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Etrich Taube

Страна: Австро-Венгрия

Год: 1910

Фронтовой самолет

Etrich - Sperling - 1909 - Австро-Венгрия<– –>Etrich - Luft-Limousine / VII - 1912 - Австро-Венгрия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


ЭТРИХ ТАУБЕ / ETRICH TAUBE

   Двухместный расчалочный моноплан цельнодеревянной конструкции с дополнительным внешним лонжероном под крылом и полотняной обшивкой. Управление по крену гошированием, а по вертикали - отклонением задней кромки стабилизатора. Оригинальный самолет, напоминающий птицу (нем. "Taube" - "голубь") спроектирован в 1910 году австрийским инженером Иго Этрихом.
   Благодаря выдающимся летным данным и простоте управления, он получил широкое распространение в предвоенной Европе. Его выпускали многие немецкие и австрийские фирмы, в том числе Румплер, Хальберштадт, Фоккер, Альбатрос, Гота, DFW и Джаннин.
   Машины разных производителей имели серьезные геометрические и конструктивные различия. Например, аппараты фирмы Хальберштадт имели фюзеляж типа полумонокок и "классическую" схему управления с рулями и элеронами, а самолеты фирм DFW и Джаннин строились с цельнометаллическим силовым набором из стальных труб (так называемые "Штальтаубе").
   За годы серийного выпуска из заводских цехов вышло свыше 500 аэропланов, большинство из которых на счету фирмы Румплер.
   В августе 1914 года все самолеты, принадлежавшие частным владельцам на территории Германии, были реквизированы и приписаны к военно-воздушным силам. При этом "Таубе" присвоили индекс A-1. (В немецкой военной классификации буквой "A" обозначали невооруженные монопланы).
   В первые месяцы войны "Таубе" наиболее часто применялись для разведки как на западном, так и на восточном фронте. Самолеты этого типа сыграли важную роль в битве на Марне и в отражении русского наступления на Восточную Пруссию. 30 августа 1914-го "Голубь" впервые сбросил бомбы на Париж.
   К началу 1915 года аппараты Этриха постепенно уступают место более современным разведчикам бипланной схемы. В учебных частях "Таубе" эксплуатировались еще более двух лет.
  
  
ДВИГАТЕЛЬ
  
   "Австро-Даймлер", 120 л.с. (на машинах австрийской постройки) или "Мерседес", 100 л.с. или "Аргус" той же мощности. В отдельных случаях применялись и другие типы рядных моторов водяного охлаждения.
  
  
ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  
   Не предусмотрено.
  
  
ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
  
   "Гота-Таубе" "Румплер-Таубе"
   Размах, м 14,5 13,6
   Длина, м 10,0 8,6
   Площадь крыла, кв.м 33,4 28,9
   Сухой вес, кг 690 600
   Взлетный вес, кг 1026 980
   Скорость максимальная, км/ч 96 105
   Время набора высоты, м/мин 800/12 ?
   Потолок, м 3000 ?
   Продолжительность полета, ч 4 ?


L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)


Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing


Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913


AUSTRIAN AEROPLANES.

ETRICH Monoplanes. Etrich Flieger Werke, Wiener Neustadt. Igo Etric was a very early experimenter in conjunction with Wels. In 1909 he produced on his own account the first Etrich monoplane, a characteristic machine, which except for detail improvement, varying dimensions, etc., has not been appreciably altered since. (See Historical Section.)

   VIII 1911-12 1912-13.
Model and date. VII 1911. 2-Seater Limousine 2-seater.

Length.............feet(m.) 37 (11.30) 30? (9.30) 26? (8)
Span...............feet(m.) 48 (14.60) 42 (12.80) 31? (9.50)
Area...........sq.feet(m^2.) 380 (35 ) 323 (30) 280 (26)
   (total...lbs.(kgs.) ... ... ...
Weight..
   (useful..lbs.(kgs.) ... ... ...
Motor..................h.p. 120 Daimler 100 60 Daimler
Speed...........m.p.h.(km.) ... ... ...
Number built during 1912 5 2 2

Remarks.--A number of VII & VIII have been sold for military purposes to the Austrian, Russian, German, and other governments.


GERMAN AEROPLANES.

ETRICH. Etrich Fliegerwerke, G.m.b. H. Dittersbach b. Liebau (Schlesien). Capacity: 50 a year.

   1913.
   Etrich (original) Taube.
   monoplane.

Length............feet(m.) 31 (9.5)
Span..............feet(m.) 47-1/2 (14.40)
Area........sq. feet(m^2.) 301 (28)
Weight, total...lbs.(kgs.) 1323 (600)
   useful...lbs.(kgs.) ...
Motor.................h.p. 100 Mercedes or Argus
Speed, max.....m.p.h.(km.) 71 to 75 (115 to 120)
   min.....m.p.h.(km.) ...
Endurance.............hrs. 6

Remarks.--


А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России


Кроме "Паука", в 1912 г. русские авиаторы познакомились с крылатым творением австрийского конструктора Иго Этриха - аппаратом "Голубь" (Igo Etrich, Taube = "Таубе"). Два таких аэроплана летали на просторах империи, один из них пилотировал Г. В. Янковский и М. Г. Лерхе (2, в). Возможно, это были австрийские аппараты фирмы "Лонер" (Lohnerwerke). Один из них, так называемый "Этрих-XIII" серии А, числился проданным русской армии, тогда как покупатель второго, "Этрих-XXIII" серии Ц, не указывался. Начало карьеры "Голубя" восходит к 1907 г., когда Этрих и помогавший ему Франц Велс (Franz Wels) построили бесхвостый планер. 1 ноября 1909 г. (н. ст.) в Германии появилась компания "Этрих Флигер Верке" (Etrich Flieger Werke, позднее Etrich Flieger-Werke GmbH), выпускавшая до 1916 г. монопланы "Таубе" многочисленных разновидностей. По лицензии тем же занимались немецкие фирмы "Румплер", "Альбатрос", ДФВ, "Гота", "Хальберштадт", "Яннин", "Кондор", "Кригер", "Эльфауге" и "Любек-Травемюнде" (Rumpler, Albatros, DFW, Gotha, Halberstadt, Jeannin, Kondor, Krieger, LVG, Lubeck-Travemunde). В 1912-1913 гг. в Австро-Венгрии "Таубе" в небольших количествах собирались на заводах авиацентра "Фишаменд" (позднее: К. и. К. Fliegerarsenal Flugzeugwerk Fischamend) и компании "Лонер" (Lohnerwerke GmbH). Машины пользовались известной любовью пилотов, так как прочная конструкция и "природная" устойчивость в воздухе спасали от гибели в случае аварии. Отчасти благодаря этому в 1914-1916 гг. изрядно устаревшие "Голуби" оставались в строю не только в учебных, но, временами, и в боевых частях.


