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De Havilland D.H.9

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1917

Single-engine, two-seat, two-bay biplane light bomber

De Havilland - D.H.6 - 1917 - Великобритания<– –>De Havilland - D.H.9A - 1918 - Великобритания


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


ДЕ ХЭВИЛЛЕНД DH.9 / DE HAVILLAND DH.9

  Цельнодеревянный двухместный биплан с полотняной обшивкой. Развитие типа DH.4 с рядом нововведений. Пилотская кабина сдвинута назад, вплотную к кабине летнаба, а на ее прежнем месте установлен топливный бак. Применены крылья с лучшими несущими свойствами и выдвижной подфюзеляжный радиатор.
  Заказ на серийную постройку машины был выдан в июле 1917-го, однако затянувшиеся проблемы с доводкой силовой установки привели к тому, что первые два дивизиона RAF, вооруженные DH.9, прибыли на фронт только в апреле следующего года. Вопреки ожиданиям, летные данные самолета оказались не лучше, чем у его предшественника. А появление у немцев истребителей нового поколения обусловило тяжелые потери среди экипажей "Де Хэвиллендов". Тем не менее в течение лета 1918-го DH.9 активно применялись на западном фронте, в Палестине, Македонии и Месопотамии в качестве разведчиков и легких бомбардировщиков. В разное время на них летало 12 дивизионов RAF. Из них два дивизиона входили в состав так называемых "Независимых воздушных сил", совершавших дальние рейды на стратегические объекты Германии. После неудачной бомбардировки города Майнц 31 июля 1918 года, когда из 12 машин 7 было сбито и еще у трех в полете отказали двигатели, DH.9 начали выводить из частей первой линии, заменяя их более современными DH.9A.
  По окончании первой мировой войны часть самолетов, ранее действовавших против Турции в Закавказье, была передана белой армии. Кроме того, на помощь белому движению прибыли в Россию 47-й и 221-й дивизионы RAF, вооруженные "Кэмелами" и DH.9. Еще несколько десятков машин этого типа поступило в 1919 году в распоряжение генерала Деникина. Весной 1920 года 27 "Де Хэвиллендов", из них 25 DH.9, составляли основу ВВС крымской группировки белогвардейцев. Им принадлежит решающая роль в разгроме красного кавкорпуса Жлобы и отражении летнего наступления большевиков на Крым. Позднее врангелевские DH.9 участвовали в боях в Северной Таврии и на Каховском плацдарме. К началу ноября из-за сильного износа и отсутствия запчастей ни один из них уже не мог подняться в воздух.
  Выпуск "девяток" продолжался и в послевоенные годы. 12 английских заводов построили в общем счете 3204 аппарата (частично - в гражданском исполнении). Кроме того около 500 машин с двигателями "Испано-Сюиза" было выпущено в 1920-х годах в Испании и 30 - в Бельгии. DH.9 английской постройки стояли на вооружении в Польше, Голландии, Эстонии, Швейцарии и Южной Африке.


ДВИГАТЕЛЬ

  BHP ("Бердмор-Халфорд-Пуллинджер"), названный позже Сиддли "Пума", 230л.с.


ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
  1 синхр. "Виккерс" и 2 "Льюиса" на турели "Скэрф", до 200 кг. бомб.


ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
(D.H.9 1918г)

  Размах, м 12,90
  Длина, м 9,20
  Высота, м 3,52
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 40,40
  Сухой вес, кг 1040
  Взлетный вес, кг 1670
  Двигатель: "Роллс-Ройс"
   мощность, л. с. 360
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 179
  Время набора высоты, м/мин 2000/11
  Дальность полета, км 680
  Потолок, м 4710
  Экипаж, чел. 2
  Вооружение 3 пулемета
   310 кг бомб


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


Де Хевилленд D.Н.9 1918 г.

  Опыт эксплуатации в боевых частях самолетов D.H.4 потребовал значительной модернизации этих машин. После значительной доработки в дивизионы стали поступать новые машины D.Н.9.
  Эти самолеты имели много общего со своим предшественником. Конструкция фюзеляжа, крыльев, оперения и шасси осталась практически такой же. Основные отличия были в конструкции кабины. Топливный бак располагался на D.Н.9 сразу за двигателем, а не между кабинами пилота и наблюдателя, как у D.Н.4. D.Н.9 имел более толстый профиль крыла, на этих машинах устанавливался более мощный двигатель Роллc-Ройс "Игл" мощностью 360 л. с. или "Либерти" (400 л. с.). На машинах устанавливался новый прицел, был увеличен боезапас пулеметов. Самолет мог нести 410 кг бомб.
  Эта машина оказалась одним из самых лучших легких бомбардировщиков Первой мировой войны, самолет строился массовыми сериями в Великобритании и США.


Модификации
  D.Н.9 - развитие самолетов серии D.Н.4, на этих машинах ставился двигатель Роллc-Ройс "Игл" мощностью 360 или 375 л. с. с двухлопастным винтом. На самолете устанавливалось 3 пулемета (2 синхронных пулемета "Виккерс" и 1 "Льюис" на турели).


В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.


Самолет Р-1 (DH-9) с двигателем "Даймлер" ("Мерседес") в 260 л. с. Самолет мало отличался от предыдущего (кроме расположения кабин). Было сделано около 100 экземпляров, в том числе несколько десятков из купленных в 1922 г. в Англии планеров самолетов. Самолет выпускался в 1922-1923 гг.

Самолет Р-2 (Р-II, DH-9) с двигателем "Сиддлей-Пума" в 220 л. с. По размерам, конструкции и внешнему виду самолет почти не отличался от предыдущего. Выпускался в 1923 г. применялся главным образом в школах и отрядах. В 1925 г. для первого большого перелета советских летчиков Москва-Пекин были выпущены под руководством инженера В. С. Денисова два таких самолета. На одном из них радиатор имел эллиптическую форму, на другом - спрямленные бока. Винты на обоих самолетах. были выполнены с небольшим коком. Летные данные этих самолетов несколько улучшились. В перелете участвовал только второй из них (летчик А. Н. Екатов).

Всего на авиазаводе № 1 было построено 130 самолетов Р-2.



Самолет||DH-9 (Р-1)/DH-9 (P-2)
Год выпуска||1922 /1923
Двигатель , марка||<Даймлер>(<Мерседес>)/<Силлей-Пума>
   мощность, л. с.||260 /220
Длина самолета, м||9,38/9,5
Размах крыла, м||12,94/12,94
Площадь крыла, м2||40,00/40
Масса пустого, кг||1200/1230
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||252/250
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||520/500
Полетная масса, кг||1720/1730
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||43,0/44,3
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||6,6/7,9
Весовая отдача,%||30,2/29
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||170/165
Скорость посадочная, км/ч||95/80
Время набора высоты||
   1000м, мин||6,5/7
   2000м, мин||15/16
   3000м, мин||28/30
Потолок практический, м||4580/4500
Продолжительность полета, ч.||4/4
Дальность полета, км||680/660
Разбег, м||?/250


A.Jackson De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (Putnam)


