В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны
ЭТРИХ ТАУБЕ / ETRICH TAUBE
Двухместный расчалочный моноплан цельнодеревянной конструкции с дополнительным внешним лонжероном под крылом и полотняной обшивкой. Управление по крену гошированием, а по вертикали - отклонением задней кромки стабилизатора. Оригинальный самолет, напоминающий птицу (нем. "Taube" - "голубь") спроектирован в 1910 году австрийским инженером Иго Этрихом.
Благодаря выдающимся летным данным и простоте управления, он получил широкое распространение в предвоенной Европе. Его выпускали многие немецкие и австрийские фирмы, в том числе Румплер, Хальберштадт, Фоккер, Альбатрос, Гота, DFW и Джаннин.
Машины разных производителей имели серьезные геометрические и конструктивные различия. Например, аппараты фирмы Хальберштадт имели фюзеляж типа полумонокок и "классическую" схему управления с рулями и элеронами, а самолеты фирм DFW и Джаннин строились с цельнометаллическим силовым набором из стальных труб (так называемые "Штальтаубе").
За годы серийного выпуска из заводских цехов вышло свыше 500 аэропланов, большинство из которых на счету фирмы Румплер.
В августе 1914 года все самолеты, принадлежавшие частным владельцам на территории Германии, были реквизированы и приписаны к военно-воздушным силам. При этом "Таубе" присвоили индекс A-1. (В немецкой военной классификации буквой "A" обозначали невооруженные монопланы).
В первые месяцы войны "Таубе" наиболее часто применялись для разведки как на западном, так и на восточном фронте. Самолеты этого типа сыграли важную роль в битве на Марне и в отражении русского наступления на Восточную Пруссию. 30 августа 1914-го "Голубь" впервые сбросил бомбы на Париж.
К началу 1915 года аппараты Этриха постепенно уступают место более современным разведчикам бипланной схемы. В учебных частях "Таубе" эксплуатировались еще более двух лет.
"Австро-Даймлер", 120 л.с. (на машинах австрийской постройки) или "Мерседес", 100 л.с. или "Аргус" той же мощности. В отдельных случаях применялись и другие типы рядных моторов водяного охлаждения.
Размах, м 14,5 13,6
Длина, м 10,0 8,6
Площадь крыла, кв.м 33,4 28,9
Сухой вес, кг 690 600
Взлетный вес, кг 1026 980
Скорость максимальная, км/ч 96 105
Время набора высоты, м/мин 800/12 ?
Потолок, м 3000 ?
Продолжительность полета, ч 4 ?
L.Opdyke French Aeroplanes Before the Great War (Schiffer)
Deleted by request of (c)Schiffer Publishing
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1913
ETRICH Monoplanes. Etrich Flieger Werke, Wiener Neustadt. Igo Etric was a very early experimenter in conjunction with Wels. In 1909 he produced on his own account the first Etrich monoplane, a characteristic machine, which except for detail improvement, varying dimensions, etc., has not been appreciably altered since. (See Historical Section.)
VIII 1911-12 1912-13.
Model and date. VII 1911. 2-Seater Limousine 2-seater.
Length.............feet(m.) 37 (11.30) 30? (9.30) 26? (8)
Span...............feet(m.) 48 (14.60) 42 (12.80) 31? (9.50)
Area...........sq.feet(m^2.) 380 (35 ) 323 (30) 280 (26)
(total...lbs.(kgs.) ... ... ...
(useful..lbs.(kgs.) ... ... ...
Motor..................h.p. 120 Daimler 100 60 Daimler
Speed...........m.p.h.(km.) ... ... ...
Number built during 1912 5 2 2
Remarks.--A number of VII & VIII have been sold for military purposes to the Austrian, Russian, German, and other governments.
ETRICH. Etrich Fliegerwerke, G.m.b. H. Dittersbach b. Liebau (Schlesien). Capacity: 50 a year.
Etrich (original) Taube.
