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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Bristol F.2A/F.2B Fighter

Страна: Великобритания

Год: 1916

Истребитель

Bristol - SSA - 1914 - Великобритания<– –>Bristol - M1C (Bristol Bullet) - 1916 - Великобритания


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


Бристоль F.2A/F.2B "Файтер" / Bristol F.2A/F.2B Fighter

  Двухстоечный биплан цельнодеревянной конструкции с полотняной обшивкой. Спроектирован главным конструктором фирмы "Бристоль" Фрэнком Бэрнуэллом при участии авиаконструктора румынского происхождения Анри Коанда.
  Двухместный аэроплан для воздушного боя под индексом F.2A и названием "Файтер" - "боец" (позже это слово приобрело в английском языке значение "самолет-истребитель") был создан в 1916 году на базе проекта разведчика R.2A/2B.
  Летом и осенью 1916-го построены два прототипа F.2A, первый из которых был оснащен двухрядным двигателем жидкостного охлаждения Роллс-Ройс "Фолкон" в 190 л.с., а второй - аналогичным 150-сильным мотором "Испано-Сюиза".
  Экземпляр с "Фолконом" впервые поднялся в воздух 9 сентября и в том же месяце запущен в серийное производство. Построено 50 экземпляров. В декабре сформирован первый дивизион "файтеров", а в марте он прибыл на Западный фронт.
  Самолет заслужил хорошие рекомендации, и в июле военное министерство заказало еще 800 экземпляров машины в модификации F.2B, отличавшейся увеличенным размахом стабилизатора и улучшенным обзором из передней кабины. Первые 150 из них оснащались двигателями "Фолкон I", следующие 50 -"Фолконом II" в 220 л.с., а остальные - 275-сильным "Фолконом III".
  С этим мотором самолет обладал великолепными летными характеристиками, став лучшим двухместным истребителем Первой мировой войны. Высокая скорость и хорошая маневренность позволяли ему на равных вести бои с одноместными истребителями, а наличие хвостовой огневой точки давало дополнительное преимущество. Кроме того, "Файтер" отличался большой прочностью конструкции планера. Предельно допустимая скорость пикирования достигала 390 км/ч - рекордный показатель для самолетов того времени.
  С осени 1917-го до весны следующего года англичане перевооружили "Файтерами" шесть истребительно-разведывательных дивизионов Западного фронта. Кроме того, F.2B воевали в Палестине, Италии и состояли на вооружении пяти дивизионов ПВО.
  Объем заказов Королевских ВВС на Бристоль "Файтер" непрерывно нарастал, достигнув в общем счете 5000 экземпляров. Из них за время войны успели построить 3301 самолет, еще 378 сдали в послевоенный период. В связи с окончанием боевых действий остальные заказы аннулировали.
  В связи с нехваткой "Фолконов" некоторые серийные машины были оснащены 200-сильными моторами Санбим "Араб" и отличались более низкими летными данными.
  К концу 1918 года в RAF числилось свыше 2000 "Файтеров". Несмотря на послевоенные сокращения и обновления авиапарка, эти машины состояли на вооружении до 1932 года, что является своеобразным рекордом для боевого самолета, созданного в годы Первой мировой войны.
  В 1918 году 50 "Файтеров" англичане отправили в США. Американская фирма "Кертисс" начала лицензионный выпуск машины под индексом O-1, оснастив ее местным 400-сильным мотором "Либерти". Но этот мотор оказался слишком громоздким и тяжелым для "Файтера". В итоге построили всего 27 экземпляров O-1. На фронт они не попали.
  В 1920-м Польша получила от англичан в рамках военной помощи 120 F.2B. Эти машины использовались на заключительном этапе польско-советской войны. Кроме того, 40 экземпляров истребителя продано Бельгии и еще по несколько штук закупили Испания, Новая Зеландия, Австралия, Мексика и Китай.


МОДИФИКАЦИИ

  F.2A - двигатель Роллс-Ройс "Фолкон I" мощностью 190 л. с. Вооружение - 1 синхронный "Виккерс" и 1 турельный "Льюис" в задней кабине. Построено 50 экземпляров.
  F.2B - двигатель Роллс-Ройс "Фолкон I", "Фолкон II" (220 л.с), "Фолкон III" (275 л.с.) или Санбим "Араб" (200 л.с). Вооружение - 1 синхронный "Виккерс" и спарка "Льюисов" на турели "Скэрф" в кабине летнаба, до 130 кг. бомб. Построено 3629 экземпляров.


ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ
(с двигателем "Фолкон"III)

  Размах, м 11,96
  Длина, м 7,87
  Высота 2,97
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 37,68
  Сухой вес, кг 877
  Взлетный вес, кг 1261
  Двигатель: Роллс-Ройс "Фалкон" III
   мощность, л. с. 275
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 192
  Скорость подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин.сек 6,30
  Дальность полета, км 480
  Потолок, м 6100
  Экипаж, чел. 2


А.Шепс Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты


Бристоль F.2В "Файтер" (Fighter) 1917 г.

  Появление этой машины было вызвано изменениями в тактике применения истребительной авиации. Одиночные стычки переросли в столкновения крупных формирований противников.
  Основным способом уничтожения противника стал заход с помощью маневров высшего пилотажа ему в хвост и открытие огня с максимально короткой дистанции. И если на бомбардировщиках и разведчиках появились хвостовые установки, то истребитель долгое время уходил из-под удара маневром. К концу 1916 года британской моторной промышленностью были созданы двигатели мощностью 250-300 л. с., что позволило создать двухместные самолеты со скоростными характеристиками одноместных. Такой машиной и стал самолет "Бристоль Бритиш энд Колониэл Эйрплэйн Компани" F2В "Файтер". Машина была классическим двухстоечным бипланом деревянной конструкции. Отличался он от других британских машин тем, что фюзеляж прямоугольного сечения, обтянутый полотном, был приподнят над крылом. Это было сделано для обеспечения обзора пилоту и сектора обстрела стрелку. Крыло двухлонжеронное, обтянутое полотном, оборудовалось элеронами. Стойки бипланной коробки - металлические трубы в деревянных каплевидных обтекателях. Растяжки - профилированные стальные ленты. Оперение обычной схемы, стабилизатор, регулируемый на земле. Конструкция деревянная, обтянута полотном. Двигатели на машину ставились разные, но в основном - "Роллс-Ройс" "Фалкон II" или "Фалкон III", 12-цилиндровые, V-образные, жидкостного охлаждения, оборудованные четырехлопастным винтом и лобовым сотовым радиатором. Вооружение - 2 синхронных пулемета 7,69-мм "Виккерс" и спаренная установка пулеметов 7,62-мм "Льюис" на турели у стрелка. Самолет впервые взлетел в середине 1917 года, а с начала 1918-го стал поступать в войска, в том числе и в английские эскадрильи на Итальянском фронте, в Греции и на Ближнем Востоке.
  Во время интервенции несколько машин попали и в Россию. После войны эти двухместные истребители оставались на вооружении ВВС Британии и некоторых европейских государств.


В.Шавров История конструкций самолетов в СССР до 1938 г.


"Бристоль-Файтер" - двухместный истребитель и разведчик с двигателем "Испано-Сюиза" в 300 л. с., двухстоечный биплан, в котором фюзеляж находился над нижним крылом, не примыкая к нему. Выпущенный в 1918 г. этот самолет по летным данным мало уступал одноместным истребителям с тем же двигателем. Был приобретен в двух экземплярах для ознакомления, применялся в школах.


Самолет||<Бристоль-Файтер>
Год выпуска||1919
Двигатель , марка||<Испано-Сюиза>
   мощность, л. с.||300
Длина самолета, м||7,55
Размах крыла, м||11,9
Площадь крыла, м2||37,6
Масса пустого, кг||880
Масса топлива+ масла, кг||170+30
Масса полной нагрузки, кг||400
Полетная масса, кг||1280
Удельная нагрузка на крыло, кг/м2||34,1
Удельная нагрузка на мощность, кг/лс||4,3
Весовая отдача,%||31,3
Скорость максимальная у земли, км/ч||206
Скорость посадочная, км/ч||75
Время набора высоты||
   1000м, мин||3
   2000м, мин||6
   3000м, мин||10
   4000м, мин||14,5
Потолок практический, м||6200
Продолжительность полета, ч.||2,6
Дальность полета, км||480


C.Barnes Bristol Aircraft since 1910 (Putnam)