P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One


Lohnerwerke GmbH, Wien-Floridsdorf

  Lohner had begun to manufacture Taube airframes for Igo Etrich whose painstaking experiments, begun in 1904, were crowned with success in April 1910 when the Taube finally achieved controllable flight. With customers waiting, but lacking funds to start manufacturing, Etrich licensed Lohner on 7 July 1910 to build five Taube monoplanes. Shortly thereafter Etrich sold the Taube patents and airfield property at Wiener-Neustadt to the Motor-Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft (MLG), an aeronautical trading firm (balloons, airships and aircraft) managed by the Viennese financier Camillo Castiglioni. Lohner continued to build the Taube airframes which were transported to Wiener-Neustadt where engine, fuel system and instruments were installed under the supervision of Karl Illner, formerly Etrich's test pilot and shop manager. Of the 58 Etrich Taubes built by Lohner, 10 were exported to Italy, Russia, Spain, England, China and Germany, 29 were delivered to the Austro-Hungarian air service between 1911 and 1913, and the remainder were sold privately or retained by the MLG flight school. Attempts to modernize the Taube design in 1913 by streamlining and increasing power were unproductive. The Taube had reached the end of its development cycle, a fact recognized far earlier in Austro-Hungarian military circles than in German ones.


Lohner 10.08 to 10.11

  Soon after mobilization, the Lohner-MLG flying school in Wiener-Neustadt closed its doors and sold four of the school's Etrich Taube trainers to the LA on 24 August 1914. These were assigned the numbers 10.08 to 10.11 in February-March 1915.
  The Lohner 10.08 trainer, powered by a 65 hp Daimler engine, evidently remained in service for several years, since it was not officially written-off until 10 January 1918.
  The Lohner 10.09 trainer, powered by a 65 hp Daimler engine, initially carried the designation F-01. As 10.09, it served with Flek 1 from 1914 and was last reported active in December 1915.
  The Lohner 10.10 trainer, powered by a 80 hp CAM (Clerget) in-line engine, was flown by Flek 1 in 1914. After being damaged and extensively rebuilt by Fischamend, it was designated F-3 (later 72.03). It should be noted that this "new" F-3 (ex 10.10) was a replacement for a written-off Fischamend-built Taube also numbered F-3. The reason for the confusing re-assignment of numbers is not known.
  The Lohner 10.11 was a ground instruction Taube about which further data is lacking.


K.u.K. Fliegerarsenal Flugzeugwerk Fischamend
Fischamend

  At the time the Luftschifferabteilung (LA) was formed in 1909, funds were allocated for establishing a development and repair center to support all aspects of aeronautical technology. In 1911-1912 the center was moved from the overcrowded Vienna Arsenal to the vast Fischamend airfield (21 km west of Vienna on the Danube). The new facility consisted of 1) an observation balloon workshop, a gas-generating plant, and supply depot, 2) an experimental department to test and accept military aircraft, 3) an aircraft and engine repair shop, and 4) an airship department. The military command soon realized that the vast expense of building and maintaining an airship fleet would rapidly deplete the limited aviation budget; consequently the LA gradually abandoned airship activity in favor of more cost-effective aeroplanes.
  When the Fliegerarsenal (Flars) was established in March 1915, the Fischamend aviation center came under its command. Fischamend was responsible for a wide range of aeronautical work encompassing instrumentation, bombs, wireless, photography, radiators, helicopters and airborne weaponry. However, the primary flight test and aircraft acceptance center remained at Aspern. Professor Richard Knoller, aided by von Karman, Julius Kolin, and Wilhelm Zurovec, designed and built a full-scale propeller wind tunnel and testing laboratory, acknowledged as the most advanced of its time. The propeller test laboratory was completed in early 1917.
  In 1912-1913, the aircraft repair shop (later named Flugzeugwerk = aircraft works) began to manufacture aircraft because the Motor-Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft (MLG) and Lohner had difficulty meeting delivery schedules. The 14 Lohner-built Etrich Type F Taubes, ordered in May 1912, proved severely nose-heavy and had to be rebuilt by Lohner. The unstable Etrich-Lohner Type X Taube with side-by-side seating for training use (four ordered in April 1912) required modification and were not delivered until 1913. Fearing that the overburdened Lohner factory would encounter delays in producing the 28 Type B Pfeilfliegers and precipitate an "aircraft shortage," the LA secretly manufactured ten Etrich Taubes in the Flugzeugwerk without seeking permission of Etrich or MLG, the rightful patent owners. When MLG got wind of this in late 1913, the LA confessed to patent infringement but countered by invoking a contractual fine for late aircraft delivery. Although the controversy was eventually settled, the relationship between the LA and MLG-Lohner became severely strained. MLG was accused of being no more than a trading organization (which it was) having "little incentive to foster the development of the Etrich Taube" - a fair criticism. Throughout the war Castiglioni, the business director of MLG, remained an anathema to the LA command.


Etrich 70.01 to 70.06

  With the implementation of the unified numbering system on 8 February 1915, the oldest pre-war Etrich Taube trainers were assigned the series 70 designation, reserved for "out-of series" and prototype aircraft:
Original Designation Second Designation Final Designation
Condor 70.01 72.35 after repair in April 1915
Falke 70.02 72.37 after repair in April 1915
S.III 70.03 written-off
X-IV 70.04 written-off November 1915
S.V 70.05 72.38 after repair in May 1915
X-III 70.06 72.33 after repair
  The first two came from a batch of Maneuver Etrich 1911 (Etrich Type B) named Adler (eagle), Buzzard, Condor, Dohle (jackdaw), Elster (magpie), Falke (falcon) and Geier (vulture), ordered from Lohner on 10 May 1911.
  In 1913, Fischamend delivered eight School Etrich, designated S.I to S.VIII. Records show that on 1 February 1914 five School Etrich, numbered S.I to S.V, were stationed at various Flugparks for training purposes.
  Four Etrich Type X trainers were ordered from Lohner on 19 April 1912, but not delivered until March 1913 owing to severe stability problems which required rebuilding the airframe.
  As shown above, in the course of repair at least four series 70 Taubes were later rebuilt as a standard Etrich A.II(Fd) series 72 trainer.

