tubes adjustably mounted on two auxiliary longerons on the side of the fuselage.
  The engine, a 170 h.p. Mercedes, No. 27911, does not call for any special reference, being mounted in a similar fashion to those on previous models. The radiators, however, differ from those usually employed. They are of the honeycomb type, and are mounted one on each side of the fuselage. Above, and to the left of the camshaft, is a flat water tank, one end connected to the engine jacket, and the other end to the tops of the radiators. The lower orifices of the radiators are connected to the water pump at the rear of the engine. On each side of the engine is mounted a machine gun, synchronized for firing through the propeller. They are centred about 1 ft., and are operated by two triggers mounted on the grip of the control lever. One of our sketches shows the ammunition-feed arrangement for the two guns.
  The control lever is of the Fokker type, operating the ailerons and the elevator. It consists of a 1 3/16-in. tube mounted on a 1 9/16-in. transverse tube supported on a wooden base. A locking device is fitted whereby the lever may be locked against a fore-and-aft movement enabling the pilot to remove his hands, but operate the ailerons with his knees. This locking device, which consists of an arrangement of rods forming an articulated parallelogram, is shown in our sketch, from which other details of the control may be seen.
  The landing chassis is of the conventional V-type with rubber sprung axle carrying a pair of 760 x 100 disc wheels. Behind the axle is a transverse tubular tie rod, and the two rear struts are cable braced. The chassis is easily dismantled by withdrawing the struts from the sockets mounted on the fuselage.


Flight, July 12, 1917.

SOME 1917 TYPE GERMAN AEROPLANES.

The Albatros D. I and D. II.

  These machines are built by the Albatros works at Johannisthal, Berlin, and its various branches, and under licence by the Bavarian Aircraft Works at Munich. As a detailed description of the D. I type was given in the June 28th issue of "FLIGHT," there is no need to deal with it here. The D. II resembles it very closely, except for minor alterations. For instance, the gap between the planes has been decreased, bringing the top plane much closer to the body, to which it is attached by two sets of struts in "N" formation, sloping outward slightly after the fashion of the Sopwith one and a-half strutter. In this type no provision is made for varying the stagger. In all other respects the D. II resembles closely the D.I, small alterations in dimensions being scarcely noticeable, except under the tape measure.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Альбатрос D.I, пилот Отто Хёне, октябрь 1918г.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Альбатрос D.I, пилот - лейтенант О.Хёне, осень 1918г.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I 391/16 in its original markings as flown by Lt. Karl Buttner of Jasta 2.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I 391/16 in British markings applied immediately after capture.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I 391/16 in British markings as flown at the First School of Air Fighting at Ayr.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I 446/16.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I D.457/16 of Jasta 6 at Uguy le Quippe Aerodrome, Autumn 1916.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Albatros D.II 491/16. Most historians believe victories 4 - 16 were obtained in this machine.Richthofen was awarded the Pour le Merite, or Blue Max for victory no.16. Victories 1 - 4 were obtained in the similar Alb. D.I.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
This Albatros D.I flown by Lt. Dieter Collin of Jasta 2.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Albatros D.I flown by Lt. Dieter Collin wears the standard factory finish other than the individual marking of the letters "Co" for Collin's last name. Later the factory used darker stain to finish the wood fuselage.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I flown by Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen, crown prince of Prussia. Although commanding Fl.Abt.(A) 258, the Prinz flew this D.I on patrols with Jasta Boelcke between his two-seater missions. On 21 March 1917 the Prinz was brought down in no man's land and was mortally wounded trying to escape back to German lines. The skull and crossbones insignia used on the fuselage was also applied to the spinner.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.504/16 of Lt. Franz von Scheele of Kasta 11.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.910/16 flown by Lt. Max Bohme of Jasta 5, Gonnelieu Aerodrome, March 1917. Bohme was shot down and made POW on 4 March by Lt. Pearson, 29 Sqdn., and Lts. Graham & Boddy, 11 Sqdn. His aircraft was given British captured ID G.14.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.910/16 after being repainted by the French during evaluation at Villacoubly after being turned over to France by the British.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II(LVG) D.1071/16 Kobes flown by Lt. Josef Jacobs of Jasta 22, Vauz Aerodrome, March 1917. Jacobs went on to command Jasta 7, score 48 victories, and be awarded the Pour le Merite.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Albatros D.II D.1072/16 flown by Ltn Josef Jacobs, Jasta 22, spring 1917
