Самолеты (сортировка по:)
Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Albatros B.I

Страна: Германия

Год: 1913

.Two-seat reconnaissance and training duties

Albatros - Pfeil-Doppeldecker - 1912 - Германия<– –>Albatros - DE / WDE / Militar-Doppeldecker - 1913 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


АЛЬБАТРОС B-I/B-II/B-III / ALBATROS B-I/B-II/B-III

  Весной 1914 года молодой талантливый инженер Эрнст Хейнкель возглавил конструкторское бюро фирмы Альбатрос Флюгцойгверк в Иоханнештале. Под его руководством была разработана серия чрезвычайно удачных многоцелевых двухместных бипланов, получивших наибольшее распространение в немецкой фронтовой авиации на раннем этапе Первой мировой войны.
  Все они имели деревянный фюзеляж-полумонокок с работающей фанерной обшивкой и характерную стреловидную форму оперения. На всех стояли однорядные двигатели жидкостного охлаждения с тянущим винтом. Крылья с деревянным каркасом, полотняной обшивкой и межкрыльевыми стойками из стальных труб каплевидного сечения.
  Первым появился трехстоечный "Альбатрос" B-I, установивший летом 1914-го несколько авиационных рекордов. Вскоре за ним последовал "Альбатрос" B-II несколько меньших размеров с двухстоечной бипланной коробкой.
  Оба типа были приняты на вооружение и выпускались в большом количестве на заводах фирм Альбатрос (включая филиал Остдойч Альбатрос Верк - OAW), Бавариш Флюгцойгверк (BFW), Авиатик, Кондор, Роланд, Меркюр и Линке-Хоффман.


ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
  B-I и B-II - "Мерседес", 100 или 120л.с., или "Бенц", 110 л.с. или "Аргус", 120 л.с.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
  Не предусмотрено.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   B-I
  Размах, м 14,5
  Длина, м 8,6
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 44,2
  Сухой вес, кг 747
  Взлетный вес, кг 1080
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 105
  Время набора высоты, м/мин 800/10


А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России


Трудно установить, "Авиатик Б. I" походил на "Альбатрос Б. I" или наоборот: тот же 100-сильный мотор, те же радиаторы "Хазет", та же двух- или трехстоечная коробка крыльев... Следует искать более мелкие отличия. Фирма "Альбатрос Верке АГ" (Albatros Werke AG) была основана в 1909 г. и первой ее продукцией стали выпускавшиеся по лицензии аппараты французской конструкции "Антуанетт", "Фарман", "Соммер" (Antoinette, Farman, Sommer). Затем последовали "Голуби" Этриха различных конфигураций, а всего за 1911-1913 г.г. компания произвела 106 бипланов и 37 монопланов. После назначения в 1913 г. главным конструктором Эрнста Хейнкеля (Ernst Heinkel) началась работа над машинами класса Б, чье рождение было подготовлено трудами дипломированного инженера Громана (Grohmann). Первая модель не получила широкого распространения, хотя в 1914 г. она являлась одной из основных в германской авиации. Ее прочный, обшитый плоскими фанерными листами корпус повторялся в более поздних типах. Первоначально его не красили, а только лакировали. Форма руля приобретала со временем угловатые очертания (22), тогда как каждый элерон по-прежнему начинался у второй от края крыла стойки. Радиаторы состояли из 14 секций, по 7 с каждого борта, такого их числа хватало, чтобы охладить двигатель мощностью не более 110 л. с. Мало того, в зимнее время часть секций укутывали брезентом, и тогда на каждый цилиндр мотора приходилось лишь по одному сегменту радиатора (23). Винты стояли разные, как, например, "Интеграл" в данном случае. Довольно скоро после начала войны авиаторы убедились в необходимости иметь автоматическое оружие, и наблюдатели превратились еще и в стрелков. Ружье "Мадсен" (Madsen) образца 1902 г. калибром 7,62 мм, весом около 9 кг и скорострельностью 400-450 выстрелов в минуту оказалось в России первым в ряду артиллерийского (по тогдашней классификации) вооружения авиации, появившись в арсенале в начале 1915 г. На фотографии 24 (из коллекции ЦГАКФФД) мы видим установку полевого типа, т. е. сконструированную прямо в части, на аппарате "Альбатрос Б. II" или "Альбатрос Б. I" 7-й авиароты, причем ружье экипировано магазином максимальной вместимости на 40 патронов (еще существовали рожки на 25 и 30 зарядов). Несмотря на дефект оригинала, крупный план позволяет рассмотреть массу деталей и, в частности, заднюю верхнюю часть мотора "Мерседес". Немцы снабжали "Альбатросами Б. I" и своих австро-венгерских союзников, у которых эти аэропланы, наряду с бипланами Б. II, были сначала известны под порядковыми номерами, а затем как серия 21. Захваченная русскими, одна из таких машин с номером 21.20 запечатлена на снимке 25 (из коллекции Т. Копанского).
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O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Albatros B I
  Designed and built before the war, small numbers of the B I were impressed for reconnaissance and school duties in August 1914. As was usually the case with these early machines, the pilot sat in the rear cockpit. One-bay and two-bay variants also existed. Engine, 100 h.p. or 110 h.p. Mercedes D I or D II. Span, 14.48 m. (47 ft. 6 1/8 in.). Length, 8.57 m. (28 ft. 1 1/2 in.). Height, 3.15 m. (10 ft. 4 in.). Weights: Empty, 747 kg. (1,643.4 lb.). Loaded, 1,080 kg. (2,376 lb.). Speed, ca. 105 km.hr. (65.625 m.p.h.). Climb, 800 m. (2,624 ft.) in 10 min. Duration, ca. 4 hr.