De Havilland D.H.9

  By the summer of 1917 the need had become apparent for a fast bomber capable of carrying heavier loads over greater distances than the D.H.4. Reluctant to abandon altogether the manufacturing facilities developed for this successful and well proven type, the Air Board finally sanctioned the large scale production of a version so drastically modified that it was necessary to give it the new type number D.H.9. Structurally similar to its predecessor, the D.H.9 used identical mainplanes and tail surfaces but the pilot no longer sat in jeopardy between engine and fuel tanks, but next to, and in communication with, the gunner. The nose was of a better streamlined shape and the engine installation resembled that of the Fiat engined D.H.4, but with the added refinement of a radiator retracting into the underside of the front fuselage as a means of temperature control. The prototype was a D.H.4 numbered A7559, converted by the Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd. and fitted with a 230 h.p. Galloway-built B.H.P. engine sometimes known as the Adriatic. Flight trials commenced at Hendon in July 1917 and contracts already awarded to sub-contractors were amended so that D.H.9s rolled from the production lines instead of D.H.4s.
  Production machines, ultimately turned out at the rate of one every 40 minutes, were fitted initially with the Siddeley-built B.H.P. engine but the majority had the Siddeley Puma, a lightweight version of the B.H.P. modified for mass production by the Siddeley-Deasy Car Company. Teething troubles proved so serious that the Puma, although expected to deliver 300 h.p., had to be derated to 230 h.p., with the result that the D.H.9 was underpowered and consequently inferior in performance to the aircraft it was to replace. With full military load comprising 70 gallons of fuel, 4 1/2 gallons of oil, 6 1/2 gallons of water, one pilot's forward firing Vickers gun operated by Constantinesco interruptor gear, observer's Lewis gun, two 230 lb. or four 112 lb. bombs, it was unable to climb above 13,000 ft. Deliveries commenced with a batch of five at the end of 1917 and the type was in service with squadrons in France by April 1918. Inevitably serious losses were incurred such as on July 31. 1918 when only two out of twelve D.H.9s returned from a raid on Germany. The prevalence of engine trouble put an additional and intolerable burden on aircrews, and Nos. 99 and 104 Squadrons alone suffered 123 engine failures out of 848 sorties flown before the Armistice. The D.H.4 was therefore retained in service and the D.H.9 supplemented rather than superseded it. In less hotly contested areas, the D.H.9 enjoyed greater success, notably in September 1918 against the Turks in Palestine. Long range reconnaissance flights of over 300 miles were made against the Bulgars from bases in Macedonia, and ranges of over 400 miles were achieved by D.H.9s locally modified in the Aegean Islands to carry overload fuel tanks for the bombing of Constantinople.
  At home the D.H.9 joined D.H.4s on coastal defence and anti-Zeppelin work, and at the end of the war replaced some of the D.H.6s on antisubmarine patrols. Thereafter the D.H.9 was relegated to non-combatant roles and on December 17, 1918 those of No. 99 Squadron, operating with D.H.4s of Nos. 55 and 57 Squadrons, inaugurated the first cross-Channel air mail service. Twenty five bags of mail for the Army of Occupation on the Rhine were flown to Valenciennes in bad weather, en route to Cologne. These squadrons made 917 sorties during the winter out of a possible 1,017. By July 1919 no D.H.9s remained on R.A.F. charge, the last examples in service being the ambulance versions operating with 'Z Force' in Somaliland. These, exemplified by D3117, carried one stretcher case in a coffin-like enclosure on top of the rear fuselage and had the upper trailing edge cut-out filled in.
  Although the D.H.9 was not a success in its intended role and faded ignominiously from the R.A.F. after suffering rapid replacement by the D.H.9A, its career was by no means over. Many interesting modifications were made to it and after the experimental installation of 250 h.p. Fiat A-12 engines in D.H.9s C6052 and D5748, a batch of one hundred commencing D2776 was ordered from Short Brothers. As the engine closely resembled the Puma externally the main distinguishing feature was the exhaust manifold, fitted to the starboard side on Fiats and to the port side on Pumas, but in addition the radiator was fixed and equipped with vertical shutters because of the greater length of the Fiat installation. Some of this batch were later converted to Pumas for deck landing trials on H.M. Aircraft Carrier Eagle in 1921, and were fitted with D.H.4 type front radiators instead of the underslung type, to minimise damage if forced to ditch.
  In February 1918 one of the prototype Napier Lion, broad arrow, 12 cylinder, watercooled engines was experimentally fitted at Farnborough to the D.H.9 C6078 and first flown on March 16th. The same machine was later fitted with a developed Lion engine and flown, on October 20th, to Martlesham where on January 2, 1919 Capt. Andrew Lang flew it to 30,500 ft. and established a World's altitude record. Throughout 1919 the R.A.E. experimented with an R.H.A. supercharger fitted to E630 and with alternative radiator positions on D2825.
  The success of the Liberty engined D.H.4 prompted the American Expeditionary Force to install the improved 435 h.p. Liberty 12A engine in the D.H.9 and two airframes, one of which was C6058, were acquired for this purpose in July 1918.
  After the war surplus D.H.9s took on a new lease of life in the service of other nations, mainly because their low initial cost was counted above military invincibility. Eighteen were supplied to Belgium, 12 to Poland, 48 to South Africa as part of the Imperial Gift, 9 to New Zealand, 28 to Australia and others to Canada, India, Afghanistan, Greece, the Irish Free State, Holland and Latvia. One of the 20 Puma engined D.H.9s supplied to Chile was flown by the Director of Civil Aviation, Capt. Aracena, 1,850 miles from Santiago to Rio de Janeiro in the autumn of 1922 and in the same year D.H.9s 16 and 77 (ex H9133) of the Estonian Air Squadron, made the long flight from Tallinn to Riga. Earlier, in January 1920, the D.H.9 30 (ex D660) crashed at Tallinn at the end of an historic flight from Helsinki with the first load of bank notes for the newly created Estonian Republic. Those of the South African Air Force gave sterling service for many years, and at least one, 159, was fitted with a 200 h.p. Wolseley Viper and unofficially named the D.H. Mantis. Six saw active service during the Boudelzvartz rebellion in 1922 and two piloted by Capts. C. J. Venter D.F.C. and H. C. Daniel M.C, D.F.C., which flew 1,000 miles from Pretoria to Cape Town in 9 hours 45 minutes on March 5, 1924, were the first aircraft to make the journey in the daylight hours of one day. Others, e.g. 101, were used in 1925 on an experimental air mail service between Cape Town and Durban, 450 lb. of payload being carried on each trip. In the following year comparative trials took place at Roberts Heights between D.H.9s fitted with the A.D.C. Nimbus, Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar and Bristol Jupiter engines. Final choice fell on the Jupiter and a number of S.A.A.F. D.H.9s, rebuilt as the D.H.9J M'pala I general purpose type with Jupiter VI or as the M'pala II for communications with Jupiter VIII and divided axle wide track oleo undercarriage, survived until 1937. The designation D.H.9J was also used for the Jaguar engine conversions made at Stag Lane (see page 136), a form of ambiguity also practised with D.H.50 variants.
  The Puma D.H.9 made a most important contribution to aerodynamic research when, in 1920, Mr. (later Sir Frederick) Handley Page equipped a standard aircraft, H9140, with his newly invented leading edge slots. These were full span, auxiliary aerofoils permanently fixed along both mainplanes to give maximum lift, thereby increasing the wing area by 34 sq. ft. Later a taller undercarriage was fitted and in September 1920 comparative trials took place at Farnborough against a standard D.H.9 D5755. These showed a reduction in stalling speed from 51 to 44 1/2 m.p.h. and at a public demonstration at Cricklewood on October 21, 1921 Maj. E. L. Foot took full advantage of the ground angle imparted by the tall undercarriage by taking off in a three point attitude and going straight into a sensational angle of climb. The performance of this H.P. 17 led to an order for the H.P. 19 Hanley, similarly equipped.
  Following Maj. Hereward de Havilland's tour through Spain in a Lion engined D.H.9 in 1919. a number of war surplus D.H.9 airframes were sold to the Spanish Government. These were erected by the Hispano-Suiza company and fitted with 300 h.p. Hispano-Suize 8Fb engines. From 1925 Hispano built the type under licence and a total production in excess of 500 has been quoted. They were used in the African squadrons for reconnaissance and also at the Advanced Training School at Guadalajara. At the outbreak of the Civil War 25 were still in service in Spain, of which 21 went over to the Reds, and at least one, 34-18, was still active in 1940.
  D.H.9s equipping the Netherlands Army Air Service were unique, not only because they included 10 built at Stag Lane in 1922 from unused components and others impressed after they forced landed on neutral Dutch territory during the First World War, but because many were rejuvenated as late as 1934 with Wright Whirlwind radial engines. Similar treatment was also applied to 13 modified D.H.9s which were built by the Netherlands East Indies Army workshops in 1926. These had plywood fuselages, revised ailerons, enlarged fin and rudder, large D.H.50-type nose radiators and extended exhaust pipes. Several Dutch machines were converted for the photo-reconnaissance role and others, equipped as ambulances, closely resembled those used in Somaliland in 1919.
  A demand for surplus D.H.9s, reconditioned at Croydon by the Aircraft Disposal Co. Ltd. continued until 1924, but so great was their original stock that large numbers of unsold machines remained dismantled and neglected until burned in 1931. One D.H.9. in Independent Air Force colours, numbered F1258 survives in the French Musee de l'Air and is currently (1987) housed at Le Bourget. Another is displayed at the South African National War Museum near Johannesburg.