Length............feet(m.) 31 (9.5)
Span..............feet(m.) 47-1/2 (14.40)
Area........sq. feet(m^2.) 301 (28)
Weight, total...lbs.(kgs.) 1323 (600)
Motor.................h.p. 100 Mercedes or Argus
Speed, max.....m.p.h.(km.) 71 to 75 (115 to 120)
А.Александров, Г.Петров Крылатые пленники России
Кроме "Паука", в 1912 г. русские авиаторы познакомились с крылатым творением австрийского конструктора Иго Этриха - аппаратом "Голубь" (Igo Etrich, Taube = "Таубе"). Два таких аэроплана летали на просторах империи, один из них пилотировал Г. В. Янковский и М. Г. Лерхе (2, в). Возможно, это были австрийские аппараты фирмы "Лонер" (Lohnerwerke). Один из них, так называемый "Этрих-XIII" серии А, числился проданным русской армии, тогда как покупатель второго, "Этрих-XXIII" серии Ц, не указывался. Начало карьеры "Голубя" восходит к 1907 г., когда Этрих и помогавший ему Франц Велс (Franz Wels) построили бесхвостый планер. 1 ноября 1909 г. (н. ст.) в Германии появилась компания "Этрих Флигер Верке" (Etrich Flieger Werke, позднее Etrich Flieger-Werke GmbH), выпускавшая до 1916 г. монопланы "Таубе" многочисленных разновидностей. По лицензии тем же занимались немецкие фирмы "Румплер", "Альбатрос", ДФВ, "Гота", "Хальберштадт", "Яннин", "Кондор", "Кригер", "Эльфауге" и "Любек-Травемюнде" (Rumpler, Albatros, DFW, Gotha, Halberstadt, Jeannin, Kondor, Krieger, LVG, Liibeck-Travemiinde). В 1912-1913 гг. в Австро-Венгрии "Таубе" в небольших количествах собирались на заводах авиацентра "Фишаменд" (позднее: К. и. К. Fliegerarsenal Flugzeugwerk Fischamend) и компании "Лонер" (Lohnerwerke GmbH). Машины пользовались известной любовью пилотов, так как прочная конструкция и "природная" устойчивость в воздухе спасали от гибели в случае аварии. Отчасти благодаря этому в 1914-1916 гг. изрядно устаревшие "Голуби" оставались в строю не только в учебных, но, временами, и в боевых частях. Пленный германский "Таубе", добыча 20-го корпусного авиаотряда, стоявшего под Ригой зимой 1914/1915 гг., является одним из них [3, из коллекции Центрального государственного архива кинофотофонодокументов (ЦГАКФФД) С.-Петербурга]. Это машина фирмы "Альбатрос", тип ФТ (Albatros FT) с мотором "Мерседес" 100 л. с. От других "Таубе" модель отличалась формой носовой части, укороченным хвостом, V-образными стойками шасси, одна из которых служила опорой для тормоза, обеспечивавшего не более чем 70-метровый пробег в соответствии с требованиями Генерального штаба от 1913 г.
Flight, May 21, 1910
Etrich Carries Two Passengers and Breaks Records.
ON Thursday of last week Herr Etrich, the Austrian aviator, whose machine was illustrated in these pages last week, made a flight of 5 mins., during which he carried two passengers. We give this week a photograph of the machine in flight with the two on board. On Saturday he beat the Austrian altitude and duration records, reaching a height of 300 metres during a trial which was continued for 1 hr. 11 mins. The Etrich monoplane is of 14 metres span, has a lifting surface of 32 sq. metres, with a tail surface of 10 square metres. It is fitted with a 50-h.p. 4-cylinder Clerget motor, which drives the 2.2 metre Chauviere propeller at 1,500 revs, per min.
Flight, April 8, 1911.
Austrian Passenger Record Beaten.
ON Monday, Herr Illner on his Etrich monoplane succeeded in beating the Austrian passenger record. Taking Herr Amau as a passenger he travelled round and round a circular course for 2 hrs. 33 mins., covering in that time about 150 kiloms.
Flight, April 29, 1911.
Tests With the Etrich Monoplane.
SOME interesting tests were made recently with an Etrich monoplane, built for the Austrian Army. The machine was first of all flown with a passenger on board for 2 hrs. 33 mins. while the wind was blowing at a rate of 4 to 5 metres a second. Afterwards the machine was dismantled, an operation which occupied 8 mins., while in 25 mins. the machine was once more ready for flight, and, in fact, was taken for a trial. The specification under which the machine was built stipulated that it could be dismantled in one hour and be again ready for flying within two hours. Herr Illner has also demonstrated the controllability of the Etrich monoplane by flying in small circles, during some of which the planes were at an angle of 30 to 35 degrees to the horizontal, while as a conclusion the aviator took his hands from the steering wheel and let the machine proceed on its way some distance of its own accord. The machine in question is seen in our photograph on this page.