Etrich Taube (Fd) 70.01
Engine: 90 hp Daimler
Wing: Span 14.00 m (45.93 ft)
Total Wing Area 32.5 sq m (350 sq ft)
General: Length 10.00 m (32.81 ft)
Height 3.50 m (11.48 ft)
Empty Weight 480 kg (1058 lb)
Loaded Weight 750 kg (1654 lb)
Maximum Speed: 105 km/hr (65 mph)
Climb: 1000m (3,281 ft) in 20 min


Etrich A.I(Fd) Series 71

  For the Grand Army Maneuvers in the summer of 1912, the LA ordered 14 Maneuver Etrich 1912 Taubes (Type F) from Lohner on 28 May 1912. Flight tests proved the Type F to be severely nose-heavy, which made it necessary to relocate the passenger from the front to a position behind the pilot, shift the fuel tank, and move the engine aft by two cylinder lengths. The aircraft were christened Aar, Achilles, Adjudant, Afra, Ajax, Allans, Amazone, Amourette, Anita, Anny, Aram, Arnim, Asra, and Atair. At a later date Albus joined the ranks.
  On 17 February 1915 those aircraft remaining in the LA inventory were designated Etrich A.I(Fd) series 71 and assigned the following series 71 numbers:
Original Designation Second Designation Final Designation
Aar 71.01 72.42 after repair July 1915
Achilles 71.02 72.32 after repair March 1915
Albus 71.03
Ajax 71.04
Anita 71.05
Aram 71.06 72.43 after repair July 1915
Arnim 71.07 72.34 after repair March 1915
Atair 71.08
Anny 71.09
Afra 71.10 72.36 after repair
  The Etrich A.I(Fd) Taubes were powered by 65 hp or 90 hp Daimler and 85 hp Hiero engines. Serving as ground or basic trainers with Fleks 3, 4, 5, and 7, six Etrich A.I(Fd) were on charge as of 6 October 1915, and at least one, 71.03, served through November 1916.


Etrich A.II(Fd) Series 72

  In addition to eight Etrich Type S Taubes, the Flugzeugwerk built approximately 30 Type F Taubes; the first ten appeared in 1912-1913 under the designation F.1 to F.10. These had been surreptitiously built without notifying the rightful patent owners (MLG and Etrich) as described in the introduction. The designations were changed in February 1915 when the extant Taubes F.1 to F.20 became Etrich A.II(Fd) 72.01 to 72.20. A total of 43 Etrich A.II|Fd) Taubes up to number 72.43 have been identified, composed of Fischamend-built Type F Taubes and other Taubes which after repair and/or modification were re-designated as shown below. In several cases after a Taube had been written-off, its number was not cancelled but re-assigned to a different aircraft.
  Redesignation of various Taubes to Etrich A.II(Fd) Series 72 was as follows:
Original Second Final Original Second Final
10.10 F.3 72.03 Condor 70.01 72.35
Buzzard F.14 72.14 Afra 71.10 73.36
S.VI F.29 72.29 Falke 70.02 72.37
S.II F.30 72.30 S.V 70.05 72.38
Achilles 71.02 72.32 F.2 72.02 72.41
X-III 70.06 72.33 Aar 71.01 72.42
Arnim 71.07 72.34 Aram 71.06 72.43
  Operated by most LFT training units, the Etrich A.II(Fd), either powered by the 85 hp Hiero engine or the 65 hp Daimler, served as a ground instructor or performed basic-training flights. Pilot Franz Zuzmann recalled that it was virtually impossible to crash a Taube. It was inherently stable and the wing-warping controls required great exertion to change aircraft direction. The instant the steering controls were centered (hands off!) the Taube would resume its normal flight attitude. Although landing accidents were common, they rarely caused severe injury. As of 6 October 1915 seventeen A.II(Fd) Taubes were listed in flying condition and 21 were under repair. Twelve were still on charge in July 1917.

Etrich A.II(Fd) Series 72
Engine: 65 hp Daimler
Wing: Span 14.60 m (47.90 ft)
Total Wing Area 31.5 sq m (339 sq ft)
General: Length 9.73 m (31.92 ft)
Height 3.28 m (10.76 ft)
Empty Weight 540 kg (1191 lb)
Loaded Weight 790 kg (1742 lb)


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


10. Flugzeuge der Fabrik Jacob Löhner & Co. Wien, Floridsdorf
10.08 M.L.G. Lohner-Etrich-Taube Dm 90
10.09 M.L.G. Lohner-Etrich-Taube Dm 90
10.10 M.L.G. Lohner-Etrich-Taube Dm 90
10.11 M.L.G. Lohner-Etrich-Taube Dm 90

70. Flugzeuge der Flugzeugfabrik Fischamend, k.u.k. Fliegerarsenal
70.01 Etrich-Taube „Condor“
70.02 Etrich-Taube „Falke“
70.03 Etrich-Taube S.III.
70.04 Etrich-Taube X 4
70.05 Etrich-Taube S.V.
70.06 Etrich-Taube X 3
71.01 — 71.10 Etrich A.I (Fd) Taube Dm 90
72.01 — 72.75 Etrich A.II (Fd) Taube (teilweise wurden dabei Flugzeuge der Ba 71 umgebaut) H 85
(Некоторые были переоборудованы из самолетов Ba 71)


J.Davilla Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 74)


Etrich Taube

  The first Italian Taube, an Etrich IX series aircraft, was ordered in February 1911 from Lohner. It was powered by a 65-hp Austro-Daimler four-cylinder in-line, water-cooled engine. It arrived in May for use as a trainer the scuole militaire (military school) in Aviano; the cost was 5,080 crowns.
  In late August 1911 it took part in the Army maneuvers, supporting the “Red” Army forces piloted by tenente Giulio Gavotti. On the 24th a wing was damaged in a hard landing, barring the aircraft from further participation in the war games.
  From 17 to 20 September, aircraft flown by Italian military pilots, including the Taube, took part in a long distance flight from Paris-Venice using a 420 km route. Flying the Taube, Gavotti came in second, 1 hour and 5 minutes behind a Bleriot 11, but 13h 15 min ahead of the first civilian competitor.
  On October 13, the Taube was sent to Tripoli as part of the 1st Flottiglia Aerea (Air Flotilla). In addition to reconnaissance duties, on 1 November Gavotti’s Taube dropped bombs on the oasis at Ain Zara and Tagiura, possibly for the first time in history a plane had been used as a bomber. A second aircraft, dropped hand grenades from a makeshift bomb rack.
  The second Taube was badly damaged during a storm on 13 April, 1912. Lohner received an order for a replacement, which was delivered in mid-1912.
  The Italians saw the usefulness of the Tauben, but also recognized the need for more modern and maneuverable aircraft.


Журнал Flight


Flight, May 21, 1910

Etrich Carries Two Passengers and Breaks Records.

   ON Thursday of last week Herr Etrich, the Austrian aviator, whose machine was illustrated in these pages last week, made a flight of 5 mins., during which he carried two passengers. We give this week a photograph of the machine in flight with the two on board. On Saturday he beat the Austrian altitude and duration records, reaching a height of 300 metres during a trial which was continued for 1 hr. 11 mins. The Etrich monoplane is of 14 metres span, has a lifting surface of 32 sq. metres, with a tail surface of 10 square metres. It is fitted with a 50-h.p. 4-cylinder Clerget motor, which drives the 2.2 metre Chauviere propeller at 1,500 revs, per min.


Flight, April 8, 1911.

Austrian Passenger Record Beaten.

   ON Monday, Herr Illner on his Etrich monoplane succeeded in beating the Austrian passenger record. Taking Herr Amau as a passenger he travelled round and round a circular course for 2 hrs. 33 mins., covering in that time about 150 kiloms.


Flight, April 29, 1911.

Tests With the Etrich Monoplane.