SPECIFICATION AND DATA
  Manufacturers:
   The Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Hendon, London, N.W.9
   The Alliance Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Cambridge Rd, Hammersmith, London, W.6.
   F. W. Berwick and Co. Ltd., Park Royal, London, N.W.10
   Cubitt Ltd., Croydon, Surrey
   Mann, Egerton and Co. Ltd., Aylsham Road, Norwich, Norfolk
   National Aircraft Factory No. 1, Waddon, Surrey
   National Aircraft Factory No. 2, Heaton Chapel, near Stockport, Lanes.
   Netherlands East Indies Army Workshops, Andir, Java.
   Short Bros. (Rochesterand Bedford) Ltd., Rochester. Kent
   The Vulcan Engineering and Motor Co. (1906) Ltd., Crossens, Lanes.
   Waring and Gillow Ltd., Cambridge Road, Hammersmith, London, W.6
   G. & J. Weir Ltd., Cathcart, Glasgow
   Westland Aircraft Works, Yeovil, Somerset
   Whitehead Aircraft Co. Ltd., Townshend Road, Richmond, Surrey
   SABCA, Haren Airport, Brussels, Belgium
   Hispano-Suiza S.A., Guadalajara, Spain
  Power Plants:
   One 230 h.p. B.H.P. (Galloway Adriatic)
   One 230 h.p. Siddeley Puma
   One 290 h.p. Siddeley Puma high compression
   One 250 h.p. FiatA-12
   One 300 h.p. A.D.C. Nimbus
   One 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza 8Fb
   One 430 h.p. Napier Lion
   One 435 h.p. Liberty 12A
   One 465 h.p. Wright Whirlwind R-975
   (Mantis) One 200 h.p. Wolseley Viper
   (M'pala I) One 450 h.p. Bristol Jupiter VI
   (M'pala II) One 480 h.p. Bristol Jupiter VIII

Dimensions, Weights and Performances (without bomb load):
   Puma Fiat Lion Liberty
Span 42ft. 4 5/8 in. 42ft. 4 5/8 in. 42ft. 4 5/8 in. 42 ft. 4 5/8 in.
Length 30 ft. 5 in. 30 ft. 0 in. 30ft. 9 1/2 in. 30 ft. 0 in.
Height 11ft. 3 1/2 in. 11 ft. 2 in. 11ft. 7 3/4 in. 11ft. 2 in.
Wing area 434 sq. ft. 434 sq. ft. 434 sq. ft. 434 sq. ft.
Tare weight 2,230 lb. 2,460 lb. 2,544 lb. -
All-up weight 3,325 lb. 3,600 lb. 3,667 lb. 4,645 lb.
Maximum speed 109.5 m.p.h.* 117.5 m.p.h.* 138 m.p.h.* 114 m.p.h.**
Initial climb 625 ft./min. 725 ft./min. 1,600 ft./min. -
Service ceiling 15,500 ft. 17,500 ft. 23,000 ft. -
Endurance 4 1/2 hours - 3 1/2 hours -
* At 10,000 ft. ** At ground level.


O.Thetford Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 (Putnam)


DE HAVILLAND 9

  Two-seat day-bomber which was immediate predecessor of the D.H. 9A. Over 3,000 built for R.A.F. The D.H. 9 illustrated was serving with No. 206 Squadron in 1920. In October 1918 the D.H. 9 equipped Nos. 17, 27, 47, 49, 98, 99, 103, 104, 107, 108, 144, 202, 206, 211, 212, 218, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 236, 250 and 273 Squadrons of the R.A.F. In 1920, it still equipped No 47 Squadron (Helwan) and No. 55 Squadron (Suez). One 240-h.p. B.H.P. engine and loaded weight of 3,669 lb. Max. speed, 111 m.p.h. at to,000 ft. Climb, 500 ft./min. Endurance, 4 1/2 hours. Service ceiling, 17,500 ft.


F.Manson British Bomber Since 1914 (Putnam)


Airco D.H.9

  The unexpected appearance by German bombers over London on 13 June 1917 sparked an immediate reaction by the Chief of the General Staff, Sir William Robertson, who forthrightly demanded a considerable and immediate increase in aircraft production - assumed to be fighters with which to bolster the air defences of the British Isles. Eight days later, however, this expansion of the air services was qualified when it was decided to increase the number of RFC squadrons from 108 to 200, the majority of the new units to be equipped with bombers. The initial understanding of this was that Britain was planning retaliation by establishing a new bombing force with which to strike at German cities.
  This was not to be - at least in the short term - and the only direct action taken at the time of the German daylight raids was to withdraw a single fighter squadron from France to an aerodrome in Kent.
  The real significance of the decision announced on 21 June was the implicit recognition, by the relative success of the first German raid, of the bomber as a potentially decisive weapon of war, whether it was to be used against the enemy in the field or in his home. An immediate and significant increase in the production of long-range heavy bombers would have been beyond the conceivable capacity o f British manufacturers. Instead, production orders were immediately issued for 700 extra Airco D.H.4s, an aircraft that was beginning to appear in service and, with some reservations, was spoken of highly by the RFC.
  On 23 July the Air Board was given preliminary details of an improved development of the D.H.4, to be termed the D.H.9, in which the shortcomings of that aeroplane would be overcome while retaining 90 per cent of the original airframe. The principal alteration was to relocate the pilot further aft, so as to be closer to his observer/gunner, by moving the fuel tank forward from its former position between the two crew members to a position between the engine and the pilot. This change would at least be applauded by many D.H.4 crews and remove one weakness of the aircraft in combat.
  The other major change was in the choice of the BHP engine, said at that time to be developing 300hp. Based on this power the D.H.9 was calculated to be capable of a speed of 112 mph at 10,000 feet, a performance considered adequate to match enemy fighters. With such a degree of commonality with the D.H.4, it was pointed out that factories already producing that aeroplane would lose only a few weeks' production when changing over to the D.H.9. As if to prove the point, Airco had converted a D.H.4, A7559, to become the prototype D.H.9, and this was living by the end of July.
  Unfortunately, yet again a new British engine, which had attracted considerable Government support and public funding, encountered serious difficulties when efforts were made to introduce it into production. The BHP engine had been selected for the D.H.9 as it was already scheduled for mass production, for which responsibility had been vested in the Siddeley-Deasy Motor Car Company, with 2,000 engines already ordered. By July sufficient quantities of the engines' cast aluminium cylinder blocks were being delivered to enable Siddeley-Deasy to produce 100 complete engines each month - until it was discovered that 90 per cent of the blocks were defective. A quick assessment of the cause and rectification of the fault proved impossible, and the decision to de-rate production BHP engines to 230hp was taken on the assumption that lower engine stresses would prevent the fault from causing engine failure, and so as not to delay deliveries to the Service. The assumption was badly flawed.
  The first deliveries were made in November 1917 to No 108 Squadron, the first of the squadrons newly formed to fly the D.H.9 and then stationed at Stonehenge. Owing to the inevitable trouble with its engines, this Squadron did not move to France until July the following year. No 103 Squadron took delivery of its D.H.9s at nearby Old Sarum in December, and moved to France five months later.
  D.H.9s were delivered to Nos 98 and 99 Squadrons, RFC, and Nos 2, 6 and 11 (Naval) Squadrons, RNAS, all in France during the first four months of 1918, followed by No 27 Squadron, RFC, shortly afterwards. By June nine squadrons were flying D.H.9s over the Western Front, and thirteen others were working up on them in the United Kingdom. All this, despite the fact that Maj-Gen Hugh Trenchard had learned in November 1917 that the performance of the D.H.9 was inferior to that of the D.H.4, which it was intended to replace. And on 14 November Sir Douglas Haig, influenced by Trenchard's dissatisfaction, expressed the view that the D.H.9 would be wholly outclassed as a day bomber by June 1918.
  In action the D.H.9 fared disastrously, combat loss figures being doubled by losses due to engine failures. For instance, between May and November 1918, Nos 99 and 104 Squadrons (flying with the VIII Brigade) between them flew 848 aircraft sorties in the course of 83 bombing raids; 123 aircraft were forced to return with engine trouble, 54 aircraft were lost to enemy action, and 94 were destroyed in accidents. In a raid by twelve D.H.9s of No 99 Squadron against Mainz on 31 July, three aircraft turned back with engine trouble and seven others were shot down by German fighters; only the leader, Capt A H Taylor and one other pilot brought their machines back to their aerodrome at Azelot. During another raid by 21 D.H.9s of Nos 27 and 98 Squadrons against Aulnoye on 1st October, no fewer than fifteen turned back with engine trouble; the remainder turned back as they were unable to defend themselves with such depleted numbers.
  The increasing scale of D.H.9 service in the face of heavy losses on the Western Front was the outcome of political intransigence by politicians, and Staffs' determination to pursue a policy that was demonstrably wrong, being afraid of the consequences if they changed course.
  No one denied that the D.H.9 could have been an excellent bombing aircraft had the right engine been decided upon in the first place. Various alternatives were tried, including the six-cylinder, in-line Fiat A-12, of which Sir William Weir, Controller of Aeronautical Supplies on the Air Board, had ordered 2,000 examples for delivery between January and June 1918, but only 100 Fiat D.H.9s were produced (by Short Bros). Other engines flown experimental in the aircraft included a 290hp high compression version of the Siddeley Puma, and the 430hp Napier Lion (an aircraft which possessed a maximum speed of 144 mph at sea level without bombs). Another engine flown experimentally in the USA was the new Liberty 12, an engine that opened a new and more auspicious chapter in the history of the D.H.9, that of the D.H.9A.
  It transpired that most of the D.H.9 squadrons which were formed in Britain during the spring and summer of 1918 were not destined to go to France; instead the aircraft began assuming the duty of coastal patrol off the British coasts. In doing so, they took over from another Airco aircraft, the D.H.6. This biplane was designed at the outset as a trainer but, with the increasing toll of shipping being taken by German submarines in 1917, they were adapted to carry a single 100 lb anti-submarine bomb, and equipped about 30 Flights distributed among a dozen coastal aerodromes. (In the Second World War, during the months when a German invasion threatened, a few de Havilland Tiger Moths were adapted to carry light bombs for 'anti-invasion' patrols off the coasts of Britain.)
  D.H.9s gave valuable service in Palestine with sustained attacks on the retreating Turks during Allenby's offensive in the closing months of the War. Other D.H.9s, based in the Aegean, made attempts to bomb Constantinople, flights which took the aircraft to the limit of their endurance - even when carrying locally-made extra fuel tanks. Limited bombing raids were flown by No 47 Squadron, based in Macedonia, including attacks on retreating Bulgarian troops during September 1918.
  A total of 3,204 D.H.9s had been built by the end of 1918, of which 2,166 had been delivered to the RFC, RNAS and RAF. Production even continued into 1919, with most of the postwar examples being delivered into storage, and most of them scrapped without ever being flown. A few remained in service until 1920, but by then the D.H.9A was equipping the peacetime Service.