J.Herris Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Vol 1: Early Two-Seaters (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 24)


Albatros B-Types

  Before the war inherent stability was viewed as important to both safety of flight and a steady platform for reconnaissance. The Taube configuration addressed stability very well, but had low performance due to its high drag, and designers increasingly experimented with biplanes. Albatros explored biplanes to the Taube wing planform and transitioned to biplanes with more conventional wings. However, most of these had complex strut bracing that created more drag than necessary.
  During the latter part of 1913 the Albatros company delivered a new military biplane design that was a great improvement over previous Albatros designs. This design, the DD, was later re-designated the Albatros B.I, and it was shortly followed by the DDK, later re-designated the B.II. These two types, which carried the observer in the front cockpit for better field of view forward and downward, were very important reconnaissance planes during the early months of the war and production built up rapidly. Their general reliability and practical performance made them excellent warplanes for the demanding duties required. The B.II design was developed into the armed C.I that was one of the most important early C-types, and both the B.I and B.II were used extensively for training after retirement from the front. In fact, the B.II was produced for training duties until the Armistice due to its benign flying qualities and robust airframe, and production for training exceeded production for combat use.

Designations

  Early aircraft type designations were informal and generally specified by the manufacturer. Furthermore, they were not always consistent. In August 1915 Idflieg rationalized military type designations,- the three-bay Albatros B-type, the DD, became the B.I and the two-bay type, the DDK, became the B.II. For clarity the final B.I and B.II designations are used below.
  Prior to introduction of designations like B.I and B.II, aircraft were only identified by their class letter and military number. For example, B.213/13 was an early Albatros B.I.