High Flying in Austria.
UP to the present no great amount of attention has been paid to altitude flying in Austria, but on the 21st inst. Lieut. Bier improved on Miller's old record of 600 metres by rising to a height of 1,110 metres on his Etrich monoplane. The record was made at the Etrich testing ground near Vienna.
Flight, September 16, 1911.
Germany's First Lady Pilot.
THE number of lady aviators is gradually mounting up, and we learn that Germany now has a certificated aviatress, Fraulein Nelly Beese having made the tests to qualify for her certificate on the 8th inst., at Johannisthal.
Flight, November 11, 1911.
THE ETRICH MONOPLANE.
To Igo Etrich must be given a foremost place amongst those pioneers who, not content merely with constructing a machine that would fly, probed more deeply into the problem of flight in order to evolve an aeroplane naturally stable in a disturbed medium. Working on entirely independent lines, the researches of the three pioneers - Dunne and Weiss in England, and Etrich in Austria - have all resulted in the discovery of the improvement of longitudinal stability by the incorporation of the negatively-incident thrown-back wing tip.
It must be admitted, however, that Etrich has moved a step in advance of his contemporaries on this side of the Channel for, whereas all three have demonstrated the effectiveness of their inferences as applied to practical man-lifting machines, the Austrian inventor has succeeded in establishing the manufacture of his monoplanes on a sound commercial basis. Like the famous Wright Bros., Etrich commenced his experiments by the study of gliding flight in the year 1898 when he acquired a Lilienthal glider. Pursuing the investigations commenced by the latter, he delved into every subject that would be likely to throw light on the problem he had set himself out to solve. He studied the propulsive organs of every kind of flying animal - birds, insects, bats, flying-fish, and even went to the extent of investigating the different species of flying seeds, those of the sycamore and pine, for instance, which are so abundant in the vegetable kingdom.
This preparatory work led him to try a glider of his own design, very ingeniously constructed, and of such an original plan form, that at that time it was considered bordering on the fantastical. Experiments with the glider commenced in 1904 at Trantenau, and during the year glides of up to three-quarters of a mile in length were made.
It was not until 1909 that a power-driven aeroplane was evolved, which, piloted by Illner, soon captured all existing Austrian records. Since then it has undergone improvement after improvement, and to-day is universally ranked among the most successful and most scientifically designed of air-craft.
Its appearance in England, on the occasion of the Circuit of Britain, was a revelation to our English constructors, and its influence will doubtless have an effect on current design.
The body of the Etrich monoplane is a fish-shaped structure of steel tubing cross-braced by wire. From the elliptical radiator, which is mounted at its forward end, the body deepens and widens in the vicinity of the pilot's seat, and from that point, still preserving its elliptical cross-section, gradually tapers away to the tail, where it terminates in a vertical line. To avoid internal disturbance in the air discharge, the body is covered in front with metal sheeting and aft of the pilot's cockpit with fabric.
In the matter of under-carriage, the Etrich monoplane has undergone repeated modification in the past, but it seems as though the constructor has definitely decided that one modelled upon Henry Farman lines is most suitable - at least, for the present.
As the main planes form the most distinct feature of the machine, they merit careful study. Reference to the accompanying diagram (Fig. 1) will facilitate description. The front part of each wing, shaded in the sketch, is rigidly constructed of webbed ribs, built over three longitudinal spars, of which the forward one forms the leading edge. This section is surfaced on both sides with fabric. Behind the rear boom extend bamboo continuations of the ribs, which, covered with a single surface of fabric, form a flexible trailing edge. The camber is very slight, even at the point where the wings are attached to the fuselage, and it decreases, together with the angle of incidence, towards the tip, which is flat and presents no incidence to the direction of flight.
The flexible wing-tips, however, are turned up at the rear, and so give the end of the wing an effective negative angle of incidence. It is to this feature that the machine owes its pronounced degree of natural stability. Lateral balance is maintained by raising either wing-tip by means of a cable, which, passing over a pulley situated at the top of the king-post, divides up into eight wires connected to the flexible extremities of the wing. A cable passing over the lower end of the king-post lowers the opposite tip a corresponding amount.