  Type: Single-engine, two-seat, two-bay biplane light bomber.
  Manufacturers: The Aircraft Manufacturing Co Ltd, Hendon, London NW9; The Alliance Aeroplane Co Ltd, Hammersmith, London W6; F W Berwick & Co Ltd, Park Royal, London NW10; Cubitt Ltd, Croydon, Surrey; Mann, Egerton & Co Ltd, Aircraft Works, Norwich, Norfolk; National Aircraft Factory No 1, Waddon, Surrey; National Aircraft Factory No 2, Heaton Chapel, Lancashire; Short Bros (Rochester and Bedford) Ltd, Rochester, Kent; The Vulcan Motor and Engineering Co (1906) Ltd, Crossens, Lancashire; Waring and Gillow Ltd, Hammersmith, London W6; G & J Weir Ltd, Cathcart, Glasgow; Westland Aircraft Works, Yeovil, Somerset; Whitehead Aircraft Co Ltd, Richmond, Surrey.
  Powerplant: One 230hp Galloway Adriatic (BHP) six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine driving two-blade wooden propeller; also 230hp Siddeley Puma (and 290hp high compression version), 230hp Fiat A-12; 430hp Napier Lion.
  Structure: Wire-braced wooden structure, fabric- and ply-covered; two spruce wing spars, wooden V-strut undercarriage with rubber cord-sprung wheel axle.
  Dimensions (Puma engine): Span, 42ft 4 3/8in; length, 30ft 5in; height, 11ft 3 1/2in; wing area, 434 sq ft.
  Weights (Puma engine): Tare, 2,230 lb; all-up (460 lb bomb load), 3,790 lb.
  Performance (Puma engine): Max speed, 113 mph at sea level, 109.5 mph at 10,000ft; climb to 10,000ft, 18 min 30 sec; service ceiling, 15,500ft; endurance, 4 1/2 hr.
  Armament: Bomb load of up to 460 lb, comprising combinations of 230 lb and 112 lb bombs on external racks. Gun armament comprised one synchronized 0.303in Vickers machine gun on nose decking, offset to port, and either one or two Lewis guns with Scarff ring on observer's cockpit.
  Prototype: One, A7559 (a converted D.H.4), first flown by Capt Geoffrey de Havilland at Hendon in July 1917.
  Production: Total number of D.H.9s ordered, 4,630; total number built, 4,091. Westland, 300 (B7581-B7680, D7201-D7300 and F1767-F1866); Vulcan, 100 (B9331-B9430); Weir, 400 (C1151-C1450 and D9800-D9899); Berwick, 180 (C2151-C2230 and D7301-D7400); Airco, 1,200 (C6051-C6121, C6123-C6349, D2876-D3275, E5435, E5436, E8857-E9056 and H9113-119412); Cubitt, 500 (D451-D950); National Aircraft Factorv No 2, 500 (D1001-D1500); Mann, Egerton, 100 (D1651-D1750); Short Bros, 100 (D2776-D2875); Waring and Gillow, 500 (D5551-D5850 [50 sub-contracted] and F1101-F1300); Whitehead, 100 (E601-E700); National Aircraft Factory No 1, 300 (F1-F300); Alliance, 350 (H5541-H5890). Of these 539 were cancelled, and approximately 800 were only partly completed or were delivered into storage from late-1918 onwards.
  Summary of Service with RFC, RNAS and RAF: D.H.9s served with Nos 27,49,98, 99, 103, 104, 107, 108 and 110 Squadrons, RFC, on the Western Front; with Nos 17 and 47 Squadrons, RFC, in Macedonia; with No 105 Squadron, RAF, in Ireland; with Nos 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132 and 137 Squadrons, RFC and/or RAF, based in the United Kingdom; with Nos 55, 142 and 144 Squadron in the Middle East; with Nos 202, 206, 211 and 218 Squadron, RAF, ex-RNAS, on the Western Front; with Nos 212, 219, 233, 250, 254 and 273 Squadrons, RAF, home based on coastal patrol; with Nos 55 and 142 Squadrons, RAF, in the Middle East (postwar); No 221 Squadron in the Aegean, on anti-submarine patrol and bombing; No 223 Squadron in the Aegean as light bomber unit; Nos 224, 226 and 227 Squadrons, RAF, in the Mediterranean as light bomber units; with No 269 Squadron, RAF, based in Egypt for coastal patrol; and with No 186 (Training) Squadron.


O.Thetford British Naval Aircraft since 1912 (Putnam)


de Havilland 9

With the exception of the B.E.2c, the D.H.9 was the most severely criticized British aeroplane of the First World War. It was designed as a replacement for the D.H.4 in day bomber squadrons, where it was intended to offer a much wider radius of action. In the event its performance fell far short of expectations, and it was actually inferior to the type it superseded. Although this fact was known before it entered service, it was decided (fantastic as it sounds) to proceed with large-scale production despite protests from commanders in the field. The inevitable results followed. Losses were high, one of the worst incidents being on 31 July 1918, when only two out of 12 D. H. 9s returned from a raid over Germany.
The fault lay not in the aeroplane but in the engine, the BHP, which failed to deliver its designed power of 300 hp and remained unreliable to the end. As a result, forced landings were common, and with full bomb-load the D.H.9 could rarely exceed 13,000 ft, leaving it at the mercy of enemy fighters.
The prototype (A7559) flew in July 1917 and production aircraft entered squadrons early in 1918. Although chiefly identified with the Independent Force, RAF, and the raids on Germany, the D.H.9 in fact saw a good deal of service on naval work of various kinds; with RNAS bombing squadrons in Belgium before they became RAF squadrons, on naval co-operation work in the Mediterranean and for anti-Zeppelin and anti-submarine patrols from coastal air stations in the United Kingdom. Some of these latter squadrons (technically RAF, but employed exclusively on maritime duties) retained D.H.9s as late as July 1919, when they disbanded.
During raids on Bruges Docks with the 5th Wing, RNAS, in March 1918, D.H.9s of No.6 Naval Squadron destroyed three cement barges, a submarine, two torpedo boats and a cargo vessel. This unit operated from Petite Synthe until transferred to the RAF on 1 April 1918.