   SOME interesting tests were made recently with an Etrich monoplane, built for the Austrian Army. The machine was first of all flown with a passenger on board for 2 hrs. 33 mins. while the wind was blowing at a rate of 4 to 5 metres a second. Afterwards the machine was dismantled, an operation which occupied 8 mins., while in 25 mins. the machine was once more ready for flight, and, in fact, was taken for a trial. The specification under which the machine was built stipulated that it could be dismantled in one hour and be again ready for flying within two hours. Herr Illner has also demonstrated the controllability of the Etrich monoplane by flying in small circles, during some of which the planes were at an angle of 30 to 35 degrees to the horizontal, while as a conclusion the aviator took his hands from the steering wheel and let the machine proceed on its way some distance of its own accord. The machine in question is seen in our photograph on this page.


High Flying in Austria.

   UP to the present no great amount of attention has been paid to altitude flying in Austria, but on the 21st inst. Lieut. Bier improved on Miller's old record of 600 metres by rising to a height of 1,110 metres on his Etrich monoplane. The record was made at the Etrich testing ground near Vienna.


Flight, September 16, 1911.

Germany's First Lady Pilot.

   THE number of lady aviators is gradually mounting up, and we learn that Germany now has a certificated aviatress, Fraulein Nelly Beese having made the tests to qualify for her certificate on the 8th inst., at Johannisthal.


Flight, November 11, 1911.

THE ETRICH MONOPLANE.

   To Igo Etrich must be given a foremost place amongst those pioneers who, not content merely with constructing a machine that would fly, probed more deeply into the problem of flight in order to evolve an aeroplane naturally stable in a disturbed medium. Working on entirely independent lines, the researches of the three pioneers - Dunne and Weiss in England, and Etrich in Austria - have all resulted in the discovery of the improvement of longitudinal stability by the incorporation of the negatively-incident thrown-back wing tip.
   It must be admitted, however, that Etrich has moved a step in advance of his contemporaries on this side of the Channel for, whereas all three have demonstrated the effectiveness of their inferences as applied to practical man-lifting machines, the Austrian inventor has succeeded in establishing the manufacture of his monoplanes on a sound commercial basis. Like the famous Wright Bros., Etrich commenced his experiments by the study of gliding flight in the year 1898 when he acquired a Lilienthal glider. Pursuing the investigations commenced by the latter, he delved into every subject that would be likely to throw light on the problem he had set himself out to solve. He studied the propulsive organs of every kind of flying animal - birds, insects, bats, flying-fish, and even went to the extent of investigating the different species of flying seeds, those of the sycamore and pine, for instance, which are so abundant in the vegetable kingdom.
   This preparatory work led him to try a glider of his own design, very ingeniously constructed, and of such an original plan form, that at that time it was considered bordering on the fantastical. Experiments with the glider commenced in 1904 at Trantenau, and during the year glides of up to three-quarters of a mile in length were made.
   It was not until 1909 that a power-driven aeroplane was evolved, which, piloted by Illner, soon captured all existing Austrian records. Since then it has undergone improvement after improvement, and to-day is universally ranked among the most successful and most scientifically designed of air-craft.
   Its appearance in England, on the occasion of the Circuit of Britain, was a revelation to our English constructors, and its influence will doubtless have an effect on current design.
   The body of the Etrich monoplane is a fish-shaped structure of steel tubing cross-braced by wire. From the elliptical radiator, which is mounted at its forward end, the body deepens and widens in the vicinity of the pilot's seat, and from that point, still preserving its elliptical cross-section, gradually tapers away to the tail, where it terminates in a vertical line. To avoid internal disturbance in the air discharge, the body is covered in front with metal sheeting and aft of the pilot's cockpit with fabric.
   In the matter of under-carriage, the Etrich monoplane has undergone repeated modification in the past, but it seems as though the constructor has definitely decided that one modelled upon Henry Farman lines is most suitable - at least, for the present.
   As the main planes form the most distinct feature of the machine, they merit careful study. Reference to the accompanying diagram (Fig. 1) will facilitate description. The front part of each wing, shaded in the sketch, is rigidly constructed of webbed ribs, built over three longitudinal spars, of which the forward one forms the leading edge. This section is surfaced on both sides with fabric. Behind the rear boom extend bamboo continuations of the ribs, which, covered with a single surface of fabric, form a flexible trailing edge. The camber is very slight, even at the point where the wings are attached to the fuselage, and it decreases, together with the angle of incidence, towards the tip, which is flat and presents no incidence to the direction of flight.
   The flexible wing-tips, however, are turned up at the rear, and so give the end of the wing an effective negative angle of incidence. It is to this feature that the machine owes its pronounced degree of natural stability. Lateral balance is maintained by raising either wing-tip by means of a cable, which, passing over a pulley situated at the top of the king-post, divides up into eight wires connected to the flexible extremities of the wing. A cable passing over the lower end of the king-post lowers the opposite tip a corresponding amount.
   Enormous strength is imparted to the wing by a bridge-like structure of steel tubing, which embraces the three wing-spars, and is attached below the under surface - strength which renders them capable of withstanding strains many times in excess of those that they are likely to be called upon to bear in flight. The wire-bracing throughout is carried out in a most thorough and conscientious manner; for what part of an aeroplane, especially on such a heavy example, deserves more careful attention than the bracing of those surfaces which support and control it?
   A small wheel mounted at the lower extremity of the king-post protects the wing-tip from contact with the ground, and small transparent panes are provided in the wings to enable the pilot to see what is directly beneath him.
   The tail surface is fan-shaped and balanced, and pivots in one unit about a horizontal axis. Forward of the axis the movement of the surface is "damped" by the introduction of a spring device, which prevents a purely rocking motion, as in the case of the Bristol elevator, and allows the rear edge of the elevator to flex to a certain extent.
   Two small triangular vertical rudders, one above and the other below the horizontal tail plane, are hinged to the rear edges of two triangular stabilizing fins, and possess the function of directing the machine to the right or left at the will of the pilot, who operates them by means of pedals.
   Elevation and lateral balance are controlled by a rotatable hand-wheel, mounted at the top of a vertical column.
   The manufacture of the Etrich monoplane has been standardized into four types, a two-seater touring machine of 65-h.p., a single-seater racer of similar power, a 120-h.p. three-seater touring machine, and a similarly engined racer to carry two.
   It was to the latter type that the Etrich monoplane representing Austria in the Circuit of Britain belonged. Behind the 6-cylinder Austro-Daimler motor was a small cockpit, for the accommodation of the mechanic whose duty it was to attend to the engine. Communication was carried on with the pilot by means of a speaking tube connected to specially-designed helmets.
   As for the machine's future, what but success can be expected to attend the efforts of one who has already safely piloted into commercial waters such a clever synthesis of convictions resulting from serious personal study?


AEROPLANES AT TRIPOLI.

