В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны
КОДРОН G.4 / "БИКОДРОН" CAUDRON G.4
В конце 1914 года братья Кодрон решили повысить летные и боевые характеристики G.3 путем установки на самолет второго двигателя. В результате получилась совершенно новая машина, обозначенная "Кодрон" G.4. Габариты аэроплана заметно возросли, но общая аэродинамическая схема (полутораплан с ферменной хвостовой частью) осталась неизменной. Двигатели в обтекаемых гондолах укреплялись на стойках бипланной коробки между крыльями.
Самолет впервые поднялся в воздух в марте 1915. Испытания показали, что за счет повышения энерговооруженности летные данные G.4 значительно улучшились. Он мог выполнять отдельные фигуры высшего пилотажа и даже петлю Нестерова. Поэтому, несмотря на гибель в одном из испытательных полетов Гастона Кодрона, аппарат признали удачным и запустили в серийное производство. Как и G.3, он выпускался на заводах Кодрон, Бритиш Кодрон Компани и AER. Всего построено более 1000 экземпляров машины в двух модификациях G.4A2 (разведчик) и G.4B2 (бомбардировщик).
G.4 начал поступать на фронт летом 1915 года. На тот момент это был лучший бомбардировщик французских ВВС. С ноября того же года, из-за возросшей активности немецкой истребительной авиации, только экипажам G.4 разрешалось совершать дневные бомбовые рейды в тыл противника. Но как и большинство своих современников, двухмоторный "Кодрон" безнадежно устарел за год боевой службы. Осенью 1916 все французские и английские G.4 перевели с фронта в учебные части. Несколько дольше провоевали "Кодроны" в Италии. В 1917 на них еще летали 11 бомбардировочных эскадрилий ВВС Италии. 20 экземпляров G.4 поступило на вооружение русских ВВС. В России они получили название "Двукодрон" или "Бикодрон". Некоторые из них имели броневую защиту (в документах обозначаются как "Кодроны блиндированные"). В середине 1917 года большинство этих машин активно применялось на русско-германском фронте. Несколько "Бикодронов" воевало на стороне красных в гражданской войне. Один из них входил в состав Первого социалистического авиаотряда, сформированного в Поволжье в 1918 году.
2 ротативных "Рона" по 80 или 100 л.с. или 2 стационарных "Анзани" по 100 л.с.
1 или 2 турели с пулеметами "Виккерс" или "Льюис". На G.4B2 - до 110 кг. бомб.
А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Кодрон G.4 1915 г.
С началом боевых действий появилась потребность в машинах, имевших радиус действия около 600 км и способных нести бомбовую нагрузку около 200 кг. Имевшиеся тогда двигатели не позволяли создать одномоторную машину, и братья Кодрон решили воспользоваться опытом строительства G.3 и создали двухмоторную машину, установив двигатели "Рон" на нижнем крыле. В основном конструкция была повторением серии G.3, за исключением увеличенного на 3,8 м размаха крыльев и добавленных в местах установки двигателей двух пар стоек.
Топливные баки и маслобаки переместились в гондолы за двигателями. В центральной гондоле размещались стрелок-наблюдатель (в носовой части) и кабина пилота. Был увеличен размах оперения и появился третий киль с рулем поворота.
Самолет не полностью соответствовал требованиям армии, но другого не было, и машина пошла в серию. Выпускалась она по лицензии в Италии и Великобритании теми же фирмами, что и G.3, и применялась на фронтах до начала 1917 года. Около 20 машин попало в Россию.
G.4 A2 - двухмоторный разведчик с двумя двигателями "Рон" (80 л. с.). Вооружение - один 7,71-мм пулемет "Гочкис".
G.4 В2 - фронтовой бомбардировщик, тот же G.4 А2, но под крылом подвешивались бомбы общей массой более 100 кг.
Размах, м 17,20/11,90
Длина, м 8,10
Высота, м 2,60
Площадь крыла, кв.м 38,00
Сухой вес, кг 841
Взлетный вес, кг 1336
число x мощность, л.с. 2 x 80
Скорость максимальная, км/ч 132
Время набора высоты, м/мин 2000/16
Дальность полета, км 340
Потолок, м 4300
Экипаж, чел 2
Вооружение 1 пулемет
110 кг бомб
В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
"Кодрон" двухмоторный 1915 г. (G-4, "Двукодрон") - ферменный четырехстоечный биплан с двумя гондолами под двигатели "Рон" в 80 л. с. и со средней двухместной гондолой (места одно за другим). Нижние пояса ферм шли почти по земле. Обтяжка крыльев в первых экземплярах была одиночной понизу (как в "Фармане-IV"). Вооружения не было. Самолет хорошо набирал высоту и имел неплохую скорость, мог делать петлю Нестерова. Было около 20 импортных самолетов, применявшихся и в гражданскую войну. Один такой самолет состоял на вооружении первой советской авиационной части - 1-го социалистического авиаотряда.