UNITS ALLOCATED
Nos.2, 6 and 11 Naval Squadrons (later Nos.202, 206 and 211 Squadrons, RAF) in Belgium. Sea patrol: No.212 (Great Yarmouth). NO.219 (Manston). No.233 (Dover). No.236 (Mullion); No.250 (Padstow). No.254 (Prawle Point). No.260 (Westward Ho!), No.273 (Burgh Castle). Aegean: Nos.220. 221. 222 and 223. Mediterranean: Nos.224, 225, 226 and 227. Egypt: No.269 (Port Said) and NO.270 (Alexandria).

TECHNICAL DATA (D.H.9)
Description: Two-seat day bomber, also used for anti-submarine patrol. Wooden structure, fabric covered.
Manufacturers: Aircraft Manufacturing Co Ltd, Hendon, London, and fifteen sub-contractor .
Power Plant: One 230 hp BHP or Siddeley Puma.
Dimensions: Span, 42 ft 4 5/8 in. Length, 30 ft 6 in. Height, 11 ft 2 in. Wing area, 434 sq ft.
Weights: Empty, 2,203 lb. Loaded, 3,669 lb.
Peljormance: Maximum speed, 111 1/2 mph at 10,000 ft; 104 1/2 mph at 13,000 ft. Climb, 1 min 25 sec to 1 ,000 ft; 31 min 55 sec to 13,000 ft. Endurance, 4 1/2 hr. Service ceiling, 15,500 ft.
Armament: One fixed, synchronised Vickers machine-gun forward and either single or double free-mounted Lewis aft. Bomb-load: 460 lb.


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


D.H.9. Scourged and derided though it was, the D.H.9 was more extensively employed than any aircraft of its class, both by the RFC and RAF. Such were the casualties inflicted by enemy fighters that formation flying was imperative. Being of an open kind this enabled the rear gun or guns to be worked effectively. The juxtaposition of the cockpits allowed not only better crew communication than in the D.H.4 but permitted internal bomb stowage also. Bombs could also be carried under each wing and under the fuselage.
The pilot's Vickers gun was located externally in a recess to port and with separate case and link chutes in the fuselage side. C.C. gear and a Hyland Type B loading handle were provided. The Scarff ring-mounting carried a Lewis gun, or occasionally two. Royal Air force Technical Notes for #de Havilland No.9' include these items under "Order of Erection":
'Connect all Engine Controls, Revolution Indicator, and C.C. Gear; Fit Fixed Bomb Cells and Fixed Bomb Release Gear; Fit Gun Mounting and Instrument Board; Fit Ammunition Box, Shutes, and Vickers Gun; Fit Scarff Ring Mounting; Place Movable Bomb Cells in position."
The external load of heavy bombs was typically two 230-lb or three or four 112-lb, but smaller bombs were also carried outside. With the D.H.9 the Gledhill bomb gear is mainly associated and an Air Ministry instruction dated March 1918 gave notice:
'Two sizes of this gear are being made at present. These will be issued as complete sets made up of the following units: (A) One fixed unit of two suspensions for 20 lb bombs. (This unit is a fixed part in the D.H.9.) (B) One movable unit of twelve suspensions for 20 lb bombs. (C) One movable unit of six suspensions for 50 lb bombs. (D) One operating mechanism and connection. Units B and C are interchangeable, and may be fitted in turn according to the type of bomb it is intended to carry. Units A. B. and C are placed in position immediately behind the engine and in front of the petrol tanks.
'In Units B and C the bomb rails carrying the slips, which are three in number, are mounted on the top of the bomb crates. The bomb crates are made of three ply wood and afford the lateral support needed by the bombs when stowed vertically. The crate in Unit B consists of 12 cells, made to fit the Cooper bomb, the crate in Unit C is similar in construction, with the exception that it is formed of six cells constructed to fit the 50 lb bombs.'
The bomb slips and release gear arc described thus:
'The slip is the mechanism on which the bomb is retained, and by means of which the bomb is released. It is self-locking, and consists of a lever carrying the suspension hook and a trigger lever, both of which are pivoted. The Cooper bomb is suspended from the suspension hook by a special wire loop which replaces the nut on the tail of the bomb. The 50 lb bomb is suspended by an eye bolt which forms an integral part of the nose fuse. The suspension hook receives the suspension lug of the bomb to be stowed, and is then automatically locked by a trigger lever, which projects through a slot in a sliding bar. When this bar is pulled, as is the case when operating the release, the end of this slot depresses a lever, and so allows the suspension hook to turn on its pivot and release the bomb.
'The pilot's release lever has seven positions, as follows: (1) Locked. (2) Free. (3) Release 2 Cooper bombs from fixed unit. (4) Release 3 Cooper bombs or 1-50-lb bomb. (5) Release 3 Cooper bombs or 2-50-lb bombs. (6) Release 3 Cooper bombs or 2-50-lb bombs. (7) Release 3 Cooper bombs or 1-50-lb bomb.'
The following instructions are given for loading:
'Place the release lever in "free" position and pull down the slides at the bottom of each bomb cell which hold the safety springs aside, push the suspension lug of the bomb upwards until a click is heard. The bomb will now be automatically held in position. When all the bombs are slowed, place the release handle in the locked position. The safely springs must now be adjusted by pushing up the slides which hold them aside while stowing the bombs is in progress."
The foregoing reference to one fixed unit of two suspensions for 20-lb bombs and one movable unit of twelve suspensions accords perfectly with one recorded test-load of fourteen 20-lb bombs.
Containers for Baby Incendiary Bombs were also carried internally, but the reported internal loads of two 230-lb or four 112-lb bombs must have been rare. Indeed, it is difficult to envisage the vertical stowage of 230-lb bombs which is stated to have been possible, for this type of bomb was 501 inches long, and this measurement, in addition to the length of the nose shackle and the depth of the suspension beam, would seem to be greater than the depth of the D.H.9 fuselage.
The bomb sight was of the Negative Lens type.


L.Andersson Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 (Putnam)


De Havilland D.H. 4, D.H.9, R-1 and variants

  Lacking resources for development of advanced and specialized aircraft the fledgling Soviet aviation industry copied what was at hand when production started again after the Civil War, a proven, reliable, versatile aircraft of simple construction - the de Havilland D.H.9 which later became known as the R-1 in the Soviet Union. Being used for reconnaissance, artillery observation, light bombing, attack, civil and military training, maritime patrol, seaplane training, liaison, target-towing, mail-carrying, experiments and in other roles, the R-1 was the Soviet aircraft of the 1920s. Nine different types of engines were installed in de Havilland and R-1 aircraft; Liberty, Siddeley Puma, Fiat, Rolls-Royce Eagle, Mercedes, M-5, Maybach, BMW and Lorraine-Dietrich, but the M-5-powered R-1s were the most numerous.

  The D.H.9 was structurally similar to its predecessor and used identical wings and tail section, but the pilot's cockpit was moved back behind the fuel tanks and the forward part of the fuselage was better streamlined. A retractable radiator was fitted under the front fuselage. A D.H.4 was converted to the new standard and tested in July 1917, whereupon production immediately switched to the new model. Most of the D.H.9s were powered by the 230hp Siddeley Puma, but with this engine the new model was under-powered and, in fact, inferior in performance to the D.H.4 which it was to supplement rather than replace. The D.H.9A appeared in 1918. Developed by the Westland Aircraft company, it combined the 400hp Liberty engine and frontal radiator with the best features of the D.H.4 and D.H.9. The fuselage was strengthened by replacing the plywood partitions of the D.H.9 with wire cross bracing and wings of greater span were fitted to improve climb and ceiling.
  After the war surplus D.H.9 and D.H.9A aircraft were reconditioned and exported, many by the Aircraft Disposal Company, or used for civil purposes and in the 1920s D.H.4, D.H.9 and D.H.9A aircraft served with the military air services of Arabia, Argentina (one only), Australia, Bolivia, Belgium, Canada, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Estonia, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Holland, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Poland, Romania, Switzerland, Spain, South Africa, Turkey, the USA and the USSR.