Albatros B.I

  The Albatros DD was revealed in December 1913. It was a clean, simple, robust three-bay biplane powered by a 100 hp Mercedes engine; later production aircraft were powered by a wide variety of engines of similar horsepower to maximize the number of aircraft that could be built. The DD was designed by a team led by Albatros technical director Diplom-Ingenieur Robert Thelen and Hellmuth Hirth, both of whom were experienced pilots acclaimed for their achievements during flight competitions.
  The fuselage structure was based on the work of Ober-Ingenieur Hugo Grohmann, who had developed an innovative semi-monocoque fuselage in 1912. This resulted in a robust yet light-weight wood structure that enabled good performance and reliability. The welded steel-tube center section was a key element in this otherwise wood structure, and included the center-section struts supporting the upper wing. This steel structure also formed an attachment point for the rear legs of the undercarriage. The steel structure was lighter than an equivalent wood structure, gave good strength and rigidity, and gave the crew better protection in event of a crash; wood splintered and these splinters could cause grievous injuries.
  Initial pilot feedback included concerns that the new type was insufficiently stable; this was understandable given many of the early pilots had flown excessively stable Taube types. However, Albatros responded with new, enlarged tail surfaces that improved stability and control. In July 1914, the Fliegertruppe instructed Albatros to build new aircraft using the larger tail and to retrofit existing aircraft. Later in production Albatros lengthened the fuselage by 0.56 meters, further improving stability. The lengthened fuselage was introduced with the heavier 150 hp Benz Bz.III engine and also served to balance the heavier engine.
  To further enhance the DD's reputation, and thereby sales, Albatros went about establishing new world records. Thelen established an altitude record for four passengers on 11 February 1914 and followed that with a three-passenger altitude records on 20 March. Thelen also demonstrated the DD at Hendon on 27 March to generate British sales. On 28 May 1914 Werner Landmann established a world duration record of 21:50 hours and on 11 July Reinhold Boehm set a new record of 24:10 hours; both flew the same aircraft that was powered by a 75 hp Mercedes. Additional altitude records were set at Vienna's Flugmeeting at Aspern on 27 June 1914 by Ernst von Lossl flying a DD powered by a 140 hp Hiero engine.
  Observing the DD's excellent performance and reliability, the Fliegertruppe ordered the type in large numbers for the time and Albatros was able to ramp up production to meet the needs, even supplying the Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrtruppe with aircraft.
  The DD, designated the B.I in military service, was a safe, stable aircraft with good flying qualities, so good that it was successful as a trainer. Originally unarmed, the B.I could carry light bombs for nuisance bombing and could also carry primitive wireless-telegraphy equipment for artillery spotting. Initially the bombs were carried in the cockpit and thrown out by hand; later vertical bomb racks were fitted.
  The three-bay B.I and two-bay B.II were built in parallel and the serial numbers appear to have been assigned in order of acceptance instead of as part of specific production batches. This makes the number of B.I aircraft built impossible to determine with accuracy, but the number appears to be in the range of 220-250 aircraft. The German Navy operated 40-45 B.I aircraft, some purchased directly and others transferred from the Army. The Bavarian Air Service independently purchased 12 Albatros aircraft on 6 October 1914; these were also B.Is. The Austro-Hungarian Luftfahrtruppe operated 30 Albatros B-types and four of them were B.Is. These were former German Army serials B.86/14, B.87/14, B.127/14, and B.128/14; they were assigned serials 21.27-21.30 in LFT service. On 4 June 1915 Idflieg informed the Bavarian Air Service that the B.I was no longer in production; it had been replaced by the two-bay B.II that had superior performance and was cheaper to build and maintain.
  The German Navy wanted air-launched torpedoes and contracted with both Albatros and LVG to build land plane torpedo carriers. In response Albatros modified a B.I to carry a Whitehead C 35/91 torpedo, the smallest in the German inventory. This torpedo, 35 cm in diameter, was 4.5 meters long and weighed 318 kg, a challenging load for a B.I, yet it was lighter than the C45/91 torpedoes used by the German Navy that weighed 541-550 kg depending on subtype. In the S.69 experimental torpedo plane the torpedo was carried on a launching mechanism integrated into the landing gear. This lowered the torpedo below the aircraft for launching just above the water. Trials at Travemiinde demonstrated that lowering the torpedo for launching endangered the aircraft and the experiments was quickly abandoned. Details of the trial are not available but the problem
may have been pitch instability, which could be disastrous at low altitude. However, further trials with a modified LVG B.I confirmed the potential of airborne torpedoes as stated in a Navy report of 29 October 1915. The Navy also stated that landplanes were not acceptable for torpedo bombing, although no reason was given, and subsequent WWI German torpedo bombers were all twin-engine floatplanes. In late November 1915 permission was given for the S.69 prototype to be converted to a floatplane; no further information is available.


Albatros B-Type Specifications
Albatros B.I Albatros B.II & B.IIa Albatros B.III
Engine 100 hp Mercedes D.I * 100-120 hp Argus, Benz, Sc Mercedes 120 hp Mercedes D.II
Span, Upper 14.48 m 12.80 m 11.0 m
Span, Lower - 11.10m -
Chord, Upper 1.80 m 1.80 m -
Chord, Lower 1.80 m 1.80 m -
Gap 1.80 m - -
Stagger - 0 -
Length 8.00 m (short fus.) 8.56 m (long fus.) 7.76 m 7.8 m
Height 3.15 m - -
Wing Dihedral - 2° (upper Si lower) -
Wing Sweepback - 0.5° -
Wing Area - 40.64 m2 -
Empty Weight 752 kg 725 kg -
Loaded Weight 1,197 kg 1,165 kg -
Maximum Speed 100 km/h 105 km/h -
Climb to 800m 10 minutes - -
Climb to 2,000m 35 minutes - -
* Other engines used: 75 hp Mercedes, 120 hp Mercedes D.II, 100 hp Benz Bz.II, 150 hp Benz Bz.III, 150 hp Rapp Rp.III, 140 hp Hiero


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


20. Flugzeuge der Phönix-Flugzeugwerke, vormals Österr. Albatros
21.01 — 21.29 Albatros B.I (dt. Albatros) Merc 100


Журнал Flight


Flight, April 4, 1914.