Enormous strength is imparted to the wing by a bridge-like structure of steel tubing, which embraces the three wing-spars, and is attached below the under surface - strength which renders them capable of withstanding strains many times in excess of those that they are likely to be called upon to bear in flight. The wire-bracing throughout is carried out in a most thorough and conscientious manner; for what part of an aeroplane, especially on such a heavy example, deserves more careful attention than the bracing of those surfaces which support and control it?
A small wheel mounted at the lower extremity of the king-post protects the wing-tip from contact with the ground, and small transparent panes are provided in the wings to enable the pilot to see what is directly beneath him.
The tail surface is fan-shaped and balanced, and pivots in one unit about a horizontal axis. Forward of the axis the movement of the surface is "damped" by the introduction of a spring device, which prevents a purely rocking motion, as in the case of the Bristol elevator, and allows the rear edge of the elevator to flex to a certain extent.
Two small triangular vertical rudders, one above and the other below the horizontal tail plane, are hinged to the rear edges of two triangular stabilizing fins, and possess the function of directing the machine to the right or left at the will of the pilot, who operates them by means of pedals.
Elevation and lateral balance are controlled by a rotatable hand-wheel, mounted at the top of a vertical column.
The manufacture of the Etrich monoplane has been standardized into four types, a two-seater touring machine of 65-h.p., a single-seater racer of similar power, a 120-h.p. three-seater touring machine, and a similarly engined racer to carry two.
It was to the latter type that the Etrich monoplane representing Austria in the Circuit of Britain belonged. Behind the 6-cylinder Austro-Daimler motor was a small cockpit, for the accommodation of the mechanic whose duty it was to attend to the engine. Communication was carried on with the pilot by means of a speaking tube connected to specially-designed helmets.
As for the machine's future, what but success can be expected to attend the efforts of one who has already safely piloted into commercial waters such a clever synthesis of convictions resulting from serious personal study?
AEROPLANES AT TRIPOLI.
MR. QUINTO POGGIOLI, who will be remembered by our readers as having taken his pilot's certificate in England under the Royal Aero Club's regulations, sends us some interesting details of the practical work being carried out in Tripoli in connection with the Italian-Turkish War. Mr. Poggioli writes :-
"On the 25th Oct. Capt. Piazza with his Bleriot, and Capt. Moizo on his Nieuport, observed three advancing columns of Turks and Arabs of about 6,000 men. The Italians, after receiving this information, could successfully calculate distances and arrange for their defence.
"On the day following, the 26th Oct., the battle of Sciara-Sciat took place, resulting in the loss to the Turkish Army of 3,000 men. During the battle two aeroplanes, Lieut. Gavotti with his Etrich and Capt. Piazza, were circling the air. The flights took place above the line of fire, so as to be able to direct the firing of the big guns from the battleship 'Carlo Alberto,' and also of the mountain artillery. The aeroplanes were often shot at by the guns of the enemy, but with no result. The only difficulty they had was caused by the currents of air caused by the firing of the big guns.
"Previously, on the 22nd Oct., Capt. Moizo when reconnoitering passed over an oasis, and, in order to observe better the movements of the enemy, descended to an altitude of about 200 metres, and in consequence the wings of his machine were pierced by bullets in six or seven places, and also a rib was broken.
"On November 1st Lieut. Gavotti (Etrich) flew over the enemy, carrying four bombs, carried in a leather bag; the detonator he had in his pocket.
"When above the Turkish camp, he took a bomb on his knees, prepared it and let it drop. He could observe the disastrous results. He returned and circled over the camp, until he had thrown the remaining three bombs. The length of his flight was altogether about 100 kiloms.
"The bombs used contained picrato of potassa, type Cipelli."
THE first official communication by one of the belligerents, in regard to the use of aeroplanes in actual warfare, has been issued by the Italian authorities, dated November 5th, from Tripoli. As a matter of historical record we reproduce the text in extenso as follows :-
"Yesterday Captains Moizo, Piazza, and De Rada carried out an aeroplane reconnaissance, De Rada successfully trying a new Farman military biplane. Moizo, after having located the position of the enemy's battery, flew over Ain Zara, and dropped two bombs into the Arab encampment. He found that the enemy were much diminished in numbers since he saw them last time. Piazza dropped two bombs on the enemy with effect. The object of the reconnaissance was to discover the headquarters of the Arabs and Turkish troops, which is at Sok-el-Djama."
Flight, September 13, 1913.