  By the end of 1920 nineteen captured Puma-engined D.H.9s and Liberty-engined D.H.9As were on charge. They were used mostly in the Ukraine and in Caucasia. More were repaired and put into service during the following year and by December 1921 forty-three were flying with RKKVF units. The authorities in Moscow had noted the reliability of the de Havilland types and when the opportunity arose to purchase more such aircraft from Britain there was no hesitation. The Secretary of the Royal Swedish Aero Club, Torsten Gullberg, who had been discussing an airline project with the Soviet Government offered to supply aircraft to the USSR in the spring of 1921. He contacted the Aircraft Disposal Company and began negotiations concerning reconditioned D.H.9s without engines. In Sweden he acquired 260hp Mercedes engines which had been smuggled out from Germany after the war and stored. A contract for forty aircraft and forty-eight engines was signed on 22 December 1921.
  E I Gvaita went to England for inspection and acceptance of the aircraft. Four of the engines were sent to England and installed in each of the aircraft, which were then shipped from London to Leningrad on board the Swedish freighter Miranda. They arrived on 4 June 1922. The engines were shipped separately from Sweden. Anton Nilsson, another Swede who had joined the RKKVF as a pilot, was sent to Leningrad to supervise unloading of the consignments. These D.H.9s had the following s/ns: 1243, 1285, 2803, 5580, 5582, 5671, 5703, 5713, 5720, 5729, 5744-5746, 5748, 5752, 5758, 5778, 5786, 5795, 5800, 5803, 5805, 5808, 5811-5813, 5815, 5817, 5819, 5821, 5826-5828, 5832, 5841, 5846, 9152, 9165, 9334 and 9350 (most were almost certainly from the D and H serial batches). The first aircraft assembled by RVZ No. 1 and tested by Savin on 14 August was s/n 5817. Two aircraft (s/ns 5778 and 5813) were kept at the NOA.
  One D.H.9A fitted with the 320hp Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII engine was delivered in May 1922 for evaluation and in 1923 ten D.H.9As with 400hp Liberty and twenty D.H.9s with 220hp Puma engines were acquired from England via the Arcos Company. The Saturn arrived at Leningrad from London via Antwerp and Reval with seventeen of these aircraft in October 1923. Another four D.H.9As (Liberty engine) and twenty-two D.H.9s (Puma engine) followed in August 1924. In VVS documents the Rolls-Royce powered aircraft is identified as number 16105, but A J Jackson's De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (Putnam, third edition, 1987) gives this aircraft as c/n 37. The ten D.H.9As were s/ ns 157 to 160, 2866, 2870, 3457, 3647, 3649, and 8802. The twenty D.H.9s were s/ns 138, 168, 206 to 213, 255, 468, 636, 1209, 5541, 5814, 9277, 9290, 9294 and 9329. The twenty-two D.H.9s delivered in 1924 were probably H5855, H5864, H5880, H9242, H9250, H9252, H9260, H9275, H9278, H9283, H9285, H9297, H9298, H9302, H9309, II9311, H9313, H9330, H9341 and H9309 which received British Cs of A in July 1924, and two others.
  The British-built D.H.9s were used by the 1st Otdel'naya razvedivatel'naya aviaeskadril'ya at Ukhtomskaya, Moscow, the 2nd Otdel'naya razvedivatel'naya aviaeskadril'ya at Vitebsk and the 5th Otdel'nyi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad at Gomel' until 1924. One or two served with the 3rd, 6th, 10th, 13th and 14th Otdel'nye razvedivatel'nye aviaotryady in 1922-24, and later with the 17th and 83rd Aviaotryady and the 20th and 24th Aviaeskadrilii. The 4th Otdel'nyi razvedivatel'nyi aviaotryad at Tashkent received about ten in 1924 and used them into 1925, but four of these were flown to Kabul in October and handed over to the Afghanistan Government.
  The Il'ich otryad, named after Lenin, whose middle name was Il'ich, was formed in April 1924 at Khar'kov. Twelve D.H.9As arrived in December 1923 and were assembled locally. Nine of these aircraft were handed over with ceremony by the ODVF on 18 May, 1924 and were followed by another four in June and July. They were given names including Donetskii shakhter, Krasnyi Kievlyanin, (Jkrainskii chekist, Shakhter Donhassa, Stalinskii proletarii, Profsoyuzy Ekaterinoslavshchiny, Samolet Sumshchiny, Yuzovskii proletarii, Chervonii vartovik podolii, Nezamoshnik Odesshchiny and Proletarii Odesshchiny (Donets Miner, Red Kiev Inhabitant, Ukrainian Cheka Officer, Miner of the Donbass, Stalin Proletarian, Trade-Unions of the Ekaterinoslav Region, Aircraft of the Sumy Area, Yuzovka Proletarian, Red Guard of Podol'e, Odessa Pauper, Odessa Pro-letarian). The D.H.9As of this unit were replaced, however, by Soviet- built R-ls before the end of the year.
  The Mercedes-powered D.H.9s were withdrawn from use completely in 1925 and nineteen were handed over to Dobrolet along with forty-seven engines in 1927. Ten, and later one more, were assembled and the rest were reduced to spares. The Dobrolet D.H.9s did not receive normal civil registrations and had large white numbers painted on the fuselage sides instead, which were treated as registration numbers in the paperwork. After having been tested with little suc-cess as crop-dusters the civil D.H.9s were then assigned to photographic- work. Only three were actually sent on aerial photography missions in 1927 and one in 1928. All but four, which were re-registered CCCP-112 to CCCP-115, were then written off, the last example being cancelled in 1930. In 1928 the VVS offered Dobrolet twenty-eight additional D.H.9s, of which many were unserviceable, and a large number of extra wings, but the offer was refused.

Mercedes-engined D.H.9s used by Dobrolet
Reg Reg 1929 C/n In Service Notes
1 9152 2.27-6.29
2 CCCP-112 5826 4.27-29/30
3 1285 5.27-6.29 Crashed 11.28
4 2803 5.27-6.29
5 CCCP-113 5746 6.27-29/30
6 5778 7.27-6.29 Crashed 6.28
7 CCCP-114 5813 3.28-29/30
ДЛ-8 CCCP-115 9350 4.28-29/30
ДЛ-9 5821 3.28-6.29
ДЛ-10 5580 3.28-6.28 Crashed 22.6.28
ДЛ-11 5817 .29-29/30 Probably CCCP-116 ntu

  In addition to service with the reconnaissance units, the Puma-engined D.H.9s and Liberty-engined D.H.9As were also used as trainers, before they were withdrawn from the reconnaissance units in 1924. They remained until 1928, most with the 1st Higher School of Military Pilots in Moscow, but some were flown at the 2nd School of Military Pilots, the Strel'bom school, the Military School of Special Service, the Military-Technical School, the 83rd Training Eskadril'ya and the Akademiya VVS. A few were also assigned to the NOA.


D.H.9 (D.H.9A), original aircraft
  260hp Mercedes D.IVa (400hp Liberty 12)
  Span 12.94 (14) m; length 9.38 (9.22) m; height (3.45) m; wing area 40 (45.22) m2
  Empty weight 1,200 (1,270) kg; loaded weight 1,720 (2~100) kg
  Maximum speed 170 (193) km/h; landing speed 95 (90) km/h; climb to 1,000m in 6.5 (4) min; ceiling 4,580 (5,100) m; endurance 4 (5.5) hr; range 680 (750) km


Журнал Flight


Flight, January 9, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

THE DE HAVILLAND, OR "AIRCO," MACHINES

The D.H. 9

  The experience gained with the D.H. 4's demonstrated that placing the pilot in between the planes did not tend to give him an ideal position for fighting, and also when bombs had to be carried little space was left in the part of the machine where they could be most suitably placed, i.e., in the neighbourhood of the c.g. These drawbacks were remedied in the D.H 9, by rearranging the pilot's seat considerably farther aft than it was placed in the D.H. 4, and, of course, readjusting the position of other weights in relation to the wings so as to maintain the longitudinal trim of the machine. The fitting of a vertical engine instead of a Vee enabled the designer to narrow down the front portion of the fuselage considerably, which resulted in a fuselage of beautifully clean lines and with, it may be assumed, a comparatively low resistance. One of the features which has helped to give this machine its clean appearance is the placing of the radiator, not in the nose as in the D.H. 4, but in the floor of the body. In the photograph a portion of the radiator may be seen projecting beyond the bottom of the fuselage. An ingenious feature of this radiator mounting is that the radiator can be moved up or down, thus varying the cooling to any desired extent by blanketing a larger or smaller portion of the cooling surface. For sheer graceful appearance nothing has, in our opinion, ever left the drawing-board of the Airco.'s distinguished designer, which has equaled the D.H. 9. With the exception of the front portion of the fuselage the main units of the D.H. 9 axe similar to those of the D.H. 4. The machine has been extensively used for fighting, reconnaissance, photography, etc., and also by the Independent Air Force for long-distance bombing by day and by night. It was the D.H. 9 which was largely used for the day bombing raids on German towns.
  In connection with the D.H. 9 it is of interest to note that one of these machines fitted with a 420 h.p. Napier "Lion" engine did a speed of 140 m.p.h. at 10,000 ft., which altitude it reached in the extraordinarily short time of 8 min. 10 sec. The same machine furthermore had a ceiling of 29,000 ft., although with a load slightly lighter than the standard.