   MR. QUINTO POGGIOLI, who will be remembered by our readers as having taken his pilot's certificate in England under the Royal Aero Club's regulations, sends us some interesting details of the practical work being carried out in Tripoli in connection with the Italian-Turkish War. Mr. Poggioli writes :-
   "On the 25th Oct. Capt. Piazza with his Bleriot, and Capt. Moizo on his Nieuport, observed three advancing columns of Turks and Arabs of about 6,000 men. The Italians, after receiving this information, could successfully calculate distances and arrange for their defence.
   "On the day following, the 26th Oct., the battle of Sciara-Sciat took place, resulting in the loss to the Turkish Army of 3,000 men. During the battle two aeroplanes, Lieut. Gavotti with his Etrich and Capt. Piazza, were circling the air. The flights took place above the line of fire, so as to be able to direct the firing of the big guns from the battleship 'Carlo Alberto,' and also of the mountain artillery. The aeroplanes were often shot at by the guns of the enemy, but with no result. The only difficulty they had was caused by the currents of air caused by the firing of the big guns.
   "Previously, on the 22nd Oct., Capt. Moizo when reconnoitering passed over an oasis, and, in order to observe better the movements of the enemy, descended to an altitude of about 200 metres, and in consequence the wings of his machine were pierced by bullets in six or seven places, and also a rib was broken.
   "On November 1st Lieut. Gavotti (Etrich) flew over the enemy, carrying four bombs, carried in a leather bag; the detonator he had in his pocket.
   "When above the Turkish camp, he took a bomb on his knees, prepared it and let it drop. He could observe the disastrous results. He returned and circled over the camp, until he had thrown the remaining three bombs. The length of his flight was altogether about 100 kiloms.
   "The bombs used contained picrato of potassa, type Cipelli."

   THE first official communication by one of the belligerents, in regard to the use of aeroplanes in actual warfare, has been issued by the Italian authorities, dated November 5th, from Tripoli. As a matter of historical record we reproduce the text in extenso as follows :-
   "Yesterday Captains Moizo, Piazza, and De Rada carried out an aeroplane reconnaissance, De Rada successfully trying a new Farman military biplane. Moizo, after having located the position of the enemy's battery, flew over Ain Zara, and dropped two bombs into the Arab encampment. He found that the enemy were much diminished in numbers since he saw them last time. Piazza dropped two bombs on the enemy with effect. The object of the reconnaissance was to discover the headquarters of the Arabs and Turkish troops, which is at Sok-el-Djama."


Flight, September 13, 1913.

Berlin - Paris.

   STARTING on Friday of last week at 5.30 a.m. from the Johannisthal aerodrome, the German pilot Herr Friedrich with Dr. Ellias as passenger, on an Etrich-Taube, commenced a voyage which he hoped to terminate the same day in Paris, but circumstances were against him. Although he was bothered by mist, he determined to make the attempt, and after a good flight he descended at Walhrewald, near Hanover, at 7 o'clock, where he replenished his fuel and oil tanks, making a re-start at 9.15, steering away towards the west. Flying well, after a descent at Gelsenkirchen, he arrived at Berghen Sainte-Agathe, about 13 kilometres from Brussels, at 2.15p.m., where the two voyagers replenished the inner man as well as again taking in petrol and oil. At 4 o'clock Friedrich was away again, hoping to reach Paris during the evening, but after passing over the Belgian frontier he encountered a violent storm which was raging in the district, forcing him down at Sart les Bruyeres, a few kilometres from Mons, where he decided to stay for the night, having accomplished roughly about 700 kilometres from his starting point. Next day the weather was still as bad as ever and he therefore postponed the last lap of the journey until Sunday, when he got away at 1.15 in spite of a thick fog, a damaged map, and a compass out of order. After a couple of stops at Guise and Senlis, he arrived at Villacoublay at 5.15 (passing over Paris, which was enveloped in a heavy mist) there to be received with a splendid ovation by a large crowd of his fellow aviators who were in strong evidence by reason of there being a big festival in full swing at the time of his arrival.


Flight, September 20, 1913.

FLYING AT HENDON.

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   After two laps had been completed all attention was transferred from the cross-country race to a bird-like machine approaching the aerodrome from the south some 3,000 ft. up. When above the aerodrome the machine was easily recognised as an Etrich, with its dove-like wings and fan-shape fail. The pilot made a beautiful spiral descent, banking well over 60°, just as some of the cross-country competitors were entering the aerodrome. It was a very impressive sight, for the Etrich is certainly one of the prettiest monoplanes extant. The monoplane came to rest close to No. 1 pylon, and was immediately surrounded by a crowd thirsting for information. When the passenger - for there were two on board - removed his goggles, we recognised in him Herr I. Etrich, the designer of the much admired monoplane. The pilot was Alfred Friedrich. With the help of E. Baumann, who acted as interpreter, we ascertained that the aviators had left Paris at 11.20 that morning, arriving at Calais at 1.55, where a stay of 1 1/2 hours was made. The remainder of the journey to Hendon was made without a stop in 2 hours 5 mins., flying at an altitude of about 4,500 ft., and encountering very rough weather. Having found out all about our visitors, we turned our attention to the neglected cross-country race, which had by then finished.
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   In spite of the very high wind on Sunday afternoon several of the Hendon pilots ventured out and put up some fine exhibition and passenger flights. The star turns of the afternoon, however, were the splendid displays by Gustav Hamel on the 80 h.p. Bleriot and Igo Etrich on the Etrich-dove monoplane. The former indulged in a cloud-hunt lasting over an hour. It was a performance strange to behold; he made for cloud after cloud, turning again and again, only to find the clouds still above him. Eventually he saw a large one, which he made for and passed over the top. Having accomplished this feat he descended, as he was running short of oil. He was stiff with cold when he alighted, and the barograph recorded a height of 9,500 ft. The flights of the Etrich monoplane were very picturesque, the pilot executing some remarkable highly banked spirals.


HERR FRIEDRICH FLIES TO LONDON.

   FOLLOWING on his flight from Berlin to Paris, recorded in last week's issue, Herr Friedrich, on Saturday morning last at 11.20, accompanied by Herr Igo Etrich, on the Etrich-Taube with Chauviere propeller, left Issy for London by way of the air. At Calais he descended at I.55, where he was delayed somewhat in connection with some of the official requirements, so that he was not able to continue his flight until 3.45. At that hour he was away again, arriving at Hendon aerodrome, after a magnificent flight, in the middle of one of the speed races, at 5.50, his altitude being about a thousand metres during most of the trip. Directly it was recognised who the voyagers were, they were very hospitably treated, and during the afternoon Herr Friedrich gave some exhibitions of his flying on the Etrich-Taube. On Wednesday this week, Friedrich was due to leave England again, this time taking as passenger Mr. John Rozendaal, the managing director of the Etrich Co. It is proposed to cross the Channel to Calais, and then fly direct for Utrecht, Holland, before returning to Germany. Mr. Rozendaal has from the earliest days been associated with aviation, he having been in Germany connected with the Wright machines before taking up the Etrich monoplane. It was Mr. Rozendaal also who engineered the late Mr. Latham's flight in Berlin from the Tempelhofer Feld to Johannisthal in 1909.