Berlin - Paris.
STARTING on Friday of last week at 5.30 a.m. from the Johannisthal aerodrome, the German pilot Herr Friedrich with Dr. Ellias as passenger, on an Etrich-Taube, commenced a voyage which he hoped to terminate the same day in Paris, but circumstances were against him. Although he was bothered by mist, he determined to make the attempt, and after a good flight he descended at Walhrewald, near Hanover, at 7 o'clock, where he replenished his fuel and oil tanks, making a re-start at 9.15, steering away towards the west. Flying well, after a descent at Gelsenkirchen, he arrived at Berghen Sainte-Agathe, about 13 kilometres from Brussels, at 2.15p.m., where the two voyagers replenished the inner man as well as again taking in petrol and oil. At 4 o'clock Friedrich was away again, hoping to reach Paris during the evening, but after passing over the Belgian frontier he encountered a violent storm which was raging in the district, forcing him down at Sart les Bruyeres, a few kilometres from Mons, where he decided to stay for the night, having accomplished roughly about 700 kilometres from his starting point. Next day the weather was still as bad as ever and he therefore postponed the last lap of the journey until Sunday, when he got away at 1.15 in spite of a thick fog, a damaged map, and a compass out of order. After a couple of stops at Guise and Senlis, he arrived at Villacoublay at 5.15 (passing over Paris, which was enveloped in a heavy mist) there to be received with a splendid ovation by a large crowd of his fellow aviators who were in strong evidence by reason of there being a big festival in full swing at the time of his arrival.
Flight, September 20, 1913.
FLYING AT HENDON.
After two laps had been completed all attention was transferred from the cross-country race to a bird-like machine approaching the aerodrome from the south some 3,000 ft. up. When above the aerodrome the machine was easily recognised as an Etrich, with its dove-like wings and fan-shape fail. The pilot made a beautiful spiral descent, banking well over 60°, just as some of the cross-country competitors were entering the aerodrome. It was a very impressive sight, for the Etrich is certainly one of the prettiest monoplanes extant. The monoplane came to rest close to No. 1 pylon, and was immediately surrounded by a crowd thirsting for information. When the passenger - for there were two on board - removed his goggles, we recognised in him Herr I. Etrich, the designer of the much admired monoplane. The pilot was Alfred Friedrich. With the help of E. Baumann, who acted as interpreter, we ascertained that the aviators had left Paris at 11.20 that morning, arriving at Calais at 1.55, where a stay of 1 1/2 hours was made. The remainder of the journey to Hendon was made without a stop in 2 hours 5 mins., flying at an altitude of about 4,500 ft., and encountering very rough weather. Having found out all about our visitors, we turned our attention to the neglected cross-country race, which had by then finished.
In spite of the very high wind on Sunday afternoon several of the Hendon pilots ventured out and put up some fine exhibition and passenger flights. The star turns of the afternoon, however, were the splendid displays by Gustav Hamel on the 80 h.p. Bleriot and Igo Etrich on the Etrich-dove monoplane. The former indulged in a cloud-hunt lasting over an hour. It was a performance strange to behold; he made for cloud after cloud, turning again and again, only to find the clouds still above him. Eventually he saw a large one, which he made for and passed over the top. Having accomplished this feat he descended, as he was running short of oil. He was stiff with cold when he alighted, and the barograph recorded a height of 9,500 ft. The flights of the Etrich monoplane were very picturesque, the pilot executing some remarkable highly banked spirals.
HERR FRIEDRICH FLIES TO LONDON.
FOLLOWING on his flight from Berlin to Paris, recorded in last week's issue, Herr Friedrich, on Saturday morning last at 11.20, accompanied by Herr Igo Etrich, on the Etrich-Taube with Chauviere propeller, left Issy for London by way of the air. At Calais he descended at I.55, where he was delayed somewhat in connection with some of the official requirements, so that he was not able to continue his flight until 3.45. At that hour he was away again, arriving at Hendon aerodrome, after a magnificent flight, in the middle of one of the speed races, at 5.50, his altitude being about a thousand metres during most of the trip. Directly it was recognised who the voyagers were, they were very hospitably treated, and during the afternoon Herr Friedrich gave some exhibitions of his flying on the Etrich-Taube. On Wednesday this week, Friedrich was due to leave England again, this time taking as passenger Mr. John Rozendaal, the managing director of the Etrich Co. It is proposed to cross the Channel to Calais, and then fly direct for Utrecht, Holland, before returning to Germany. Mr. Rozendaal has from the earliest days been associated with aviation, he having been in Germany connected with the Wright machines before taking up the Etrich monoplane. It was Mr. Rozendaal also who engineered the late Mr. Latham's flight in Berlin from the Tempelhofer Feld to Johannisthal in 1909.