Flight, June 26, 1919.

THE AERIAL DERBY

THE MACHINES

No. 9. - The Airco (de H.) 9, 230 h.p. Siddeley Puma
  Except for the fact that an extra seat has been fitted for passenger work since the War, the Airco 9, flown by Capt. H. J. Saint, is the standard Airco 9. It is a very pretty machine, and has a good performance for its power. Owing to the fact that a vertical engine is fitted, it has been possible to keep the nose of the fuselage very narrow and pointed, which gives the machine a very graceful appearance. The radiator protrudes through the covering of the bottom of the body, and it can be raised or lowered to vary cooling. With the new seating arrangement the pilot occupies the middle seat, the passengers sitting in front and behind him respectively. As all the seats are placed well back, a very good view is obtained, which is a great advantage for a machine used for passenger carrying.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
De Havilland DH.9 211-й дивизион RAF, 1918г.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Де Хевилленд D.H.9 211-го дивизиона RAF
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Врангелевский DH.9 в мастерских симферопольского авиапарка, ноябрь 1920 г.
В.Шавров - История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.
Разведчик "Де-Хэвилленд" DH-9 с двигателем "Сиддлей-Пума"
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
Several de Havilland D.H. 9s were captured during the Civil War and others were purchased from Great Britain in 1922-24.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Officialdom's interference has often been cited as one of the main obstacles to aircraft development and certainly this was the case with Britain's Airco DH 9. This successor to the very successful day bomber DH 4, first deployed in March 1917, should have been a simple re-design of the fuselage centre section to place the pilot further back and far closer to the observer. Instead of this straightforward improvement, the War Office, in its wisdom, also chose to fit a totally new and untried engine to the DH 9. The ongoing troubles with this engine ensured that the later machine was generally inferior to its predecessor in virtually all operational aspects except crew communications.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Resplendent in his RFC Captain's uniform Geoffrey de Havilland is seen here beside the Airco DH 9 that he had designed. Born the son of a clergyman in 1882, Sir Geoffrey, as he was to become, entered the automotive industry for a few short years before contracting the 'aviation bug' in 1908. Armed with ?1,000 advanced by his father and with the help of his friend, Frank Herle, de Havilland built a canard biplane with a 45hp Iris engine built to his design. With this machine, de Havilland managed to make one short hop before it was 'written-off' in December 1908. In 1910, de Havilland produced his second design, which while offering little novelty, had the great attribute of actually flying, its first flight taking place on 10 September 1910. It was with this machine that the young designer/pilot taught himself to fly. Already married, Geoffrey de Havilland was no doubt pleased when his work came to the attention of the War Office, who bought his second biplane for ?400 and took him on as an aeroplane designer and test pilot at Farnborough's Royal Balloon Factory. Here, working in harness with the Factory's design engineer, Frederick Green, De Havilland transformed a number of dubious flying machines into useful aircraft, starting with the FE 2 and culminating in the spectacularly advanced BS I, later rebuilt as the SE 2A. Growing unhappy at the now renamed Royal Aircraft Factory, de Havilland resigned in June 1914 to join Thomas Holt's Airco as their Chief Designer, where, with the exception of a short break to join the RFC later that year, he was to stay until 1920 and the dissolution of the company. During this time, he not only designed the DH I through DH 18, he also took them up for their first flights. On 25 September 1920, he and colleagues were to found the de Havilland Aircraft Company. Producers of many famous aircraft, including the ubiquitous Mosquito of World War II and the post-war Comet jetliner, this company was to emblazon the skies with the de Havilland name. Sir Geoffrey, who had lost two of his three sons in flying accidents, died in 1965.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
A Standard Type De H.9 (240 h.p. B.H.P. engine) / In what appears to have been a classic example of snatching defeat from the jaws of victory the prototype Airco DH 9 had been converted from a production DH4. This aircraft, first flown in August 1917, embodied a revised nose to take the new and still largely untested Siddeley Puma, along with the pilot's cockpit moved aft, far closer to the observer so as to improve crew communications, albeit at the expense of the pilot's forward visibility. Even with these changes, quite a lot of commonality existed between the DH 9 and its precursor, which should have led to a minimum of production problems in switching between the two machines. This was not to be the case, with deliveries of the DH 9 only getting underway in January 1918, thanks in large part to the Puma engine that required de-rating from an originally envisaged 300hp to 230hp. To make matters worse, the loss of engine power affected performance to a serious degree, ensuring that the DH 9's capability was actually inferior to that of the DH 4. Despite this state of affairs, no less than 3.890 DH 9s were produced out of the 5.584 originally ordered, before production switched to the re-engined DH 9a. To some degree, the decision to press ahead with production of such a disappointing machine could be explained by the pressure to expand the number of British bomber squadrons. The DH 9's full bomb load was 460lb and its top level speed was 109.5mph at 10.000 feet. The machines ceiling was 15.500 feet, while its armament was the single Vickers gun for the pilot, plus the one or two flexibly-mounted Lewis guns for the observer.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The new DH9 day bomber was well into its testing period by autumn 1917 and despite a number of problems was put into large-scale production, reaching operational service in the spring of 1918.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Pensive and well wrapped up, the crew ol this 98 Squadron DH9 await the next mission; the observer is Lt. F.J. Keble.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Built by the Vilcan Motor & Engineering Company, and carryinhg the company logo on the interplane struts, B9395 of No 49 Squadron RAF was "The Mackenzie Toolocmbah, Presented"
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
C1230 made a force landing due to engine failure at the School for Aerial Fighting
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
By 1917 the RFC had identified the need for a specialist day bomber aircraft - especially in response to the growing degree of such activity by the Germans. The longer range of the proposed DH9 persuaded the Air Board to place orders for the type and by late 1917 it was under test at Martlesham. C2228 here was with 31 TS at Fowlmere in late 1918.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This aircraft, serial C2161, was one of eighty D.H.9s built by the sub-contractor Berwick & Company of Park Royal, North West London. The aircraft was used at a gunnery school, possibly at Marske
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The first D.H.9 produced by Airco, C6051, during its test period in November 1917
F.Manson - British Bomber Since 1914 /Putnam/
C6051 was the first production D. H. 9, and this view clearly shows the improved arrangement of the cockpits. The aircraft was powered by a Stddeley-built BHP engine with a short exhaust manifold; the engine radiator is shown in the retracted position.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The DH9 entered service with 41 Wing in April 1918 (99 and 104 Squadrons) for the strategic bombing offensive; the RAF planned a day and night offensive against targets in Germany but the squadrons were frequently called upon to support the land battle.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
D.H.9 serial C6078 at Farnborough in 1918 equipped as the flying testbed for the prototype Napier Lion engine with heated carburettor.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
D.H.9, C.6078, with prototype Napier Lion engine
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
D.H.9, C.6078, with the first production Napier Lion engine
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
C6078 was the first D.H.9 to be fitted with a 430 hp Napier Lion engine
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A De H.9 with a Napier "Lion" engine (450 h.p.)
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
C6109 was among the first production D.H.9s to go to France. It was one of the five sent abroad in late February of 1918. It was operated by No 27 Squadron RAF at Ruisseaville during 1918. On 16 June it was lost in action, with its crew, 2nd Lieutenant H.Wild and Sergeant E.Scott being killed
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A standard production D.H. 9, C6277, powered by a Siddeley Puma engine with exhaust pipe extending upwards to discharge over the top wing; this aircraft, possibly of No 99 Squadron, shows the radiator extended beneath the nose.
C6277 is believed to have served at one time at the Biggin Hill Wireless Experimental Establishment as a flying test bed
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Based at Junction Station, with a detachment at Mudros, 144 Squadron was heavily engaged on operations against the Turks. Here DH9 C6297 has force-landed on return from a raid on 16 September 1918.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Allied bombing offensive increased in scale and effectiveness from the summer of 1918; the formation of the Independent Air Force (more usually known simply as the Independent Force) created an impressive strategic bombing arm with its own fighter units. The DH9, despite its limitations, was one of the most numerous of bomber types in service at the end of the war - some 1,866 being on strength in October.