Двигатель , марка||<Гном> (2)
мощность, л. с.||80
Длина самолета, м||7,2
Размах крыла, м||16,8(11,9)
Площадь крыла, м2||38
Масса пустого, кг||680
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||290
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||500
Полетная масса, кг||1180
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||31
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||7,4
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||124
Время набора высоты 2000м, мин||16,7
Потолок практический, м||4500
Продолжительность полета, ч.||3
O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)
This curious-looking aircraft was a twin-engined derivative of the earlier Caudron G.3, which had served with the RNAS from its very early days. One Caudron G.3 (90 hp Gnome engine) was on the strength of the RNAS on 4 August 1914, when the total muster was 40 landplanes and 31 seaplanes. Subsequently, the type was widely used by the RNAS for pilot training both in Great Britain and in France.
Although used chiefly by the French Air Force over the Western Front and, to a more limited extent, by the RFC, the Caudron G .4 has a definite place in the history of the RNAS. As has been recorded elsewhere, the RNAS was quick to appreciate the value of the bomber in air operations, and as early as March 1916 the Fifth Wing, specially trained for long-range bombing duties, had taken up its station at Coudekerque under the command of Sqn Cdr Spenser Grey. In the absence of more suitable British types, the initial equipment of this Wing comprised French Breguets and Caudron G.4s. Later the Sopwith 11/2 Strutter was added. Caudron G.4s also formed part of the equipment of No.4 Wing, which arrived at Petite Snythe from Eastchurch under the command of Sqn Cdr C.L. Courtney on 11 April 1916.
The Caudrons of Nos.4 and 5 Wings, RNAS, were busily engaged during 1916 in day and night raids on German seaplane, submarine and Zeppelin bases in Belgium. On 2 August 1916 they took part in a daylight raid on the enemy aerodrome at St Denis Westrem, near Ghent, at the request of General Trenchard. The 10 Caudrons (plus one Farman) attacked in line astern, directed by Very signals from one of the five escorting Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutters, an early example of 'master-bomber' tactics.
The cumbersome Caudrons remained with the RNAS until the spring of 1917, when the Handley Page 0/100 made its appearance. One of their last major operations was against Bruges docks in February 1917 with NO.7 Naval Squadron.
Altogether, the RNAS took delivery of 46 Caudron G.4s, the parent firm supplying 39 (Nos.3289-3300 and 9101-9131), and the British Caudron Company seven (Nos.3333-3334, 3894-3895 and 3897-3899).
Nos.4 and 5 Wings, RNAS (Belgium); NO.7 (Naval) Squadron.
TECHNICAL DATA (CAUDRON G.4)
Description: Two-seat long-range day or night bomber. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
Manufacturers: Caudron Freres, Rue (Somme), Le Crotoy. Sub-contracted by the British Caudron Co.
Power Plant: Two 80 hp Le Rhone or two 100 hp Anzani.
Dimensions: Span, 55 ft 5 in. Length, 23 ft 6 in. Height, 8ft 5 in. Wing area, 427 1/2 sq ft.
Weights: Empty, 1,870 lb. Loaded, 2,970 lb.
Pelformance: Maximum speed, 82 mph at 6,500 ft; 80 mph at 10,000 ft. Climb, 33 min to 10,000 ft. Endurance, 4 hr. Service ceiling, 14,000 ft.
Armament: One machine-gun mounted in front cockpit and bombs on racks beneath wings.
G.Swanborough, P.Bowers United States Military Aircraft Since 1909 (Putnam)
CAUDRON G-IIIE-2 AND G-IVA-2
The 10 Caudron G-IVs procured by the A.E.F. had been built as “Corps d’Armee” types and retained their original G-IVA-2 designations while serving as American trainers. In design concept the G-IV, the first twin-engine military airplanes to go into action in World War I, was merely a G-III expanded to a twin-engine type using the same Le Rhone engines. As with the majority of obsolete aircraft obtained from the French, the Caudrons were delivered with French markings. The American colour arrangement was painted over the French on some, while others were flown as received.
The Caudron G.4 was produced in response to the Aviation Militaire's need for a more powerful army cooperation aircraft which could carry a forward-firing machine gun. By equipping the G.4 with two engines, Caudron increased the aircraft's range and created a position for a nose gunner. The G.3 was redesigned to permit this arrangement; the plane was enlarged and the central crew nacelle was lengthened. The observer fired a machine gun (a Hotchkiss 7-mm or a Lewis gun) on a flexible mounting in the nose. However, this arrangement did not permit the gun to be used to protect against attacks from behind. On some aircraft a crude attempt was made to rectify this by fitting a gun to the top wing fixed to fire to the rear. This arrangement proved ineffective and the gun was soon removed from the aircraft in service. The crew was equipped with a Chauchat gun or a carbine. Some G.4s were fitted with a camera for high-altitude reconnaissance.