Flight, January 17, 1914.
ONE important point which the designer of a military aeroplane has to keep in mind is that his machine, when in the air, must be as hard to discern as possible. There have been several attempts to build an aeroplane with the wings of transparent material, and in May and June of 1912, Lieut. Nittner was flying at Wiener Neustadt, near Vienna, an Etrich monoplane, specially built on such lines for Capt. Petroczy, formerly commandant of the flying corps in the Austrian Army. This machine had the planes covered with a special variety of Emaillite cellulose sheets, and the system has since been developed and patented in all countries by MM. Leduc Heitz, of the Paris House of Emaillite. A photograph is reproduced of the Etrich machine, to which reference has been made, and which those present on the ground were unable to locate in the air when flying at an altitude of between 900 and 1,200 ft. It is stated that at a height of 700 ft. only the framework is dimly visible, and this and the outline of the motor and pilot and passengers present so small an area to rifle or gun fire, that at the rate of speed at which aeroplanes are flown to-day, accurate aiming at such surfaces becomes nearly impossible. There are also secondary advantages in the use of such transparent sheeting in the construction of aeroplanes. For one thing, it enables the pilot to keep an eye upon the interior framework of the planes, and to detect at once any straining or fracture of the ribs, &c. Another advantage is that the highly polished smooth surface reduces the friction, as was proved in the case of Capt. Petroczy's machine, although, as that was the first machine to be so treated, the material used was not so suitable as the latest product. The surface could not be properly tightened, and owing to the sheeting being more or less plastic it presented a wavy surface, while some difficulty was experienced in securely fastening it to the ribs.
As long ago as 1904. Prof. Reisner, of Aachen, suggested that polished celluloid should be utilised for aeroplane sheeting in order to diminish air friction.
Last year, M. W. A. Lebedeff, working in conjunction with the Russian Government, tried to cover a Henry Farman biplane with transparent cellulose sheeting of a somewhat modified composition. This material was not so heavy as that used in Austria, and it was also somewhat stronger (its tensile strength being about 7 kilogs. Per square millimetre of section), but the wavy surface of the wings, due to the flexibility of the material, could not be overcome.
After working at the problem for some time the Emaillite firm have developed a better material which was seen at the Paris Show on the planes of the Moreau monoplane. Instead of using ordinary cellulose sheeting, this machine has what might be termed a reinforced sheeting consisting of two layers of Emaillite with a sheet of silk tulle between them, the tulle being specially treated to render it transparent. That the material is to all intents and purposes transparent is illustrated by the photographs of one of the wings of the Moreau monoplane behind which a man can be clearly seen. The use of the tulle liner not only strengthens the material but it also prevents it sagging or warping between the ribs so that by its use it is quite possible to obtain a smooth and regular surface on the planes. The tensile strength of the material is about nine to ten kilogs. per square millimeter section and a 35 mm. sheeting is sufficient to ensure a tensile strength of about 2,800 to 3,000 kilogs. of the wing covering, a stress which is never attained with the best fabrics in use. The weight of this new Emaillite material does not exceed 375 grammes per square metre, which is but 40 per cent, more than the weight of good doped linen fabric as generally used, so that the increase of weight in the case of ordinary machines would be between 12 and 15 kilogs. It is claimed for this new Emaillite transparent reinforced sheeting that it has all the advantages of that which is not reinforced without its faults. It can be fastened either by nailing, sewing, or by using an adhesive solution. It will not tear or break when anything such as a tool falls upon it, while should it be pierced by a bullet the fabric liner would prevent the damage extending. The British patents for this invention are held by the British Emaillite Co., Ltd., of 30, Regent Street, W. Extensive tests are shortly to be carried out with machines covered in this way, in order to ascertain the height at which they become virtually invisible.
Flight, August 28, 1914.
AIRCRAFT "MADE IN GERMANY"
WHICH MAY BE EMPLOYED AGAINST THE ALLIES.