Marked with its serial number in black on the rear fuselage and on the fin, D1001 was the first machine to be built by the National Aircraft Factory No 2 at Heaton Chapel, near Stockport, Cheshire
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
"Britons in Chili No 1" was serialed D1177 and carried the name on the fuselage side in White from 28 December 1918 on. It was assigned to No 120 Squadron RAF after being previously on strength with No 98 Squadron during March of 1918. The D.H.9 was used as a mail-carrier and survived at least until 18 January 1919
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE BRITAIN BELGIUM AERIAL GOODS SERVICE. - Conveying Woollen and Cotton Goods and Foodstuff to our Ally's country, at the request of the Belgian Government. This service has been undertaken by Aircraft Transport and Travel, Ltd. - one of Mr. Holt Thomas' very live companies - with the approval of the Government. A squadron of service D.H. machines with R.A.F. pilots left Hawkinge aerodrome for the Belgian aerodrome outside Ghent, carrying nearly two tons of goods, urgently needed by the Belgian people, but obtainable only at prohibitive prices. It is intended that these first Aerial Goods Services, conducted at an average speed of 100 miles an hour, shall be extended to Anthwerp and Brussels as well as Ghent. Our photograph shows the machines ready to start. The aeroplane nearest the camera is seen loaded with stores.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE KING AND QUEEN OF BELGIUM'S VISIT TO COLOGNE BY AEROPLANE. - The Queen chatting with her pilot at the Bickendorf Aerodrome, Cologne, on April 28, before leaving. Facing the camera is General Sir W. Robertson, G.C.B., etc.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
THE KING AND QUEEN OF BELGIUM'S VISIT TO COLOGNE BY AEROPLANE. - The Queen is entering the machine at the Cologne Aerodrome, and the King is seen on the left in flying rig
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Standard production D.H.9 built by Mann, Egerton & Co.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
A standard G. & J. Weir-built D.H.9 with 230 h.p. Siddeley Puma engine, at Renfrew in 1918 named "Georgetown" and inscribed 'Presented by the Munition Workers of the Scottish Filling Factory".
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A standard Puma engined D.H.9 of No 211 Squadron, RAF during 1918
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Although claimed by some sources to show Lieutenants Gregson and Gaylord with D2803, this is unconfirmed
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
A Short-built D.H.9 D2825 with Siddeley Puma engine, modified with D.H.4-type nose radiator for deck flying trials on H.M.S. Eagle in 1921.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This D.H.9 served with No 221 Squadron, RAF in Russia during late 1918. Later served with the White Russian Forces in August of 1919
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
D.H.9.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This is Airco-built D.H.9 (serial D2904), but the reason for the United States star insignia on the cowling is unknown. Certainly it was never flown by the U.S.Army. From a comparision of tonal values it is believed that the fin, balance area of the rudder and wheels were Red, with a White outline. The lower longerons and parts of the decking and nose are clear dope
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
DH9 D3007 with partial bomb load.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
Modified to carry one stretcher case on top of the rear fuselage, D3117 was one of the D.H.9 ambulances used in Somali land in 1919.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Subscribed for as "Rigger Parish No 4" according to the nose inscription, D3259 was an Airco-built D.H.9 from a batch which included a number of aircraft that were delivered to overseas air forces
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The nose of this D.H.9 was marked with the presentation legend, "Royal Marines Plymouth" in White on the nose. It appears to have its serial marked mounted on a strip of fabric (which is a slightly different color than the background) and is unusual in that it has a dot after the prefix. It is believed that D.5656 is probably not its true identity
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
D5748, a D.H.9 built by Waring and Gillow. The engine was a 250 h.p. Fiat A-12, recognised by the starboard mounted exhaust manifold.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
D.H.9 (serial D5816) carried the presentation legend "Faridkot No 3". This Indian presentation aircraft was constructed by Waring & Gillow and served with No 206 Squadron, RAF. 2nd Lieutenants T.Percival and Lowthian were both injured when it crashed on 7 August 1918
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
DH.9 47-го дивизиона, воевавшего в 1919 г. на Волге в составе белой армии. Передняя часть фюзеляжа и крылья окрашены в серый цвет
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
"The Scarborough Volunteer" was marked with the fake serial F1203. The aircraft is believed to actually be a Waring & Gillow built D.H.9 (serial D5838)
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Lt. Lawson Reason with DH9 E619 of 98 Squadron; the unit moved to France in April 1918 and flew its first bombing missions on 9 April.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
D.H.9 (F1255), probably on the tarmac at Bickendor
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Fig. 31. - Day bomber. De Havilland 9.
O.Thetford - Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 /Putnam/
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
Wg Cdr van Ryneveld and FIt Lieut Brand landing at Wynberg on 20 March, 1920, in the D.H.9 H5648 Voortrekker at the end of their journey from England.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
Maj. E. L. Foot in the H.P.17 slotted research biplane at Cricklewood during the demonstrations of October 21, 1921. Formerly a standard D.H.9 H9140, it was flown against the unmodified sister aircraft G-EAUN seen in the background.
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
The D.H.9 G-EBEN piloted by M. W. Piercey in the 1922 King's Cup.
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
Capt A. F. Muir's aircraft in the 1923 King's Cup - the D.H.9 G-EBEP.
P.Lewis - British Racing and Record-breaking Aircraft /Putnam/
Flown by A. J. Cobham, the D.H.9 G-EBEZ Eileen came in second in the 1923 King's Cup Race.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
The so-called D.H. Mantis, a South African Air Force D.H.9 fitted at Roberts Heights with the 200 h.p. Wolseley Viper engine taken from an S.E.5A.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
No. 9. - The Airco 9 , 230 h.p. Siddeley Puma, flown by Capt. H. J . Saint.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
One of the Bristol Jupiter VI engined South African Air Force M'pala I general purpose aircraft.
A.Jackson - De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 /Putnam/
A D.H.9 of the Netherlands Army Air Service, fitted in 1934 with a 465 h.p. Wright Whirlwind R-975 radial.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
A de H. 9 biplane at the Enemy Aircraft Exhibition, Agricultural Hall. - These machines have done some excellent work at the front, and a similar machine is now going to be turned to more peaceful pursuits, for we learn that Sir Arthur Du Cros has ordered one from the Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Ltd., for his private use.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
HENDON FROM ABOVE. - A view of the sheds and enclosures snapped by our photographer from an Airco (de H. 9) machine, the wings of which can be seen in the foreground. Note the machines on the ground in readiness for "flipping."
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Good view of the DH9 front cockpit, with Capt. D.S. Glover in C6117. Armament was usually a single Vickers and single Lewis plus up to four 1121b (50kg) bombs.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The Pilot's and Gunner's Cockpits of a De H.9A, with Napier Lion engine. 450 h.p.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Pilot's and the Observer's cockpits on the D.H.9 machine with which on January 3 an altitude record of 30,500 ft. was put up at Martlesham by Capt. Lang, R.A.F., as pilot and Lieut. Blowes as observer, both of whom are inset. At the nose of the machine is seen the Napier "Lion" engine which enabled the height to be attained, whilst the many gauges and instruments installed on the pilot's dash and in the observer's cockpit form in themselves a useful study for the uninitiated.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
"THE FOOD-CARRIERS." - Three D.H. 9's with Siddeley "Puma" engines returning from a trip to Belgium.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Landing Across Wind.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Plan views, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines Nos. 9 and 10. The plan view of D.H. 10A is the same as that of the Liberty-engined D.H. 10.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Front elevations, to a uniform scale, of all the "Airco." machines. The D.H. 10A has its engines mounted direct on the lower plane.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Side elevations, to a uniform scale, of "Airco." machines 1 to 10 inclusive. The side elevation of D.H. 10A is similar to that of D.H. 10, except that the engines are mounted direct on the bottom plane.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
O.Thetford - British Naval Aircraft since 1912 /Putnam/
D.H.9.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
De Havilland DH.9