The Bristol Fighter F.2A and F.2B

  By March 1916 the Company had contracts for over 600 R.E. two-seaters of various types, and had delivered over 400; a further 550 B.E.2d and B.E.2e were to be produced before production of official designs ended in 1917. The shortcomings of the B.E. series and the requirements of the War Office for new designs were well known to Capt. Barnwell, and he held no high opinion of the R.E.5, the Royal Aircraft Factory's designated successor to the B.E.2e, so he set about producing a similar biplane having none of its defects. The result was the R.2A, which was laid out in March 1916 as a light two-seater powered by a 120 h.p. Beardmore engine, with the pilot in the front cockpit, with a synchronised Lewis gun on the starboard upper longeron, and an observer close to him in the rear cockpit, which contained dual controls, wireless, camera and message-launching tube. The observer could fold his seat and stand up to fire a single Lewis gun carried on a rotating ring mounting. To improve the observer's field of fire, the fuselage tapered to a very small cross-section aft, and more than a third of the fin and rudder area was below tailplane level. For the same reason, the fuselage was mounted high between the staggered wings, so that the observer could fire over the pilot's head at quite low elevations. The upper wing was thus placed so as to minimise the pilot's blind spot. The design was promising though underpowered, and it was hoped that a 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine might be released later, so in May 1916 a modified design, R.2B, was sketched round this engine. This had wings of unequal span with a partial Warren girder lift bracing intended to simplify rigging in the field. Then in July Barnwell was offered one of the new 190 h.p. Rolls-Royce engines as well as the Hispano-Suiza, and he immediately redesigned the R.2A to suit both engines. He was not content to adapt what he had already drawn, but started afresh from the Rolls-Royce installation diagram, designing a new cowling and fuselage to accommodate all the R.2A's equipment in perfect harmony with the new fuel and oil tanks required; at the same time he incorporated the latest improvements in armament.
  He sent Frise on a fortnight's course on the Vickers gun at Hythe, with instructions to find out all about it. Frise returned with the information and a complete Vickers gun as well. Various positions for it were tried, but in the end Barnwell decided that only a mounting on the centre line would be satisfactory, with the cocking handle immediately in front of the pilot, so that jams could be readily cleared. This involved making a tunnel through the upper fuel tank, but this complication had the advantage of keeping the gun in the warm air behind the engine, free from stoppages from frozen oil. The tail unit was redesigned and the top of the fuselage cambered to a horizontal knife-edge stern, thus reducing still more the observer's blind area. The rear cockpit arrangement was also revised, and the observer's tip-up seat was mounted to slide fore-and-aft so that he could sit facing either way. This gave him a better look-out while using his wireless and placed him within arm's reach of the pilot to give him instant warning of attack by a thump on the shoulder. An important innovation was the adjustable tailplane, whose incidence could be varied to give stable' hands-off' flying over a wide range of speeds. The dual control was removed, but a small emergency lever could be plugged into a socket for elevator control, and there were hand-grips on the rudder cables, which enabled the observer to minimise the effect of a crash landing with a dead or unconscious pilot. The new design was renamed F.2A to mark its ability as a fighter, and 'Bristol Fighter' was the name universally bestowed on it from the start. The Company was instructed to proceed at once with two prototypes, one with the Rolls-Royce engine and the other with the Hispano-Suiza. On 28 August 1916 a contract was awarded for the two prototypes and 50 production aircraft.
  Work commenced on the two prototypes during July, and the first, No. 1379 (A3303), was ready for flight on 9 September 1916; the second, No. 1380 (A3304), followed on 25 October. The first flight was eagerly awaited by everyone in the factory, and there was dismay when Capt. Hooper reported that he was unable to climb higher than 6,000 ft. Rigging was checked but small alterations of incidence and stagger had no effect, and finally Capt. Barnwell sent for his brother Harold, Vickers' chief test pilot, who in turn reported a maximum altitude of 6,000 ft., although he felt certain he had climbed very much higher. Then the penny dropped, the altimeter was changed and the fault was found. In fact, the F.2A had climbed to 10,000 ft. in 15 min. A3303 was flown to Upavon on 21 September, and in its official trials exceeded its estimated performance by a handsome margin. Originally, the Rolls-Royce installation had two separate radiators mounted vertically on either side of the fuselage just ahead of the wings. This