Flight, January 17, 1914.

INVISIBLE AEROPLANES.

   ONE important point which the designer of a military aeroplane has to keep in mind is that his machine, when in the air, must be as hard to discern as possible. There have been several attempts to build an aeroplane with the wings of transparent material, and in May and June of 1912, Lieut. Nittner was flying at Wiener Neustadt, near Vienna, an Etrich monoplane, specially built on such lines for Capt. Petroczy, formerly commandant of the flying corps in the Austrian Army. This machine had the planes covered with a special variety of Emaillite cellulose sheets, and the system has since been developed and patented in all countries by MM. Leduc Heitz, of the Paris House of Emaillite. A photograph is reproduced of the Etrich machine, to which reference has been made, and which those present on the ground were unable to locate in the air when flying at an altitude of between 900 and 1,200 ft. It is stated that at a height of 700 ft. only the framework is dimly visible, and this and the outline of the motor and pilot and passengers present so small an area to rifle or gun fire, that at the rate of speed at which aeroplanes are flown to-day, accurate aiming at such surfaces becomes nearly impossible. There are also secondary advantages in the use of such transparent sheeting in the construction of aeroplanes. For one thing, it enables the pilot to keep an eye upon the interior framework of the planes, and to detect at once any straining or fracture of the ribs, &c. Another advantage is that the highly polished smooth surface reduces the friction, as was proved in the case of Capt. Petroczy's machine, although, as that was the first machine to be so treated, the material used was not so suitable as the latest product. The surface could not be properly tightened, and owing to the sheeting being more or less plastic it presented a wavy surface, while some difficulty was experienced in securely fastening it to the ribs.
   As long ago as 1904. Prof. Reisner, of Aachen, suggested that polished celluloid should be utilised for aeroplane sheeting in order to diminish air friction.
   Last year, M. W. A. Lebedeff, working in conjunction with the Russian Government, tried to cover a Henry Farman biplane with transparent cellulose sheeting of a somewhat modified composition. This material was not so heavy as that used in Austria, and it was also somewhat stronger (its tensile strength being about 7 kilogs. Per square millimetre of section), but the wavy surface of the wings, due to the flexibility of the material, could not be overcome.
   After working at the problem for some time the Emaillite firm have developed a better material which was seen at the Paris Show on the planes of the Moreau monoplane. Instead of using ordinary cellulose sheeting, this machine has what might be termed a reinforced sheeting consisting of two layers of Emaillite with a sheet of silk tulle between them, the tulle being specially treated to render it transparent. That the material is to all intents and purposes transparent is illustrated by the photographs of one of the wings of the Moreau monoplane behind which a man can be clearly seen. The use of the tulle liner not only strengthens the material but it also prevents it sagging or warping between the ribs so that by its use it is quite possible to obtain a smooth and regular surface on the planes. The tensile strength of the material is about nine to ten kilogs. per square millimeter section and a 35 mm. sheeting is sufficient to ensure a tensile strength of about 2,800 to 3,000 kilogs. of the wing covering, a stress which is never attained with the best fabrics in use. The weight of this new Emaillite material does not exceed 375 grammes per square metre, which is but 40 per cent, more than the weight of good doped linen fabric as generally used, so that the increase of weight in the case of ordinary machines would be between 12 and 15 kilogs. It is claimed for this new Emaillite transparent reinforced sheeting that it has all the advantages of that which is not reinforced without its faults. It can be fastened either by nailing, sewing, or by using an adhesive solution. It will not tear or break when anything such as a tool falls upon it, while should it be pierced by a bullet the fabric liner would prevent the damage extending. The British patents for this invention are held by the British Emaillite Co., Ltd., of 30, Regent Street, W. Extensive tests are shortly to be carried out with machines covered in this way, in order to ascertain the height at which they become virtually invisible.


Flight, August 28, 1914.

AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY"
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.

13. The Etrich Taube,
   as the prototype of most German monoplanes, is of particular interest. The wings are of the so-called Zanonia form, having back-swept upturned wing tips, which are flexed up and down for the maintenance of lateral stability. Instead of the usual system of lower bracing cables a biplane type of bracing is secured by means of a boom running out some distance below and parallel with the wings, to which it is connected by short struts diagonally cross-wired. The outer one of these struts is continued upwards above the wing to form a king post, which serves as a support for the cables, keeping the wing tips in their upturned position. The fuselage is of nearly rectangular section, being slightly narrower at the bottom than at the top, and is provided with a turtle back running over its entire length. The flexing elevator forms a continuation of the fixed portion of the tail plane, and the rudder is divided, one half working above and the other below the tail plane. Pilot and passenger sit tandem fashion, the former occupying the rear seat. The chassis bears a slight resemblance to the Bleriot, working on the principle of the deformable triangle, but the shock - absorbing arrangement is different.
   The rubber shock absorbers are anchored to the front spar and to a cross piece on the forked chassis strut, so that in heavy landing the spar is likely to suffer, if not breakage, at least weakening through shock. In view of the great amount of head resistance caused by the seemingly unnecessarily complicated wing bracing system employed, it is not surprising that the speed of the machine with a 100 h.p. engine is under 60 m.p.h.


Flight, February 12, 1915.

THE EVOLUTION OF THE ETRICH "TAUBE."

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   From the experience obtained with this machine Etrich, during the latter part of 1909, got out the design of a second machine, Etrich II, the "Taube" or "Dove," (b), Fig. 3, which was the first of numerous subsequent "Tauben " that differed but little from the Etrich II.
   Illustrations of various Etrich monoplanes that have appeared in FLIGHT from time to time, show how the design remained practically the same throughout, the only differences being in dimensions and constructional details. Etrich II had a span of 14 m., a supporting surface of 32 sq. m., and an overall length of 10 m. The wings had a somewhat different shape to the predecessors, the leading edge being straight for nearly the whole span, and only the extremities swept back and up-turned. They were in two sections, one mounted on either side of a covered-in body, in the orthodox style, and cable braced from a central A mast on the body. Subsequently a girder understructure, extending from the body under the wings, was employed as an additional bracing, which formed a feature of nearly all Etrich machines until quite recently. The tail consisted of a horizontal fan-shaped surface, mounted on the top of the body, with a flexible trailing edge acting as an elevator. Above and below this were two diamond-shaped vertical surfaces, which acted as fins and rudders. The engine, a 50 h.p. Clerget, was mounted in the nose of the body, and drove a tractor screw direct, whilst the pilot sat in a cockpit behind. The original under-carriage was of the Bleriot type, with a central hockey-like skid. A large number of important flights were made on this machine - completed at the end of 1909 - with the result that several replicas were constructed.
   The next machine to be built (in 1910), however, was more or less an experiment, and differed somewhat in construction. The main difference, as will be seen on referring to (a), Fig. 4, consisted of the short streamline body and the landing carriage. The former terminated just behind the wings, which had a similar plan-form as Etrich II, where the tail commenced - a similar practice to that followed just recently by Fokker on his monoplanes. The wings were braced to a central A mast and by four king posts, a wheel being fitted to the lower extremities of each outer king post. The under carriage consisted of a single central skid, behind which was sprung a wheel. The engine, a 60 h.p. Clerget, was mounted in the nose of the body, and the pilot sat behind. This machine had a span of 15 m., a supporting area of 32 sq. m., and a length of 10 m., its total weight, ready for the air, being 460 kgs. It had a speed of 80 kms. per hour.
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Flight, January 6, 1916.