THE 100 H.P. ALBATROS BIPLANE.

  EVIDENTLY the German constructors have confidence in the ability of their products to compete against machines of British manufacture, for again a German machine - this time a 100 h.p. Albatros biplane - has arrived in this country with a view to being submitted to tests at Farnborough. As regards workmanship and soundness of construction, this latest arrival to these shores must be admitted to be equal to the best of British machines, and judging by the amount of flying done on these machines in Germany and the popularity that they have attained in that country, there is every reason to believe that they are as efficient aerodynamically as they are robust constructionally. The machine, of which we publish scale drawings and illustrations this week, arrived at Hendon on the morning of Friday last on its lorry, and was in the air the same afternoon.
  After giving the engine - a 100 h.p. Mercedes - a preliminary run, the pilot, Herr Robert Thelen, had the machine wheeled up on the pier in front of the Grahame-White offices, and, when warned against the soft ground at the end of the pier, he laughingly replied that he would be off by the time he got to the soft ground. As the wheels reached the end of the pier the nose of the machine shot upwards, the tail skid touched the ground and the great biplane climbed upwards at an angle reminiscent of the little Sopwith flown by Mr. Hawker.
  Like the majority of German machines, the Albatros biplane is of the tractor type, but the wings are straight, as seen in plan view, instead of being swept backwards as in several other machines hailing from that country. Among the many interesting features the construction of the fuselage is worthy of notice, for it is built up without the use of the ordinary diagonal cross bracing, the necessary rigidity being obtained by the covering, which is of three-ply-wood.
  According to calculations carried out by the Albatroswerke and corrected by Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fur luftfahrt, the factor of safety of the fuselage of the Albatros biplane is about 60, and the bending resistance of this type of fuselage is 2.5 times greater than that of a diagonally wired fuselage of the same outside dimensions and having members of the size usually employed in structures of this type. The Versuchsanstalt also states that the Albatroswerke are justified in concluding that the bending resistance of the veneer type of fuselage is greater than that of a cross wired fuselage of the same weight.
  There are six longerons of ash, one in each corner of the rectangular section fuselage and one about half-way up each side. The struts are also of ash, and occur at frequent intervals along the whole length of the fuselage. The three-ply covering is tacked to struts and longerons. From the nose up to a point in front of the tail fin the deck of the fuselage is given a streamline form by means of a curved turtleback, whilst the under surface is flat.
  The 100 h.p. Mercedes engine is mounted on strong ash bearers in the nose of the fuselage, and the radiator as will be seen from the accompanying illustrations is supported on brackets immediately above the engine. The pilot's and passenger's seats are arranged tandem fashion inside the roomiest portion of the fuselage, the pilot occupying the rear seat. Between the passenger's seat and the engine are the petrol and oil tanks, which have a capacity sufficient for a flight of 4 1/2 hours' duration. The seats are unusually comfortable, being well upholstered. A neat instrument board, carrying a variety of instruments, is situated in front of the pilot's seat, as shown in one of the sketches, whilst in front of the passenger or observer is a small folding table.
  The chassis is of a very simple type, and consists of two pairs of V tubes of steel carrying the large diameter tubular axle, which is sprung from the chassis by means of rubber cord. Leather guards protect these cords against contact with the ground in a heavy landing and prevent them from being splashed with mud. Pivoted around the wheel axle, and operated by means of a cable from the pilot's seat, is a very effective brake, which pulls the machine up very quickly on landing; it may also be used to prevent the machine from going forward while the pilot is testing his engine before a flight. By means of this brake and the hand-operated starter, the pilot is able to start the machine without any outside assistance, a very desirable feature in a machine for military purposes.