arrangement obscured the pilot's view for landing, and a new circular radiator was designed to fit into the nose, equipped with shutters in front; a similar radiator, but with shutters behind, was installed on the second prototype. As further Hispano-Suiza engines were not immediately available, Rolls-Royce engines were standardised for production aircraft, and in November the contract was amended to call for 200 more of an improved model, the F.2B. In accordance with A.I.D. recommendations the gap in the lower wing was filled by a lower centre section, and the upper longerons forward of the pilot's cockpit were sloped down so as to improve the view. All production Bristol Fighters had raked wing tips instead of the B.E. shape chosen for the two prototypes. Production aircraft numbered 1431-1480 (A3305-A3359) for the 50 F.2A's and 2069-2268 (A7101-A7300) for the 200 F.2B's were assembled at Brislington, because Filton works were full of B.E.'s and deliveries began on 20 December 1916; six left the factory before the year ended, and the fiftieth was dispatched on 23 March 1917.
  The second prototype, A3304, was modified to incorporate the F.2B's lower centreplane and sloping longerons, and these were approved for production; deliveries of the 200 F.2B's began on 13 April, but before this the first squadron of F.2A's had gone into action over Arras. Deliveries of Bristol Fighters had begun early in the year to experimental stations, where they were intensively flown in mock battle by pilots with front line experience. Their reports were enthusiastic, and two squadrons were formed and trained for the spring offensive of 1917. The first squadron, No. 48, received F.2A's in February and arrived in France on 8 March, but was held back from action in order to achieve the maximum surprise effect. Early in April the squadron was based at Bellevue, near Arras, under the command of Major A. Vere Bettington. As a result of numerous applications from experienced pilots and observers, weary of the odds against them and eager to fly the Bristol Fighter, No. 48 Squadron contained the cream of the R.F.C. and numbered more than one V.C. amongst its crews. All were convinced that the Bristol Fighter would prove fast and manreuvrable enough to outfly the notorious Albatros D.III's used in formations or 'circuses' by Baron von Richthofen to establish local air superiority.
  On 5 April 1917 the first offensive reconnaissance over Arras was made by six F.2A's led by Capt. Leefe Robinson, V.C. They were met near Douai by Richthofen with five Albatros and attempted to fight back in the orthodox two-seater manner, with the pilots manreuvring to give their gunners a good field of fire, but four Fighters were shot down, two by Richthofen personally, and Leefe Robinson was taken prisoner. Six days later, four Fighters were attacked by four Albatros and shot down two of the latter without loss, but later in the patrol one had to return to Bellevue with a jammed gun and the other three were shot down by four more Albatros. On 16 April six more of No. 48 Squadron's machines patrolled over Douai for over half an hour without meeting any enemy, which beguiled the formation leader into straying too far downwind, so that five ran out of fuel while still over the enemy lines. All but one were burned by their crews to avoid capture, and this sequence of losses was a disastrous debut for the new Fighter, from which so much had been expected. Some of the pilots then began to fly the Fighters as if they were single-seaters, using the front gun for the main attack and the observer's only as secondary rear cover. Immediate and striking success resulted from this change of tactics, and on 30 April a patrol of six F.2A's fought their way home from Douai without loss. The tip was passed on to the second Bristol Fighter Squadron, No. 11, which had just re-equipped after flying Vickers Gunbus pushers.
  No. 11 Squadron went into the line in May and for some weeks performed photographic reconnaissance without interference from the enemy. On 20 June 1917, the first attack by an Albatros was made on one of No. 11's Fighters, flown by Lt. A. E. McKeever with Sergt. Powell as observer, McKeever held his fire until his attacker crossed his sights at close range, when a short burst from the front gun proved decisive. He repeated the performance the next day and within a week had scored four victories. In September he met eight enemy fighters, shot down one and disabled five others, for which he was awarded the Military Cross. By the end of October he had destroyed 20 enemy aircraft and had won a bar to his M.C. On 30 November, returning from a long patrol into enemy territory, he was attacked by seven Albatros and two two-seaters. He shot down one of the latter and in the melee that followed three of the single-seaters were destroyed, two by Powell with the rear gun. This final demonstration of prowess not only gained McKeever a D.S.O., but proved the magnificent fighting ability of the Bristol Fighter, when handled by a determined crew, and similar feats by many other pilots soon avenged the early casualties suffered by No. 48 Squadron.