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.1724/16 of Lt. Carl Emil Schaefer, Kasta 11, Morchingen Aerodrome, January-February 1917. Commanding Jasta 28, Schaefer scored 30 victories and was awarded the Pour le Merite before being KIA on 5 June 1917 in combat with FE.2ds of 20 Sqdn.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.1729/16 flown by Lt. Scheller of Jasta 19. Scheller scored four victories and survived the war.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.1747/16 of Jasta 14. The white bird was the personal insignia of the unknown pilot.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II of Jasta 14. The white bird was the personal insignia of the unknown pilot.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II flown by Off.stv. Rudolf Weckbrodt of Jasta 26, early 1917. Weckbrodt scored two victories before being KIA on 14 October 1917 while attacking an RE8 in Albatros D.V 636/17.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II flown by Vzfw. Karl Kohler of Jasta 9 Leffincourt Aerodrome, February 1917.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II of Jasta 9, Leffincourt Aerodrome, February 1917.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II of an unknown unit with the Imperial Battleflag as an insignia.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II flown by Lt. Wenig of Jasta 16b, Winter 1916/1917. Wenig scored 4 victories and commanded Jasta 80b from 25 January 1918 to the Armistice.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II flown by Oblt. Stefan Kirmaier. Kirmaier assumed command of Jasta 2 after Boelcke's death. After scoring 11 victories he was KIA on 22 November 1916 by DH.2s of 24 Sqdn.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Albatros D.II was flown by Oblt. Stephan Kirmaier, officer commanding Jasta 2 in November 1916. The single black stripe around the rear fuselage and the ribbon between the struts are the only deviations from factory standard finish.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II flown by Lt. Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen of Jasta 2, Autumn 1916. Later known as the Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen was the leading ace of the Great War.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II of Kest 4b, Freiburg Aerodrome
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
A prototype Albatros D.I fighter D.384/16 displays its clean, streamlined airframe at the factory, September 1916. It was the first fighter to use the 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine, giving it good performance while carrying two synchronized machine guns. The exhaust was routed above the wing.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
This side view of unarmed Albatros D.I D.384/16 gives another view of its clean lines, broken only by the 'ear' radiators on both sides of the fuselage. The upper wing was mounted high above the fuselage, giving the pilot a good field of view directly forward but obscuring his vision upward. The exhaust is not the production standard and the upper wing cutout is small. The elevator does not yet have aerodynamic balances used on production fighters.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Прототип истребителя "Альбатрос" D.I
The Albatros DI prototype with vertical exhaust pipe and unbalanced elevator.
The Albatros Dl was introduced to counter the DH2 and early Nieuports that had proven superior to the Fokker Eindeckers. Along with the DII they became standard equipment lor the new fighter units - the Jastas.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I 390/16 of Lt. Otto Walter Hohne of Jasta 2 takes off with other D.I fighters behind him ready to go. Hohne was wounded in action on 10 January 1917. After recovering from his wound he commanded Jasta 59 and then returned to command Jasta 2 on 26 January 1918. He was not able to lead Jasta 2 to its former success and was replaced by Karl Bolle on 20 February. He scored six victories and survived the war.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Захваченный англичанами на месте вынужденной посадки "Альбатрос" D.I лейтенанта Бюттнера из 2-й истребительной эскадрильи германских ВВС / Side view of Albatros destroyer, type D.I, 1916-17.