To handle the increased weight and also provide the gunner with a better field of fire, two engines (either 80-hp Le Rhones or 100-hp Anzanis) were placed in streamlined nacelles on either side of the center fuselage. The Le Rhone engines were cowled, but the rotary Anzanis dispensed with the cowlings. The number of rudders was increased from two to four. The prototype G.4's first flight was in March 1915; Caudron built 1,358 G.4s during the war. G.4s were built by Bleriot, SPAD, and Caudron.
On 15 August 1915 there were 36 G.4s in service with the escadrilles and in the aircraft parks. By 1 February 1916 there were 161 G.4s in service as compared with 141 G.3s. On 1 August 1917 there were 215 Caudron G.4s in service. A total of 139 G.4s were with the front-line escadrilles and aviation parks, with a further 75 available but not yet in the parks. The G.4s at first supplemented the G.3s then in service and by late 1915/early 1916 had replaced the G.3s. in operational service the G.4 was initially praised for the gunner's improved field of fire, but because of its pusher layout, could not be defended against attack from the rear. Despite this serious limitation, the G.4s were used as bombers and often provided fighter escort for the slower M.F. IIs and Voisin 3s and 5s. To overcome the handicaps of their aircraft, G.4 pilots often attacked from high altitude to avoid anti-aircraft fire and fighters. In the attack role the G.4s would dive from high altitude on enemy planes and then try to escape before the Germans who survived could recover. However, the G.4s rapidly became obsolescent and as early as April 1916 the type was being criticized for having mediocre speed, limited maneuverability, poor range, and severe vulnerability to rearward attacks.
Description: Two-Seat Reconnaissance Aircraft
G.4 Caudron built G.4 A.E.R. built
Power Plant: Two 80-hp Le Rhone Engines Two 80-hp Le Rhone Engines
Span 16.885 m 16.885 m
Length 7.19 m 7.20 m
Height 2.55 m 2.60 m
Area 36.828 sq.m 36.828 sq. m
Empty 733 kg 845 kg
Loaded 1,232 kg 1,350 kg
Payload 210 kg 505 kg
Max speed 130 km/h at sea level 130 km/h at sea level
125 km/h at 2,000 m
124 km/h at 3000 m
1,000 m in 6 min. 30 sec.
2,000 m in 15 min.
3,000 m in 19 min.
4,000 m in 36 min.
Ceiling 4,300 m 4,500 m
Endurance 5 hours 4 hours
Armament: one nose-mounted Hotchkiss 7-mm or a Lewis machine gun;
the crew was also equipped with, a carbine or Chauchat gun.
Production: 1,358 51
Flight, October 22, 1915.
About the photo, on this page of the "strafed" Caudron, Noel explains that the machine was hit by a German shell almost in the motor when at a height of 2,200 metres. The 'bus caught fire, and things looked pretty serious for the pilot, who, thanks partly to his other motor and partly to sheer good piloting, managed to get back safely to the right side of the French lines.
In another photo, is seen a batch of French avions, which includes M. Farmans, Caudrons, Morane "parasols," and Nieuport scouts. The latter, of which we published illustrations and particulars some months ago, are, I believe, proving highly successful, a fact which, as they are modelled on the lines of our scouts, is no mean compliment to the Sopwith Aviation Co., who were the first to demonstate the high value of this type of machine as long ago as the summer of 1913.
Flight, December 3, 1915.
THE BRITISH-BUILT TWIN-ENGINED CAUDRON BIPLANE.
AFTER the success attained by the original French twin-engined Caudron biplanes, it is not surprising that the British Caudron Co. turned their attention to the production of similar machines and, judging from the air-work that the first of the British-built biplanes has already done during the comparatively short period since it was first tested, there seems to be every reason to expect that it will worthily uphold the reputation established by its French prototypes.
During the preliminary trials carried out a short time ago, the machine fulfilled in every way the expectations of its constructors. Without giving actual figures, it is possible to state that carrying capacity, speed, and climb are all very good, and the acquisition of a number of machines of this type should prove a valuable addition to the equipment of our Air Services.