  Both Nos. 48 and 11 Squadrons had received F.2B's as soon as they became available, and the production contract was twice revised until by July the quantity on order was 602. Capt. Hammond tested the first F.2B, A7101, on 10 April 1917, three days before its despatch to the Acceptance Park. Of this batch, the first 150 were fitted with the 190 h.p. Rolls-Royce engine, now named Falcon I, and 50 with the 220 h.p. Falcon II. Later the first 275 h.p. Falcon III was installed in A7177, and this engine was standardised for future production, as long as supplies lasted. With the extra performance the Falcon III provided, the Bristol Fighter was one of the really great aeroplanes of 1917 and 1918. In a letter to Capt. Louis Strange after his posting to the Central Flying School, Major Vere Bettington, C.O. of No. 48 Squadron, wrote from France on 13 May 1917:
   "Regarding the Bristol, she is a topping fighting two-seater, the best here; not excepting the D.H. as she is much handier than that and communication between pilot and passenger in the Bristol is splendid whereas D.H.4 is not.... She is faster than the Hun two-seater but cannot touch the latest Albatros Scout for speed. Where she does score tremendously is in her power to dive, in this she is alone among English or Allied machines. Many Huns who have dived on the tail of one, missed and gone on diving, have been dived after, overtaken and destroyed. They are dived plumb vertically for thousands of feet until the noise is like that of a million sabres cleaving the air. The indicated speed on a Clift or Ogilvie Indicator is then generally 60 to 90 m.p.h. the second time round the dial. The indicator reads normally to 130 m.p.h. then a space so probably the speed is considerably over 230 m.p.h.... She loops well ... she will do a fine spinning nose dive (if held in but will come out soon if left alone).... She stands an enormous amount of punishment in the way of being shot about and several have been very hard hit and come home, to be written off charge as beyond repair.... The Norman sight for the Lewis seems to be awfully good; observers have done well with it and many a Boche diving on the tail of a Bristol possibly mistaking it for a wretched Quirk (B.E.) has been badly stung; up to now observers have got about as many Huns as the pilots have done with their front guns."
  Production of the F.2B at Filton began with Nos. 2269-2518 (B1101-B1350), which were delivered between 18 July 1917 and 18 February 1918, while Brislington continued with Nos. 2851-2950 (C4801-C4900) delivered concurrently between 17 October 1917 and 2 March 1918. The B.E.2e line at Filton ended at last, and in July 1917 the War Office adopted the Bristol Fighter for the re-equipment of all fighter-reconnaissance squadrons; a second production line began at Filton with a contract for 500 placed on 4 September covering Nos. 2951-3450 (C4601-C4800) and (C751-C1050) delivered between 30 November 1917 and 28 May 1918. This was increased in October by a further 300 shared by both factories, Nos. 3451-3750 (C7801-C8100), which were delivered between 29 March and 11 July 1918. But the Bristol factories were already working to their limit and still more drastic steps were needed to accelerate production, large contracts being let from November onwards to firms outside the aircraft industry; these firms included Angus Sanderson and Armstrong-Whitworth, both of Newcastle-on-Tyne; Austin Motors and Harris & Sheldon of Birmingham; the Gloucestershire Aircraft Co. of Cheltenham; Marshall and Sons of Gainsborough; National Aircraft Factory No.3 (managed by Cunard) at Aintree; and the Standard Motor Co. of Coventry. Each of these undertakings received orders for between 100 and 500 airframes, the total number being nearly 2,000.
  Soon it was obvious that Rolls-Royce Falcons could not be produced fast enough for all the Bristol Fighters ordered, and the first alternative sought was the Hispano-Suiza, of which the 200 h.p. geared version was being produced by the French motor industry and in England also by Wolseley Motors. As the power was less than that of the Falcon III, Fighters with the latter engine were reserved for fighter-reconnaissance squadrons and those with alternative engines were to be issued to corps-reconnaissance units. As there would still not be enough Hispano-Suizas to meet the whole programme, because of the concurrent adoption of the S.E.5a Scout which used only this engine, a second alternative engine, the 200 h.p. Sunbeam Arab, was chosen; at Filton, Arabs were specified for 300 Fighters, C751-C1050. Unfortunately all these engines had been rushed into production before being fully developed and suffered severely from 'teething troubles'. Wolseley-built Hispanos averaged only 4 hours' life before crankshaft failure; Brasier-built Hispanos were no better, and although those built by Mayen were more reliable, all these were taken for the S.E.5a programme. Only 80 out of a promised 1,800 Sunbeam Arabs had been accepted by the end of 1917, because of severe vibration, and even these gave endless trouble when installed. It was then hoped to use a larger Hispano-Suiza of 300 h.p. which, having direct drive, was immune from reduction gear trouble, and the Sunbeam Arab installation was modified to accommodate it, but this too was delayed in production.