The Jastas were highly successful in regaining air superiority at any point on the front to which they were attached; however, the problem was that there were simply not enough of them to cover all areas. This Albatros Dl belonged to Karl Buttner of Jasta 2 in late 1916.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
The Jasta 2 Albatros D.I flown by Lt. Karl Buttner after capture and with British markings applied over the German national insignia. It was assigned British capture number G.1. For performance evaluation a pitot airspeed indicator was added to the upper starboard wing. Interestingly, Buttner's individual markings were initially left intact.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Additional photos of Albatros D.I 391/16 flown by Lt. Karl Buttner after capture and with British markings applied over the German national insignia. The ear radiators fitted to all D.I fighters and early-production D.II fighters are clearly visible.The aircraft was repainted as shown and its serial was added as shown on the facing page, apparently after formal evaluation started; at this time Buttner's personal markings were over-painted. The D.I was a clean, robust aircraft that was the initial production type of a very famous fighter family.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Three-quarter front view of the type D.I Albatros destroyer.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Front view of the type D.I Albatros destroyer.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Back view of Albatros destroyer.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
A CAPTURED GERMAN AEROPLANE. - Bringing home the spoils.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
THE ALBATROS D. 1. - Side view.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I 391/16 flown by Lt. Karl Buttner after capture and now serving in British markings at the First School of Air Combat at Ayr.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
THE ALBATROS D. 1. - Three-quarter view from behind.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
THE ALBATROS D. 1. Three-quarter view from the front.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
THE ALBATROS D. 1. - View of the nose and of the tail.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Two views of Albatros D.I 391/16 crashed while serving in British markings at the First School of Air Combat at Ayr. This crash ended the colorful career of D.I 391/16.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Armed with the standard two guns, Albatros D.I D.435/16 at the front wears a dark camouflage finish. The national insignia are applied over white backgrounds to improve contrast. This aircraft was assigned to Lt. Spitzhoff of Jasta 5.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I 436/16 ready for take off. The camouflage on the wing upper surfaces is visible. Only a single production batch of 50 D.I fighters, serials D.421/16 through D.470/16, was ordered before production was shifted to the improved D.II. Aircraft D.344-348/16 are thought to be the initial D.I prototypes. In June 1916 Idflieg ordered 12 Albatros fighter prototypes, D.380-391/16; D382/16, D.384/16, D.385/16, D.390/16, and D.391/16 are known to be D.I fighters. D.386/16 was a D.II prototype and D.388/16 was a D.III prototype.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I 446/16 ready for its next mission. It wears tactical number "7" and a dark painted rudder.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Albatros D.I 473/16 (???) visiting Jasta 5.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I fighters of Jasta 2 ready for take off.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I fighters of Jasta 2 ready to take off on 28 October, 1916. This was the mission during which Oswald Boelcke was killed in a mid-air collision with Lt. Erwin Bohme during combat with DH.2s of No.24 Squadron.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I flown by Lt. Dieter Collin of Jasta 2.This is the aircraft later flown by Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen after decoration with the death's head insignia of his Hussar regiment. The water header tank and placement of gauges/mirrors on the cabane are in the same positions when later flown by the Prinz. Lt. Collin rose to command Jasta 56 and scored 13 victories before being KIA on 25 July 1918.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Five brand new Albatros D.I fighters of Jasta 2 at Bertincourt shortly after their arrival, mid-September 1916. The right-most aircraft with the unique water header tank in front of the first cylinder, was flown by Lt. Dieter Colin, and later by Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen who would be shot down while flying it.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I fighters of Jasta 2 at Bertincourt with the unit tent hangars in the background, mid-September 1916.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Top: Albatros D.III 2051/16 in the middle and Rumpler C.I C.4633/15 at left. In the right background is the Albatros D.I fighter with skull and cross-bones insignia often flown by Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen, crown prince of Prussia.
Bottom: Manfred von Richthofen walks toward the photographer with a Albatros D.III 2051/16 behind him and Rumpler C.I C.4633/15 at left. In the right background is the Albatros D.I fighter with skull and cross-bones insignia often flown by Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen, crown prince of Prussia.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Described as the "strange green Albatros" of Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen by Hptm. Adolf Ritter von Tutschek, the details of the aircraft and its markings are well shown in this view. It confirms the skull motif was also painted on the white spinner.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
A closeup of the middle photo reveals a more detailed view of Prinz Karl's Albatros D.I and its markings. The aircraft was painted light green with the black and white Death's Head insignia on both sides of the fuselage and the spinner.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen, 2nd from left in the group of officers, with his Albatros D.I in the background.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen, crown prince of Prussia, in his Albatros D.I starting his take-off.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Postcard of the photo of Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen taking off in his Albatros D.I.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
The Albatros D.I of Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen, crown prince of Prussia, after capture. On 21 March 1917 the prince was brought down in no man's land and was mortally wounded trying to escape back to German lines.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Lt. Wolfgang Gunther of Jasta 2 models his flight gear in the "fearless aviator" pose for the photographer with his brand new Albatros D.I as a backdrop. A brand new aircraft was a good reason for a photo.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.I fighter of Jasta 6 flown by Vzfw. Carl Holler forms a backdrop for a Jasta portrait in early 1917.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
An unarmed prototype Albatros D.II at Johannisthal airfield. The D.II had a different cabane structure than the D.I, enabling the upper wing to be lowered near the pilots' eye level, giving the pilot a better field of view forward above the horizontal. After armament was fitted and serial applied, this airplane was delivered to Oblt. Oswald Boelcke at Jasta 2 as D.386/16; this was the airplane he was flying when he experienced his fatal mid-air collision with a squadron mate. The Albatros D.I seen directly behind the D.II is the one that would be flown by Lt. Dieter Collin and Prinz Friedrich Karl von Preussen as confirmed by the water header tank in front of the first cylinder and unique to this aircraft..