  The main planes, as will be seen from the accompanying scale drawings, have the two main spars comparatively close together, the rear spar occurring about half way along the chord. The rear portion of the wing therefore possesses a considerable amount of flexibility, further increased by having the extreme rear part of the wing single surfaced for a distance of about a foot from the trailing edge. This, it will be seen, provides a form of progressive springing of the trailing edge, to which the machine no doubt owes a considerable amount of its lateral stability. Ailerons are fitted to both upper and lower planes, and the crank levers for operating these are not set at right angles to the planes, as it is usually done, but lie parallel to the planes and work in slots cut in the upper plane. From the end of these crank-levers cables pass round pulleys in the lower plane, and thence to the control wheel. The ailerons on the lower plane are set at a slightly negative angle of incidence, thus probably further enhancing the lateral stability.
  Streamline steel tube struts connect the planes, and the attachment of these struts to the spars is highly original. A steel shell of the shape shown in the accompanying sketch rests on a paper fibre pad shaped to fit the curvature of the plane. Inside the shell is carried a steel ring, to which are anchored the cross-bracing cables, or, more correctly speaking, the turnbuckles for the cables. A bolt passes through the shell and the spar, and is locked on the other side of the plane by means of a nut.
  The wings are attached to the fuselage by vertical bolts, as shown in the sketch, whilst the upper planes are secured at the centre to a cabane consisting of four streamline steel tubes bolted to the upper longerons of the fuselage, and carrying at their upper extremities a horizontal tube which is provided with flanges for the attachment bolts. By undoing half a dozen bolts, the planes can be detached from the fuselage, and folded flat against one another without removing the inter-plane struts. We understand that three sets of main planes of different size can be used for the same fuselage according to whether the machine is wanted to be speedy, for scouting work, or slower but with a greater weight-carrying capacity. Some of these machines, we learn, can even be converted into monoplanes by fitting a single pair of wings in the usual place. The cabane mentioned above then serves as a support for the upper bracing cables. Also the machine may be turned into a seaplane by substituting floats for the wheels.
  The tail planes are of the usual type, consisting of a fixed stabilizing plane, to the trailing edge of which is hinged the divided elevator. A triangular vertical fin is mounted on top of the fuselage and secured to the stern-post, which also carries the rudder. A strong tail skid, sprung by rubber bands, protects the tail planes against contact with the ground.
  With the medium-sized wings fitted at present, the machine has a speed of about 70 m.p.h. and weighs about 1,500 lbs. empty. The workmanship and finish are excellent, and the behavior of the machine in the air, as far as it was possible to judge from a flight with Herr Thelen, appears to be very good. When struck by gusts or running into remous the machine rose and sank on an even keel, the ailerons rarely being called into play. The climbing capabilities are extremely good for a machine of this size, and the speed range, without knowing the actual figures, seems to be considerable. With the engine throttled right down the machine glided very flat, but even when flying absolutely cabre we did not notice any tendency whatever to side-slip, nor did the pilot appear to experience any difficulty in getting her nose down again. On steeply banked turns, the bank being increased by using the ailerons, the considerable side area of the fuselage appeared to prevent side-slipping.
  We understand that if the machine passes her tests, and there are reasonable prospects of repeat orders, it is the intention of the Albatros firm to establish a factory in this country.