  The effect of these cumulative troubles and delays was to postpone the changeover from R.E.8's to Bristol Fighters from April 1918 till September, and large numbers of F.2B airframes delivered early in the year remained in storage and did not reach France in time to take any active part in the fighting, apart from Bristol-built Rolls-Royce machines. At the Armistice, the Royal Air Force had on charge about 900 of the latter and 720 with other engines, out of a total of 1,349 from Filton, 853 from Brislington and 1,600 from other contractors.
  When supplies of both types of Hispano-Suiza failed, it was decided to substitute the Siddeley Puma of 240 h.p., but as this was a six-cylinder vertical engine it was difficult to install, and in particular the front gun had to be moved from its successful central position. Even the Puma was delayed in delivery, due to foundry difficulties. In the summer of 1918 the direct-drive 300 h. p. Hispano-Suiza at last became available, and this proved to be entirely reliable, but deliveries had hardly commenced before the war ended. It was the original Falcon-engined version which never failed in production and proved invincible in action. It equipped six squadrons in France, one in Italy, two in Palestine and five for home defence. The Arab-engined version also rendered valuable service with five long-range corps-reconnaissance flights in France.
  In the great German offensive of March 1918, the Bristol Fighter squadrons in France took a major part in strafing the advancing enemy infantry, flying almost at ground level with guns blazing and blasting enemy batteries with 20 lb. Cooper and 112 lb. Hale bombs in support of the hard-pressed Third and Fifth Armies. Nothing came amiss to the Bristol Fighter. In the arid wastes of the Palestine desert, No. 67 (Australian) Squadron gained superiority over the enemy air forces in October 1917 with the arrival of five F.2B's, for the first time since the campaign began. The Australian pilot Capt. Ross Smith and his observer Lt. E. A. Mustar flew the same Bristol Fighter, B1229, throughout the campaign, during which time they destroyed 17 enemy aircraft between them and twice rescued the crews of other stranded machines.
  On the home front daylight raids by Gotha bombers caused heavy civilian casualties and at first met little opposition, but on 7 July 1917 an attempt was made by Home Defence units to intercept the raiders. The only aircraft to get within range was a Bristol Fighter, and later the type was chosen to reequip three H.D. squadrons; they were equipped with a sight set to face forward at an elevation of 45 degrees from the pilot's eye. The rear gunner fired over the pilot's head at the same elevation while the pilot aimed the aircraft, and at 100 m.p.h. the trajectory remained straight for 800 yards. Rolls-Royce-engined fighters equipped the Home Defence squadrons and were painted matt dull green, with all white stripes and rings in the insignia obscured.
  Although the Falcon installation varied only in minor detail during the entire period of production, there were several changes in external appearance when alternative engines were used. The 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza employed a nearly circular radiator slightly taller than wide, and its oil tank was mounted externally beneath the cowling. The Sunbeam Arab at first had a similar radiator of larger area and more nearly rectangular, but the simple tubular engine mounting was found to be too flexible for this very rough-running engine and a deep braced girder had to be substituted making the bottom line of the cowling square and horizontal; this mounting was combined with an S.E.5a radiator for a time, but had to be increased in area for the 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza, raising the top cowling to pent-roof shape. Finally an improved mounting and radiator was designed to accommodate either the Sunbeam Arab or the 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza, and this pattern was standardized for 1918 production. The Puma installation, designed at Farnborough, resembled that of the D.H.9, with a similar underslung radiator. Some late Falcon installations had enlarged radiators with a squarer shape, and a few Fighters had the aircooled R.A.F.4d engine; most of these were flown for test purposes at Farnborough.