That the development of the large machine of the future, as we have stated on more than one occasion in the past, will in all probability lie along the lines of the aeroplane with two or more engines has always appeared natural to us, partly on account of the distribution of the main load thereby obtained (although we are aware that this advantage is accompanied by certain disadvantages) and partly because this arrangement allows of using the types of engines already available when high power is desired. Another point in favour of the employment of two or more engines, and one which, by the way, has been most forcibly demonstrated by one of the French prototypes of the machine under review, and illustrated in our columns not long ago, is that in this way putting all one's eggs into one basket is avoided. Should one engine peter out, either owing to internal trouble or to damage by hostile shells, the other will give sufficient power to enable the pilot to regain his own lines under circumstances when this would have been impossible even with the flattest glide of a single-engined machine,
However, reverting to the first "twin" built by the British Caudron Co., our readers may form a very good opinion of its general arrangement from the accompanying photographs. Each of the Anzani engines is mounted in a little nacelle, which serves the double purpose of supporting the engine and its tanks, enclosing the latter in a streamline casing. The method of supporting each engine on one half of the chassis by "Vee" struts is one of the many good points of this machine, forming, as it does, a structure of great strength. Pilot and observer are comfortably installed in the central nacelle, both obtaining a very good view forward as well as downward on account of their respective positions.
Apart from the question of engines there is no radical departure from ordinary Caudron practice. The main planes are characterised by the same flexible trailing edge which has always been one of the outstanding features of Caudron machines, and one to which, no doubt, they owe a large proportion of their good stability. As in earlier models, the upper plane is of considerably greater span than the lower, the overhang being braced by struts running out diagonally from the outer inter-plane struts. One departure from standard Caudron practice will be noticed in the reduction of the amount of trailing edge of the lower plane.
From the accompanying illustrations it will be seen that the usual flexible elevator has been discarded and in its stead one of the hinged, divided type fitted. The tail plane, the angle of incidence of which is adjustable, is surmounted by four small triangular fins to which are hinged the four rudders. This large rudder area has, of course, been necessitated by the extra amount of vertical side area presented by the three nacelles, and also partly by the fact that the two inner rudders do not receive any of the "slip" from the propellers. When flying with only one engine running a large rudder area is also essential in order to counteract the turning couple. Owing to the long skids, which act as very efficient brakes when landing, the twin-engined Caudron biplane pulls up comparatively quickly, an advantage not otherwise easily obtained, as will be readily understood when it is considered that the momentum of such a great mass as that presented by two big engines, pilot and observer, and the weight of the machine itself, is of a very considerable magnitude. Constructionally the Caudron "Twin" is exceedingly well made, the workmanship and finish being of a very high standard. Some of the detail fittings, of which no description may be given at present, are highly ingenious, and are evidently the work of men who are experts in their own particular line of work. In conclusion, we wish to congratulate the British Caudron Co. on this very fine piece of work, and would express the hope that this machine may be followed by many more, and that further development along the same lines may be made to the mutual benefit of our Air Services and the Caudron Co.
Flight, July 10, 1919.
WE understand that in a few weeks' time Poulet, on a Caudron, may have a try for the Paris-Melbourne flight which the late Jules Vedrines had intended to attempt.
Flight, October 16, 1919.
Poulet's False Start
ON Sunday last, at 7.30 a.m., Etienne Poulet, accompanied by his mechanic Benoit, on his Caudron, set out from Issy-les-Moulineaux on the first stage of his flight to Australia. The fog was so thick along the Seine valley that, after covering about 30 miles, Poulet deemed it prudent to return. He made a fresh start at 12.30 p.m., but had not proceeded far, however, before magneto trouble obliged him once more to land. He made a fresh start on Tuesday morning.
Flight, October 23, 1919.
Poulet's Flight to Australia
As briefly recorded in our last issue, Poulet was able to make a start from Paris on the morning of October 14, and he succeeded in reaching Frejus. The next morning he set out for Rome, but was forced down by the bad weather at Pisedom, north of Rome, and had to wait until the following day to complete the stage to Rome. He started off on his Caudron, from the Centocelle aerodrome on October 18 for Salonika, but later in the day he arrived at Naples, where he was compelled to land on account of bad weather conditions prevailing.
Flight, November 6, 1919.
M. Poulet's Progress
M. POULET is making slow progress in his flight from Paris to Melbourne. He started from Avlona on October 22, but ran into a blizzard and had to go back. A few days later, however, he succeeded in getting on to Salonika, and on October 30 he went on to San Stefano.
Flight, November 13, 1919.
LAST week Etienne Poulet, on his Caudron, succeeded in covering one or two more stages on his journey from Paris to Australia. On the 5th inst. he made the journey from Constantinople to Konia, and on the 6th he was reported at Baghdad. The following day he reached Bushire, on the Persian Gulf, after a t r ip across the desert. On November 8, he was at Bundar Abbas, and left at 5 a.m. the next day for Karachi.
Flight, November 20, 1919.
M. Poulet's Progress
ON November 11 M. Poulet, accompanied by M. Benoit, arrived at Karachi on his Caudron biplane at 3.30 p.m. He had left Gwadar at noon and landed on British military territory. The distance between Gwadar and Karachi is about 360 miles. On arrival M. Poulet was handed by M. Beaumont, the French Consul, a gift valued at ?500.