Pilots liked the D.I but said the upper wing was too high above their sight-line and blocked too much of the view from the cockpit, so the wing was lowered to just above the pilots' sight-line in the D.II, requiring a different cabane design. Otherwise the two types were identical. Late production D.IIs replaced the ear radiators with lower-drag airfoil radiators in the upper wing center section.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II 460/16 with dark-painted rudder rests in front of an airship hangar, perhaps that at Metz. Compared to the D.I the upper wing of the D.II is much lower and inline with the pilot's eyes, which improved his field of view.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.473/16, the second production aircraft, under new management. This aircraft was presented intact to the British when the pilot ran out of fuel behind the lines near Abbeville on 3 May 1917. Assigned captured aircraft number G.32, it was sent to England for flight evaluation.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.484/16 was from the first production batch of D.II fighters. The engine cowling panels have been removed for maintenance.
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Albatros D II (serial D 497/16).
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.497/16 retained the ear radiators of the earlier D.I fighter. The rudder was painted in a dark color and the upper surfaces were camouflaged. The national insignia were applied over white squares.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II(OAW) D.501/16 of Jasta Boelcke undergoing scrutiny from a group of men. This aircraft had been flown at times by then Lt. Manfred von Richthofen and Adolf Ritter von Tutschek who both flew with the unit in late 1916/early 1917 before being promoted to command units of their own, namely Jastas 11 and 12 respectively. Ironically, von Tutschek would replace Richthofen's mentor and friend, Paul Henning von Osteroth, who had been one of von Richthofen's pilots during his time as an observer.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Lt. Franz von Scheele's Albatros D.II 504/16 of Kasta 11.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II(OAW) 910/16 flown by Lt. Max Bohme of Jasta 5, after being downed 4 March 1917 by Lt. AJ. Pearson of No.29 Squadron, RFC and Lts. Graham and Boddy of 11 Squadron, RFC. It was assigned British capture number G.14.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II(OAW) 910/16 during evaluation at Villacoubly, France. It has been repainted in a light finish, perhaps silver, with French markings, and an auxiliary strut has been added to support the tailplane. A French propeller was fitted This aircraft had the later production airfoil radiator that eliminated the drag-producing ear radiators originally used.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II(LVG) 1076/16 of ZAK 3 (Zentral Abnahme Kommission, Abteilung ZAK 3) after being rebuilt in 1918. The painter has incorrectly repainted the serial as D.1076/17. The ZAK was responsible for managing the repair and recycling of damaged aircraft and accepting all aircraft from manufacturers; this D.II was used by the ZAK as a communications aircraft.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II D.1712/16, formerly of Jasta 17, being serviced.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II 1713/16 of Kest 4b (which later became Jasta 84 in 1918) retains the early ear radiators despite being an aircraft of the third (and last) Albatros production batch. Off-stv. Leim, who commanded the unit, is in the cockpit and the ground crew also pose for their portrait.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Rudolf Berthold of Jasta 14 in Albatros D.II 1717/i6 with its engine running ready to take off. A rack of flare cartridges is located on the side of the cockpit and an over-sized windscreen has been fitted.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Rudolf Berthold in Albatros D.II 1717/16 at Jasta 14's airfield. Berthold went on to score 44 victories; he was awarded the Pour le Merite and survived the war only to be murdered by radicals soon after the Armistice.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Lt. Emil Schaefer in his Albatros D.II 1724/16 of Kasta 11; he scored 30 victories and was awarded the Pour le Merite.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Lt. Emil Schaefer in his Albatros D.II D.1724/16 colorized by James F. Miller.