A Model Taube.

   Mr. David Hay writes from Denny, Scotland, as follows :-
   "I enclose two photos, of my Etrich Taube, which was built from drawings which appeared in 'FLIGHT.' Length, 5 ft. ; span, 5ft. 9 ins. propeller, 16 ins. diameter; wheels, 2 3/4 ins. diameter; fitted with pilot's and passenger's seats; and all parts workable, all planes double surfaced. I made the model for Christmas, and took the photos, before doping the machine, as I had an idea that the dope would change the colour of same. It took me three months to complete, but I made some flying models in between that time; I think that is the best way when making such a model. I can get a good 1/4 mile out of my twin-propeller monoplane, which is flying nearly every Saturday. I must say that 'FLIGHT' is the only paper that is worth reading on such a subject."

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Этрих" A-II ("Таубе") ВВС Австро-венгрии, апрель 1915г.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Etrich A.II(Fd) 72.02
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Etrich A.II
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Etrich A II 72.06 Ernst Kerschischnig
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Этрих "Таубе"
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Etrich A.II
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
The Etrich monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
The 1913 Etrich Taube.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Among the civil aircraft confiscated at the beginning of hostilities was the German Etrich Taube owned by Carl Ehrlich. The LFT number assigned was 00.50.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Igo Etrich's monoplane, "Taube," with which he has been flying at the Steinfeld, Wiener-Neustadt. View from the front and from above.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Etrich and Illner flying on the "Taube" monoplane over the Steinfeld, near Wiener-Neustadt. On this machine Illner flew from Wiener-Neustadt, starting at 6.20 a.m. on Tuesday, to Vienna, a distance of 31 miles, arriving at the Semmeringer Helde at 7.30 . After a short stop, he flew back to his starting point.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
Herr Igo Etrich, on his special monoplane, in flight over the Steinfeld, near Wiener-Neustadt, about an hour's train journey from Vienna.
Журнал - Flight за 1910 г.
The Etrich monoplane, with Austrian-Daimler engine, in flight at Wiener Neustadt. This is the aeroplane of which the German Government have ordered twenty replicas.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
The original Etrich Taube (Etrich II) coming in for a landing at Wiener-Neustadt in April 1910.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE DAILY MAIL CIRCUIT OF BRITAIN. - General panoramic view of the scene at the Brooklands aerodrome for the start on Saturday last, taken from the new bridge over the track to the flying ground. Note the extraordinary concourse of motor cars parked round the entire track and the thouthands of the public who have secured positions on the top of the banking. The machine to the left surrounded by the crowd is Lieut. Bier's Etrich monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Lieut. Bier, with his passenger, starts away on the Etrich.
M.Bowden - The Great War's Finest. Volume1: Western Front 1914 /Aeronaut/ (1)
Wartime photograph of a Taube reconnoitering the area around Paris. (Author's Collection)
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
AN INCIDENT DURING THE RECENT JOHANNISTHAL FLYING WEEK. - Photograph taken from Pietschker's aeroplane, before he met with his death, of the Johanntsthal aerodrome and of Miss Melli Beese flying on her aeroplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1912 г.
Lieut. Gregory, R.N., testing the new Etrich monoplane at the Royal Aero Club's Eastchurch flying grounds.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
AT HENDON AERODROME. - Arrival of the Etrich-Taube monoplane at Hendon during the progress of a race on Saturday.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
A plan view of the Etrich monoplane as seen from beneath.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
13. The Etrich Taube.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
This Manovertaube was one of six purchased from Lohner in May 1911. Oberleutnant Ritter Blaschke von Zwornikkirchen has just completed the first overland flight from Wiener-Neustadt to Fischamend, 25 July 1911.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Latest model of the Etrich Monoplane, which has just been acquired by the Austrian Army. - These machines are constructed by the Motor-Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft of Hutteldorferstrasse, Vienna. In our photograph Oberlieutenant Miller, who has charge of the machine, is in the pilot's seat; in front the Army delegates, Rittmeister Schmidl, Captain von Petroczy, First Lieutenant Blaschke, First Lieutenant Stohanzl, the Managing Directors of the Motor-Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft, Kommerzialrat Castiglioni, Director of the Austro-American India-Rubber Manufacturing Co., Ltd., of Vienna, and Director Fischer of the Oesterreichische Daimler Motoren A . G .; and next to the propeller Mr. Illner, the Etrich pilot.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Two views of the Etrich monoplane covered with Emaillite treating and flown by Lieut. Nittner at Wiener Neustadt. It will be noticed especially from the photograph on the right that the inner construction of the planes can be seen through the top surface.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Oberstleutnant Emil Uzelac, commander of the Luftschifferabteilung, during the Offiziers-Flugmeeting in October 1912. The aircraft is an Etrich Type F Taube, of which 14 were supplied by Lohner.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Flight pupil Rudolf Blass at Flek 1 in Ujvidek in one of the old Taubes of the former Lohner-MLG flying school. Initially numbered F-01, it was re-numbered 10.09 in March 1915.
Lohner-Etrich A.I, Flugzeugnummer 10.09. Flugfeld Ujvidek, am „Steuer“ Rudolf Blasz
Lohner-Etrich A.I, номер 09/10. Аэродром Уджвидек, у «штурвала» Рудольф Блас
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Löhner. Type Etrich-Gnöme, Flugzeugnummer 10.15
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Etrich A.II "Taube". Flugzeugnummer 72.02
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
One of the aircraft on display at the Budapest Aircraft Exhibition in April 1917 was this Etrich A.II(Fd) 72.13 (ex F.13).
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Shown here at the Offiziersfliegen in Wiener-Neustadt (October 1912) is either Aram or Arnim which in February 1915 became respectively Etrich A.I(Pd) 71.06 (later 72.43) or 71.07 (later 72.34).
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
The Lohner-Etrich Geier is representative of the five Taubes delivered to the Army in June-July 1911 which included Condor and Falke. Condor was still active in February 1915 when it was designated 70.01. After repair and modification in April 1915, it was designated Etrich A.II(Fd) 72.35. Falke was re-designated 70.02 and finally 72.37.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
This Maneuver Etrich 1911, delivered as Buzzard in June 1911, was later assigned the number F.14 and finally became Etrich A.II(Fd) 72.14.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Offizierstellvertreter Hans Matti with the Etrich X-III, a Taube that featured side-by-side seating for instructional purposes and was delivered by Lohner after a long delay in 1913. Re-numbered 70.03 in February 1915, it was soon written-off.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