Flight, April 11, 1914.

ROBERT THELEN.

  NOT only is Robert Thelen one of the most prominent of German pilots, but he is also one of the pioneers, for his certificate is numbered 9, and he was the third to learn on a Wright biplane in Germany. For a considerable time past he has been flying the Albatros biplane, and it is in order to demonstrate this type of machine to the British Government officials that he is at present in England. It will be recalled that he holds the world's height record for pilot and three passengers with 3,750 metres.
THE HAWK.


Flight, April 18, 1914.

SOME IMPRESSIONS OF A CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT.

  "I AM taking the Albatros biplane to Farnboro this afternoon. Would you care to accompany me ?" This was the invitation I received the other day from Herr Thelen, the famous pilot of the Albatros biplane. Needless to say I accepted the invitation, and a few minutes afterwards we were on our way to the Hendon Aerodrome. Arrived there the mechanics were busy filling up tanks and going over everything to see that the machine was in order, while Herr Thelen and I sat down to study the map. I had, of course, been to Farnborough several times, but never by air, whilst Herr Thelen was perfectly unacquainted not only with the route but also with the place itself.
  However, after consulting Mr. E. R. Whitehouse and obtaining some valuable information from him as to the best route to follow, we decided that, as it was a comparatively clear day, we ought to be able to find our way, and so we climbed on board and, after a preliminary run of the engine, Herr Thelen gave the order to let go and we were off. A couple of circuits of the Aerodrome gave us sufficient altitude to set out across country, and soon we were heading past the Welsh Harp, which glittered bright below.
  According to the directions given us by Mr. Whitehouse we should leave Harrow on our right. I looked for it in vain for some moments, first through the windscreen and later, as Harrow-on-the-Hill refused to reveal itself through the mica screen, I craned my neck in order to look over it; my efforts were rewarded, for there, on the right, I could discern the church. From this height, however, it was a little difficult to understand how Harrow has derived its appellation, for of the Hill, on which I knew the church to be built, I could see no signs; it looked, in fact, as fiat as all the surrounding country. This is one of the difficulties of cross-country flying, you may be coming down in a field which looks flat from above, but which, on closer examination, turns out to be the side of a hill.
  The weather had been beautifully calm when we left Hendon, the pen on the wind gauge dragging itself lazily along the O line, but clouds were gathering and it looked for some time as though the element in which we were flying was going to be semi-aquatic. Shortly after passing Harrow we ran into a remous which caused us to drop a considerable distance. The sensation, when the "solid" air was met again, was exactly similar to that experienced on a ship in a rough sea.
  In a few minutes we could see the reservoir at Staines approaching rapidly, and as this was one of the landmarks we had to pass, I began to feel that it would probably be easier to find our way than I had anticipated, in spite of the mist which hung over the Thames Valley and prevented us from seeing more than a couple of miles in any direction. Near the Staines reservoir a balloon flying very low passed immediately underneath us, and was soon out of sight again.
  After indicating to Herr Thelen, by means of a sort of deaf and dumb system decided on before the start, to lay the course a little more to the South, I fell to experimenting with locating various places on my map. The numerous bends in the river around Staines afforded excellent opportunities for doing so, and I was thinking that I was doing rather well, when it suddenly dawned upon me that I was holding my map the right way up - that is to say with the North arrow pointing away from me - whilst we were flying in a South-Westerly direction and that, therefore, the bends in the river, which I saw on the right, were to the left of our course as I was looking at it on the map. By the time I had got the map turned round we had left the river behind, and I was suddenly disturbed in my geographical studies by a yell from the pilot. Looking back I saw him pointing to the South, where, after a few moments, I picked out the race track at Brooklands.
  I now began to look out for the sheds at Farnborough, which I had been told one could see - in clear weather of course - shortly after passing the reservoir at Staines. I soon picked out the London and South-Western Railway, which was, however, far less conspicuous than were the roads, which, as they were dry, were plainly visible from above. In front and on the right I saw a white sheet which at first I took to be Virginia Water and, thinking that we had turned too far North I was just going to give directions to turn a little to the left, when an emerging train drew my attention to a tunnel which I located on the map, and according to this we should be very close to Farnborough, so that evidently the white sheet on the right could not be Virginia Water. Later I realised that it must have been one of the numerous commons around this part of the country. I looked in all directions but could see no signs of our destination until I happened to look straight down and there, vertically below us were the huge dirigible sheds. I pointed them out to Herr Thelen, and soon we were circling down in wide spirals in order to ascertain the best landing place, as I was not sufficiently well acquainted with the ground near the sheds to know exactly where to land. Skimming along a few feet above the ground we were rapidly approaching the sheds, when the pilot opened out the throttle fully and we shot up over the hangars and made another circle around the factory and sheds at a low altitude, and a few moments later alighted in front of the hangars, to be quickly surrounded by numerous members of the R.F.C., who immediately commenced an interested examination of the machine. From the comments overheard it was evident that the general impression of the machine was favourable. I must give a word of praise to the Mercedes engine, for throughout the whole trip she ran beautifully, and, as far as I was able to judge, never misfired once from the time we left Hendon until we reached Farnborough.
  After filling up the tanks of the machine Herr Thelen proceeded to put her through the tests, the first of which was the climbing test. Accompanied by the official observer and with a full load of fuel the machine reached the required altitude of 3,000 feet in exactly eight minutes. Next to be passed were the speed tests, which were flown over a measured course, three times in each direction for the fast speed, and twice in each direction for the slow speed. The results of the speed tests were not available when we left Farnborough, so I am unable to give them here.
  After going through the speed tests the machine was taken out on the rather rough ground at the upper end of Laffan's Plain in order to go through the rolling tests, which were, I understand, passed satisfactorily. The last remaining test consisted in landing inside a circle marked on the ground with white. The machines must touch the ground inside the periphery of the circle and come to a stop before reaching the opposite periphery. Herr Thelen manoeuvred the machine so skillfully, that the wheels touched just a few inches inside the line, and by vigorous application of the brake, which sent the turf flying in all directions, he succeeded in bringing the machine to a standstill in the centre of the circle. This concluded the tests, and after giving the mechanics orders to put the machine into the hangar we returned to London by train. On thinking over my experiences after getting home, the thought occurred to me that I had travelled by a goodly number of different conveyances during the day, firstly, tube to Golder's Green, thence by tram to Edgware Road, from where I proceeded by bus to Collindale Avenue. From Hendon to Farnborough by air thence by motor to Farnborough Station, and the final stage home by train. Truly we live in a wonderful age.
C.M.P.