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Karl Schafer in his Albatros D.II (1724/16) of Kampfstaffel 11. Marking is a white circle, edged black, on fuselage and both elevators; note rearview mirror.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros fighters of Kasta 11 with Schaefer's D.II 1724/16 at left. Schaefer was KIA on 5 June 1917 in a D.III.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros fighters of an unidentified Jasta; the fighter on the left is D.II D.1743/16. Another D.II is second in line and the third fighter in line is a D.I; the rest of the fighters appear to be D.IIs.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.IIs and D.IIIs of Jasta 17 appear in this lineup photo taken in the March-April 1917 timeframe. With the rapid pace of aerial combat and claims coming in it became important for units, not just pilots, to develop markings for identification both in the air and on from the ground. The system of triple stripe markings became the identifier of Jasta 17.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Unidentified late-production Albatros D.II with airfoil radiator.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II with Imperial Battle Flag insignia, unit and pilot unknown.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
The Albatros D II, the fighter that turned the tide of the air war in Germany's favour, at least for a while. Albatros had first flown their prototype D I fighter during August 1916 in answer to a pressing need to counter the current ascendency of the Nieuports and DH 2s. Flight testing of the D I showed it to be fast, agile and with an excellent climb rate. The type was rushed into production so fast, that the first service deliveries were being made to Jasta 2 by early September 1916! Powered by a 160hp Mercedes D III, the less than 100 D Is built proved capable of reversing the Allies former fighter superiority. Acknowledging constructive criticism from the front line pilots, Albatros set about improving forward visibility by slightly lowering the upper mainplane to produce the D II in December 1916. With the exception of the lowered upper wing, the two machines were virtually identical. Again, D IIs were rushed to the front as soon as they were completed and tested, with LVG Roland and Ufag helping to spread the production load. Well over 300 of these 109mph top level speed at sea level, twin 7.92mm Spandau-armed single seaters were to be built before production switched to the even better Albatros D III in early 1917.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II fighter of Jasta 19 wearing black and white fuselage stripes being manhandled into its hangar to repair a damaged landing gear.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
This unidentified early-production Albatros D.II appears to be in good condition despite being captured.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II fighters of Jasta 10 at Andreville, 20 December 1916.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II at left and D.III in the center showing their common fuselage design and different radiators and wing cellules - the D.II at left retains the older ear radiators.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros D IIs of Jasta 14.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II aircraft of a Jasta, perhaps Jasta 2, in the snow. These conditions were very rigorous for wooden airplanes covered in fabric, to say nothing of the pilots flying un heated aircraft with open cockpits.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
This photo was taken during the Bufa filming of Jasta 9 activities on 25 February 1917. The Caudron G4 is shown in the background of the film and also taking off, but appears not to have made the final cut. Marwitzand Kohler's Albatros D.II with the crossed swords motif on the fuselage flanks is seen here with one of those pilots. (NARA Photo Collection)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
These are stills from the Bufa (Bild und Film Amt-Picture and Film Board) film taken during a visit to the airfield of Jasta 9 at Leffincourt to film newsreel footage for a film titled Ein Kampftag an der Champagne (A Combat Day on the Champagne) taken on 25 February 1917; it is now available online at www.filmportal.de. Sequence: An automobile carrying pilots of Jasta 9 trundles on to the airfield along the flight line and pulls up to the camera. The pilots clamber out of the Benz touring car and walk to where the Staffelfuhrer, Oblt. Kurt Student, is waiting to give them their pre-flight briefing.