13. The Etrich Taube,
as the prototype of most German monoplanes, is of particular interest. The wings are of the so-called Zanonia form, having back-swept upturned wing tips, which are flexed up and down for the maintenance of lateral stability. Instead of the usual system of lower bracing cables a biplane type of bracing is secured by means of a boom running out some distance below and parallel with the wings, to which it is connected by short struts diagonally cross-wired. The outer one of these struts is continued upwards above the wing to form a king post, which serves as a support for the cables, keeping the wing tips in their upturned position. The fuselage is of nearly rectangular section, being slightly narrower at the bottom than at the top, and is provided with a turtle back running over its entire length. The flexing elevator forms a continuation of the fixed portion of the tail plane, and the rudder is divided, one half working above and the other below the tail plane. Pilot and passenger sit tandem fashion, the former occupying the rear seat. The chassis bears a slight resemblance to the Bleriot, working on the principle of the deformable triangle, but the shock - absorbing arrangement is different.
The rubber shock absorbers are anchored to the front spar and to a cross piece on the forked chassis strut, so that in heavy landing the spar is likely to suffer, if not breakage, at least weakening through shock. In view of the great amount of head resistance caused by the seemingly unnecessarily complicated wing bracing system employed, it is not surprising that the speed of the machine with a 100 h.p. engine is under 60 m.p.h.
Flight, February 12, 1915.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE ETRICH "TAUBE."
From the experience obtained with this machine Etrich, during the latter part of 1909, got out the design of a second machine, Etrich II, the "Taube" or "Dove," (b), Fig. 3, which was the first of numerous subsequent "Tauben " that differed but little from the Etrich II.
Illustrations of various Etrich monoplanes that have appeared in FLIGHT from time to time, show how the design remained practically the same throughout, the only differences being in dimensions and constructional details. Etrich II had a span of 14 m., a supporting surface of 32 sq. m., and an overall length of 10 m. The wings had a somewhat different shape to the predecessors, the leading edge being straight for nearly the whole span, and only the extremities swept back and up-turned. They were in two sections, one mounted on either side of a covered-in body, in the orthodox style, and cable braced from a central A mast on the body. Subsequently a girder understructure, extending from the body under the wings, was employed as an additional bracing, which formed a feature of nearly all Etrich machines until quite recently. The tail consisted of a horizontal fan-shaped surface, mounted on the top of the body, with a flexible trailing edge acting as an elevator. Above and below this were two diamond-shaped vertical surfaces, which acted as fins and rudders. The engine, a 50 h.p. Clerget, was mounted in the nose of the body, and drove a tractor screw direct, whilst the pilot sat in a cockpit behind. The original under-carriage was of the Bleriot type, with a central hockey-like skid. A large number of important flights were made on this machine - completed at the end of 1909 - with the result that several replicas were constructed.
The next machine to be built (in 1910), however, was more or less an experiment, and differed somewhat in construction. The main difference, as will be seen on referring to (a), Fig. 4, consisted of the short streamline body and the landing carriage. The former terminated just behind the wings, which had a similar plan-form as Etrich II, where the tail commenced - a similar practice to that followed just recently by Fokker on his monoplanes. The wings were braced to a central A mast and by four king posts, a wheel being fitted to the lower extremities of each outer king post. The under carriage consisted of a single central skid, behind which was sprung a wheel. The engine, a 60 h.p. Clerget, was mounted in the nose of the body, and the pilot sat behind. This machine had a span of 15 m., a supporting area of 32 sq. m., and a length of 10 m., its total weight, ready for the air, being 460 kgs. It had a speed of 80 kms. per hour.
Flight, January 6, 1916.
A Model Taube.
Mr. David Hay writes from Denny, Scotland, as follows :-
"I enclose two photos, of my Etrich Taube, which was built from drawings which appeared in 'FLIGHT.' Length, 5 ft. ; span, 5ft. 9 ins. propeder, 16 ins. diameter; wheels, 2 3/4 ins. diameter; fitted with pilot's and passenger's seats; and all parts workable, all planes double surfaced. I made the model for Christmas, and took the photos, before doping the machine, as I had an idea that the dope would change the colour of same. It took me three months to complete, but I made some flying models in between that time; I think that is the best way when making such a model. I can get a good 1/4 mile out of my twin-propeller monoplane, which is flying nearly every Saturday. I must say that 'FLIGHT' is the only paper that is worth reading on such a subject."