Flight, June 5, 1914.

THE PRINCE HENRY CIRCUIT, 1914.

MACHINES IN PRINCE HENRY CIRCUIT.

The Albatros Biplane is practically identical with the machine flown at Hendon by Herr Thelen recently, when it was fully described in the columns of FLIGHT. The fuselage of this machine, it will be remembered, is built up without the use of internal cross wiring, the necessary rigidity being provided by the three-ply wood with which the fuselage is covered.

J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.27/14 carried the pre-war marking of a black stripe under each lower wing. This aircraft was later designated a B.I
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I B.241/13 assigned to Feld-Flieger Abteilung 19. This early aircraft had national insignia on upper and lower surfaces of the lower wing and none on the upper wing. The rudder cross has a crown, the letter 'W', and the date '1914' superimposed on it, a literal interpretation of the Iron Cross medal.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I of an unknown unit on the Easter Front, 1915. This aircraft had the enlarged vertical tail and decorated wheel covers.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I Hindenberg was named in honor of the hero of the Battle of Tannenburg. Assigned to Feld-Flieger Abteilung 2, it was flown by Wunderlich and Oblt. Schulz.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I WEDDIGEN was named in honor of the captain of U-9, Otto Weddigen, who sank the RN cruisers Cressy, Aboukir, and Hogue on 22 September 1914. It was assigned to Feld-Flieger Abteilung 2.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
This Albatros B.I was armed with a flexible Parabellum machine gun for the observer in the front cockpit. The dark wheel cover is shown as red but may be another dark color other than black. This aircraft, from an unidentified unit, was active in 1915.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I S.69 is shown here after modification for torpedo carrying trials by the German Navy.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I in IRAS markings after capture by the Russians. This aircraft was photographed after being re-captured by the Germans in 1915.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I LA 12 of the Netherlands Air Service in 1915. Prior to internment it was B.521/14 in German army service.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I 21.28 of the k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe assigned to Flik 8 and written off there on 27 April 1915. It was formerly B.87/14 in German service before purchase by Austria-Hungary.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
This Albatros DD was photographed in December 1913 at Johannisthal, location of the main Albatros factory. It was powered by a 100 hp Mercedes and had a Windhoff radiator above the engine. Its strut bracing was much simpler than earlier Albatros biplanes. It has the early, low profile fin and rudder. (Peter M. Bowers Collection/The Museum of Flight)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros DD flown by designer Thelen on a sales tour to the UK at Hendon. It survived in British service into 1918.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered Albatros DD with the early low-profile fin and rudder at a pre-war aviation meet.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
This Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I was used pre-war for flight training.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
A reconnaissance two-seater, having the radiator mounted above the engine.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros DD (B.I) fitted with 140 hp Hiero at the International Flugmeeting in Aspern where pilot Ernst von Lossl used it to set two world records; 4,240 m with two passengers and 4,770 m with three passengers, both on 27 June 1914. No national insignia were applied to this pre-war aircraft.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The Albatros in flight.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
View from below of the Albatros in flight.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
The Albatros DD became the B.I. Shown here with a 100 hp Mercedes, when powered by a 75 hp Mercedes this aircraft was used by Landmann and Boehm to break the world flight duration record in May and again in July 1914.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros DD surrounded by troops, probably pre-war.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Photographed at the Albatros factory, this is thought to be the first Albatros B.I fitted with the 150 hp Benz Bz.III; its fuselage was lengthened to balance the heavier engine.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
The Albatros B.I was powered by a variety of engines using drag-producing side radiators. Larger vertical tail surfaces improved the aircraft's in-flight stability and were adopted for most production B.I aircraft.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.820/14 in the field with the later fin and rudder. The rudder appears to have been recently recovered.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
This Benz-powered Albatros B.I has been modified to carry a flexible, defensive machine gun for the observer, who still occupies the front seat, restricting his field of fire. At this stage a national insignia is on the fuselage and the redundant insignia beneath the upper wing and above the lower wing have been eliminated. The attachment of the forward cabane strut of Benz-powered B.I aircraft was farther forward on the nose than that of Mercedes-powered aircraft like the example below.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I L.F.78(W.Nr. 494) arrived on 20 September 1915, was with the II Marine Feldflieger Abteilung (II MFFA) on 29 October 1916, and was written off on 17 November 1917. The aircraft appears to be named Grossmuller.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros B I