A Benz staff car rolls onto the flight line. The car is bringing pilots from their living quarters to their waiting aircraft. The mechanics have been busy priming cylinders and carburettors, checking coolant levels, and warming the engines.The car pulls up and the pilot's clamber out.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
The pilots walk to Staffelfuhrer Oblt. Kurt Student who waits to brief them prior to the mission. The man in the center of the group, Lt. Werner Junge, failed to return from this mission; having been severely wounded and dieing of his wounds the next day.The Albatros D.II with the crossed swords emblem is believed to have been the aircraft flown by Vzfw. Karl Kohler and Lt. Werner Marwitz. The crossed swords insignia shows that choice of personal markings was expanding away from the basic letters and numerals originally used.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
The pilot briefing ends and the pilots man their machines, get strapped in, and prepare for takeoff. All aircraft are fitted with mud guards to keep mud and debris from being flung into, and breaking, the propellers.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
The pilot of the first Albatros in the line with the checkered marking shoves the throttle forward and begins to take off; with the assist of the propeller blast the pilot immediately raises the tail off the ground.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Either Marwitz or Kohler take off next and the film crew captures it from a different angle. Again, the camera catches how responsive the tailplane was in lifting the tail off of the ground.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Jasta 9 star turn Lt. Hartmut Baldamus peers over the wing of his aircraft as the engine slowly idles. He is looking for the ground crewmen to pull the chocks so that he can take off.
After Baldamus having motioned to them, the ground crewmen grab the ropes attached to the chocks and pull them from in front of the wheels while Baldamus watches, leaning out of the cockpit to make sure the chocks and crewmen are out of the way.
Baldamus throttles up and the aircraft pulls forward while the groundcrew act as wing walkers to help maneuver the aircraft into takeoff position.
Lt. Hartmut Baldamus was a rapid scorer who, by the beginning of April 1917 had achieved 15 confirmed victories and was nearing Pour le Merite territory. He was killed in action on 14 April 1917 due to a mid-air collision with a Nieuport, which also crashed for Baldamus's 18th victory.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
From a different camera angle Baldamus' Albatros lunges forward gathering speed. Almost immediately the tail raises off the ground.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
After landing Hartmut Baldamus exits the cockpit of his Albatros D.II and jumps to the ground.
A relieved Lt. Baldamus walks away from his Albatros D.II after another successful flight and landing.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
This photo was taken by the Bufa during their visit to Leffincourt and some of the pilots in the film are shown here in posed portraits taken by Bufa photographers for distribution to card manufacturers or newspapers.
Lt. Hartmut Baldamus gives the photographer a steely glare from the cockpit in this view.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Albatros D.II(OAW) fighter flown by Lt. Knappe of Jasta 14 wears white chevrons with dark borders on top, bottom, and both sides. Interestingly, this OAW-built aircraft had LVG-style wing camouflage; were the wings replaced?
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A D II licence-built by LVG. The modestly staggered wing cellule is well shown by this photo.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Vzfw. Wilhelm Anton Seitz of Jasta 8 poses for a photo with his Albatros D.II. Seitz was later promoted to Leutnant and given command of Jasta 68. He scored 16 confirmed victories and survived the war.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
This early Albatros D.II retains the bulky ear radiators installed in the D.I. Later D.II aircraft had airfoil radiators.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Oblt. Stefan Kirmaier, Commanding Officer of Jasta 2 after Boelcke's death, and an Albatros D.II of Jasta 2.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This head-on view of an Albatros D.II shows off the fine lines of the aircraft, which are marred somewhat by the Windhoff radiators mounted on each side of the fuselage.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Oblt. Oswald Boelcke, Commanding Officer of Jasta 2, in front of what was presumably his Albatros D.II of Jasta 2, October 1916.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Manfred von Richthofen in front of what was presumably his Albatros D.II of Jasta 2, Lagnicourt airfield, November 1916. Left to right: Oblt. Stefan Kirmaier (CO), Lt. Hans Immelmann, Richthofen, and Lt. Hans Wortmann.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Vzfw. Hugo Stober of Jasta 16b shows his Albatros D.II some love. Stober shot down three aircraft before being wounded in action.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
This photo was taken by the Bufa during their visit to Leffincourt and some of the pilots in the film are shown here in posed portraits taken by Bufa photographers for distribution to card manufacturers or newspapers.