The Lohner-built Etrich Aar (Type F) took part in the Grand Army Maneuvers and the Offiziersfliegen of 1912. In February 1915, it was designated Etrich A.I(Fd) 71.01 and after repair and modification in July 1915, the designation was changed to Etrich A.II(Fd) 72.42.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Training activity at Flek 5, Szeged in 1916. The first aircraft, 72.27, has the outer wings removed and may have been used for ground instruction. The third aircraft in line is 72.26.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Etrich A.I(Fd) 71.05 Anita in early red and white military markings being hauled on its special wagon. The six-cylinder 90 hp Daimler has been replaced by a four-cylinder 65 hp Daimler engine for training use. No photographs have been found showing the series 71 designation on an aircraft.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
The Maneuver Etrich Taube 1912, (Type F) under construction at the Flugzeugwerk in 1912-1913, was built without the knowledge or permission of the rightful patent owners.
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.1: Operations /Centennial Perspective/ (73)
Etrich Taube in Libya with Giulio Gavotti who on November 1, 1911 dropped three small bombs over Turkish encampments, the first aerial bombardment in history. (Roberto Gentilli)
J.Davilla - Italian Aviation in the First World War. Vol.2: Aircraft A-H /Centennial Perspective/ (74)
Etrich Taube in Libya.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The Etrich Taube two seater of Austrian origin first flew in November 1909 and was adopted by the German military in 1911 as their standard reconaissance and training type. Most were built under licence in Germany by Rumpler. They were withdrawn from front line service by mid-1915. This is a 1912 Taube fitted with a 100hp Daimler D.I, giving a top level speed of 7l mph.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The 130-h.p. Etrich monoplane photographed from the front.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Rear view of the Etrich monoplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
A STRANGER WITHIN OUR GATES. - The gathering of the pilots and others immediatelly after the arrival from France of the Etrich monoplane at Hendon on Saturday.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The cockpit of the Etrich monoplane, showing accommodation for mechanic, pilot and passenger.
Журнал - Flight за 1913 г.
THE ETRICH MONOPLANE AT HENDON. - From left to right: Herr Friedrich (pilot) Mr. Claude Grahame-White and Herr Igo Etrich.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
The motor employed on the 3-seater Etrich monoplane - a 6-cyl. Austro-Daimler of 130-h.p.
L.Opdyke - French Aeroplanes Before the Great War /Schiffer/
The 1910 Aman-Etrich single-seater.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
B.F.W.-built 1913 Etrich Taube.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
А.Александров, Г.Петров - Крылатые пленники России
(КПР 2в)
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
WINGED. - A German Taube in the tree tops.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Etrich A.I, Flugzeugnummer 10.09. "Kraxe"
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Etrich S.V, built by the Flugzeugwerk in 1913, in a typical training accident. Because of the Taube's slow speed and innate stability, crashes were rarely fatal. It was re-numbered 70.05, and after repair in May 1915, Etrich A.II(Fd) 72.38.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Etrich A.II(Fd) 72.02 (ex F.2), powered by a 85 hp Hiero engine, in a typical low-impact landing accident. The instructor’s cockpit behind the pilot has been covered over for solo flight. In July 1915, this trainer was re-numbered 72.41.
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Etrich A.II, Flugzeugnummer 72.06, "Kraxe" bei Ujvidek. Flugzeugführer Ernst Kerschischnig
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Etrich A.II, Flugzeugnummer 72.12, Bemalung rot-weiß-rote Streifen
Etrich A.II, номер 72.12, окрашен в красно-бело-красные полосы
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
The pilot of this Etrich A.II(Fd) of Flek 5 (1916) could not avoid a gentle crash on a hillside. The red and white insignia was a holdover from prewar days. In this instance the rear cockpit is uncovered for the instructor.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
Mr. Carl Hochhaltinger's Etrich Taube model.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
Two views of Mr. Hay's scale model Taube referred to above.
M.Bowden - The Great War's Finest. Volume1: Western Front 1914 /Aeronaut/ (1)
M.Bowden - The Great War's Finest. Volume1: Western Front 1914 /Aeronaut/ (1)
War-time propaganda postcard depicting German infantry closely supported by a Taube. (Author's collection)
M.Bowden - The Great War's Finest. Volume1: Western Front 1914 /Aeronaut/ (1)
A Taube from FFA 4 discovers the lead elements of French Third Army marching toward the Ardennes. (Author's Collection)
M.Bowden - The Great War's Finest. Volume1: Western Front 1914 /Aeronaut/ (1)
German postcard illustrating Taube reconnaissance aircraft over the front. (Aeronaut)
M.Bowden - The Great War's Finest. Volume1: Western Front 1914 /Aeronaut/ (1)
Wartime Propaganda postcard depicting a Taube bombing Paris. (Author's Collection)
M.Bowden - The Great War's Finest. Volume1: Western Front 1914 /Aeronaut/ (1)
Wartime postcard depicting two Taubes departing for the front. (Author's Collection)
M.Bowden - The Great War's Finest. Volume1: Western Front 1914 /Aeronaut/ (1)
French infantry fire on a Taube. (Author's Collection)
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Romantic view of the first (unofficial) Belgian aerial combat victory.
W.Pieters - The Belgian Air Service in the First World War /Aeronaut/
Romantic view of a German Taube shot down by early AA-fire.
Журнал - Flight за 1916 г.
BROUGHT DOWN BETWEEN THE LINES. - As a result of many duels in mid-air between the British and German machines, enemy pilots are continually forced down between the lines, the combat being often witnessed with intense interest by both sides in the trenches. The above picture portrays one of these incidents in Flanders, in German Taube, crippled by one of the British machines, has fallen between the British and German lines, a blazing mass.
Журнал - Flight за 1915 г.
The evolution of the Etrich Taube.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
MONOPLANES AND BIPLANES IN THE DAILY MAIL CIRCUIT ROUND GREAT BRITAIN. - From these every machine can be readily identified either in flight or on the ground.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
DETAILS OF THE ETRICH MONOPLANE. - On the left the landing carriage, somewhat reminiscent of Henry Farman practice; on the right the details of the wing tip, showing a portion of the steel bridge-like structure which strengthens the wings, and the fitting of the small wheel which prevents damage occurring to the tip of the wing.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Diagram illustrating the arrangement of spars and ribs in the wing construction. The shaded portion indicates the rigid portion of the wings; the trailing edge, unshaded, is flexible.
Журнал - Flight за 1914 г.
13. The Etrich Taube.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
THE ETRICH MONOPLANE. - Plan and elevation to scale.
Журнал - Flight за 1911 г.
Front elevation of the Etrich monoplane.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913 /Jane's/
ETRICH VIII. x2, U.A.S.
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Etrich A.II(Fd) Series 72
P.Grosz, G.Haddow, P.Shiemer - Austro-Hungarian Army Aircraft of World War One /Flying Machines/
Etrich A.II(Fd) 72.02