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I piloted by Hptm. Eberhard von der Decken of FFA 61.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I S.48 trainer in naval service ("S" for Schulflugzeug = trainer). Its works number was 474. The airframe was accepted by the Freiwilliges Marine Fliegerkorps (FMF, or volunteer navy flying corps) on 27 November 1914, and the engine (a Mercedes D.I) was accepted on 4 December 1914. The photo was apparently taken just 20 days later on 24 December 1914 at Johannisthal.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I S.111 was flown by the volunteer Marine Fliegertruppe; it was W.Nr.473 accepted 16 February 1915.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I photographed on the Eastern Front in Poland and issued as a Sanke card.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Unusually, this Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I carries its national insignia far forward on the fuselage. The rudder insignia is much smaller than that on the aircraft in the background.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
This Benz-powered Albatros B.I of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 23 at Roupy in 1916 was flown by pilot Vzfw. Josef Veltjens and observer Lt. von Ziegesar. Veltjens later became a successful fighter pilot, scoring 33 confirmed victories, being promoted to Leutnant, and being awarded the Pour le Merite. He flew Albatros, Fokker, and SSW fighters during his career and survived the war. Ziegesar became a fighter pilot as well, and served alongside Veltjens (and Berthold) in Jastas 14, then 18 and finally 15. He scored three confirmed victories and was even acting CO of Jasta 15 from 12 August to 18 August 1918. He also flew the Fokker D.VII and SSW D.III.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I of Feld-Flieger Abteilung 25 with its crew of Leutnants Hermann Goring (at left) and Bruno Loerzer. Both men later transferred to fighters and became noted aces, each winning the Pour le Merite and surviving the war, Goring with 22 victories and Loerzer with 44. Goring later became notorious for his role in the Third Reich. A Benz engine provided the power.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Unidentified Albatros B.I. The civilian dress of at least two of men, the insignia on the tail, and the hangars in the background indicate a wartime flight school.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Benz-powered Albatros B.l captured by the Russians and recaptured by the Germans.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I trainer; instructor August Quoos in cockpit with students in front.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered B.I B.30/14 and its crew sit for a portrait.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I B.537/14 carries a bomb-dropping device under its fuselage. The men are apparently the air crew and ground crew.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I 817/14 ready for another training flight with August Quoos as instructor pilot (in back cockpit) and Lt. Kumme as the flight student at the Military flying school at Hundsfeld.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
This Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I was piloted by Lt. Busso von Bulow; Lt. Gerhard Nette in the front seat was the observer.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Mercedes-powered Albatros B.I ready for take off with the pilot in his cockpit and engine running.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I S.69 was converted to conduct torpedo-dropping trials and is seen here with the small-caliber it was designed to carry. The landing gear was modified to enable the torpedo to be carried. The trials were considered to be unsuccessful and all later WWI German torpedo bombers were floatplanes. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/SDTB)
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I LA12 of the Netherlands air service (formerly B.521/14 in German service) enjoys a day at the beach.
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 22)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 23)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 24)
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 25)
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Herr Thelen in the cockpit of the Albatros.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
HERR THELEN.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Pilot's cockpit on Albatros.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Albatros B.I reconnaissance airplane after a bad landing, a common occurrence on the rough, wartime airfields.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Two views of a crashed Albatros B.I. At this early stage of the war the national insignia were painted above and below both upper and lower wings, although no insignia were painted on the fuselage.
J.Herris - Albatros Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1: Early Two-Seaters /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
Lt Just crashed Albatros B.I B.45/15 during training in September 1916. The engine was a 150 hp Benz Bz.III.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Chassis and engine of Albatros.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Detail of shock absorbing arrangement on Albatros.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Left, method on Albatros of locking propeller on engine shaft; centre, the hand operated brake; and right, attachment of lower plane to fuselage.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Left, the anemometer on the Albatros wfcich is mounted on one of inter-plane struts. Centre, a chassis detail, and right, attachment of inter-plane struts and cress bracing cables to main spars.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
The tail skid of Albatros.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Oil and petrol cans mounted on engine inspection door of Albatros.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Aileron crank lever on Albatros.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
FUSELAGE ECONOMY. - Four members of the Albatros family, all of which are fitted with the same size fuselage. In this manner three different types of land machines can be provided simply by substituting wings of various sizes, whilst the larger size machine is turned into a seaplane by fitting floats instead of the usual undercarriage.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
3. The Albatros biplane.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Albatros B.I
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
THE ALBATROS BIPLANE. - Plan, side and front elevations to scale.