Lt. Hermann Pfeifer poses for a photo in his Albatros D.II. Pfeifer was serving with Jasta 9 at the time of this photo and scored 11 victories. He was killed testing a captured Nieuport 17 on 20 May 1917. Jasta 9 had an affinity for captured Nieuports; at least three are known to have been flown at the unit.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Hptm. Oswald Boelcke suits up for a flight in his new Albatros D.II in the Autumn of 1916. With the D.II, Boelcke got exactly what he was hoping for, a fast, stable, twin-gun platform to use as an effective tool to implement his new Jagdstaffel strategy.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
An exuberant Jasta 16 pilot puts his Albatros D.II through its paces.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
That the heavy Becker cannon was installed and tested on the Albatros D.II fighter defies belief. According to Idflieg records firing trials with this fighter were performed in November 1916. This combination may have appeared briefly at the Front for evaluation.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
THE ALBATROS D1. - A general view of the control, showing the two gun-triggers inside the grip, and immediately underneath the locking lever.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The same D.II of Flt. Abt. 21 had its undercarriage torn off in a rough landing.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Sometime in January 1917, Lt. Kralewski stood his Albatros D.II fighter on its nose at Jasta 4's Xivry-Circourt airfield. Here Kralewski stands with his Albatros in the background. An airfoil radiator located centrally in the upper wing replaced the earlier ear radiators.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Kralewski stands at center with his Albatros D.II in the background. Left to right: Werkmeister (Chief Technician) Albrecht, a naval officer, Lt. Otto Neumuller, Kralewski, ace Wilhelm Frankl, Jasta 4's paymaster. In the right background is a man about to tug on a rope attached to the plane's tail to lower it to the ground.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
"THE NAVY-THAT-FLIES." - When he was about 150 yards behind me I looked straight over him, and coming out of the loop dived at him and fired a good long burst."
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
"THE JACKALS." - The importance of keeping formation cannot be too strongly impressed upon the pilot. Loss of position is likely to lead to an adventure with the Jackals.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
AT THE ENEMY AIRCRAFT VIEW ROOMS. - Although not including all the captured German aeroplanes, this drawing gives a good idea of the excellent arrangement of these trophies, the detail construction of which can be readily inspected owing to the machines being partly stripped as shown. Commencing with the machine in the foreground, the aeroplanes are: Albatros Scout D.V., Albatros Scout D.I., D.F.W.-Aviatik, L.V.G, Albatros Fighter, and Rumpler Fighter.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
THE ALBATROS D.I. - Top: On the right a view of the exhaust side of the 170 h.p. Mercedes engine, and on the left the inlet side. Both views show the location ot the machine guns. The right-hand lower sketch gives a view of the cockpit, and on the left a view below the nose of the fuselage, showing the mounting of the chassis and the abutments for the wing attachment.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
One of the radiators mounted on the side of the Albatros D. 1.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The sockets securing the chassis struts to the fuselage. The struts may quickly be detached by loosening the bolts on the sockets.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The shock absorber on the landing chassis. It will be seen that the rubber strands are interlaced.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The Albatros D. 1. - The attachment of the cabane to the fuselage, showing the screw adjustment for alteration of stagger.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The adjustment of the top plane on the cabane.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The fuselage construction.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The quick release attachment of the lower plane to the fuselage on the Albatros D. 1.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The adjustable interplane strut attachment.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The anchorage of the lift cables on the Albatros D. 1.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The interplane strut attachment to the top plane, and the aileron crank lever.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The aileron pulley inspection door on the lower plane.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
A diagram showing the cartridge-feed to the machine guns on the Albatros D. 1.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The Albatros D. 1. - Section of fuselage at the junction of the rudder post.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The D.I type Albatros destroyer, 1917 pattern. The sketch under the tail shows the cross section of the fuselage at the line above the figure 2, and gives an idea of the great strength at that place.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The D I type Albatros destroyer, 1917 pattern. (The sketch alongside the tail shows the cross-section of the fuselage at the line opposite the figure 1.)
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Albatros D.II
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Albatros D.II
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Typical Albatros D.II three color pattern with cross fields and ear radiators based on D.II 491/16.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
Typical Albatros D.II three color pattern with cross fields and airfoil radiator based on D.II 386/16.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 4: Fighters /Centennial Perspective/ (4)
The characteristic 'banded' pattern as applied to LVG-built Albatros D.II fighters, shown here are both two-color and three-color versions.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
The Albatros D. II.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The series DI which appeared at the Front in autumn 1916.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros D.I
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros D.II
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Albatros D.I
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Albatros D.II
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
THE ALBATROS D.I "CHASER" BIPLANE. - Plan, side and front elevations to scale.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Albatros D.II