  When the United States entered the war in 1917 the Bristol Fighter was among the British types proposed for large-scale production in America; 2000 were ordered first from the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation of Buffalo, N.Y., and later from a group of other firms to be supervised by the Engineering Division of the Bureau of Aircraft Production at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio; all were originally to be fitted with the 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza, licence-built by the Wright-Martin Corporation. These plans met with approval from the Company, and several of the Filton staff went to America to supervise the arrangements, taking with them two sample airframes. To their dismay, they found that the engine actually chosen was the 400 h.p. Liberty 12, which was too heavy and badly installed. Capt. Barnwell predicted trouble but was overruled; when the first Curtiss-built F.2B flew and crashed he was proved correct, but the U.S. Army blamed the aircraft rather than the power plant, and only 27 of the contract were built, the rest being cancelled. Technical opinion at McCook Field was less biased and the two Filton-built aircraft were flown, one (P 30) with a 300 h.p. HispanoSuiza and the other (P 37) with a 290 h.p. Liberty 8. P 37 crashed before any performance tests could be made, but on 18 November 1918 P 30 was flown by Major Schroeder to a height of 29,000 ft. above Dayton, an unofficial world's altitude record for which homologation was never sought. A Hispano-Suiza-engined F.2B variant with semi-monocoque veneer fuselage was built at McCook Field with the designation XB-1A (P 90) in July 1919, and 40 more were produced for the U.S. Army by Dayton-Wright in 1920.
  Although production of Bristol Fighters by outside contractors ceased on 26 November 1918, the Company was allowed to continue deliveries of all machines contracted for and started at that date, and production at Filton continued until September 1919, by which time a total number of 4,747 Bristol Fighters had been completed, 2,081 at Filton, 1,045 at Brislington and 1,621 by other contractors. Contracts placed with the Company from March to September 1918 covered Nos. 3754-4253 (E2151-E2650) and Nos. 42575424 (F4271-F4970 and H1240-H1707). Of the last batch, 153 aircraft (H1240-H1389, H1399-1400 and H1407) were completed with Arabs and the final 18 (H1690-H1707) with Pumas; all the rest had Falcons. (Apparently only four F.2B's were included in Imperial Gifts to Dominion Air Forces in 1919: D7869 (later G-CYDP) and F4336 (later G-CYBC) to Canada, and H1557 and H1558 to New Zealand. H1248 (G-A UEB) was purchased ex-Disposals with a 300 h.p. Hispano-Suiza in 1920) The last three Rolls-Royce machines, H1687-9, were specially fitted with long-range tanks and dual controls, without armament. In addition 56 were taken over for completion from the Standard Motor Co., Nos. 5659-5714 (E5253-E5308), and delivered with Pumas.
  When the Royal Air Force became re-established on a peacetime footing, the Bristol Fighter was adopted as the standard Army Co-operation type, and in December 1919 a new machine, No. 5893 (J6586), was tested with a wide range of desert equipment and a tropical cooling system for use in India and Iraq. This was followed by 214 similar new machines, Nos. 5894-6107 (J6587-J6800), and these together with successive batches of Fighters reconditioned in accordance with specification No. 21/21, totalling 415 machines during the next five years, were issued to the overseas squadrons of the R.A.F., which maintained law and order in Iraq, Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier of India. At home they equipped the four Army Co-operation Squadrons, well known for their message-hook technique as demonstrated annually at Hendon, also No. 24 (Communications) Squadron and the Royal Aircraft Establishment; amongst the R.A.E. stud was one with square-tipped metal wings of biconvex section, incorporating leading edge condensers for evaporative cooling experiments. All the reconditioned aircraft received new sequence numbers, but normally retained their original serials, although in 1925 a batch of 84 built from spares, Nos. 6721-6804, became J7617-J7699. After this batch a further 144 were reconditioned in 1926, and during that year one machine, H1420, was specially modified to a revised layout and exhaustively tested at the School of Army Co-operation, Old Sarum. This variant, which was structurally redesigned throughout for higher loads, was designated Bristol Type 96 and officially named Bristol Fighter Mark III, and 50 new aircraft, Nos. 7040-7089 (J8242-J8291), were delivered between 16 October and 23 December 1926. The final production batch consisted of 30 similar machines, but with dual controls instead of armament; these, Nos. 6988-7017 (J8429-J8458), were completed between January and June 1927 and included J8430 specially furnished as a personal transport for H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, for whom it was flown and maintained by No. 24 Squadron. The 3576th and last new Bristol Fighter to be built at Bristol for the Air Ministry was No. 7122, one of two Mark III's delivered to the R.N.Z.A.F., in July 1927, together with a dual-control trainer, No. 7120. All the Mark III's of the R.A.F. were converted in 1928 into Mark IV's with a still higher gross weight, strengthened longerons and landing gear, Handley Page auto-slots and enlarged fin and horn-balanced rudder. The prototype of the Mark IV was H1417, which initially had slot-and-aileron controls on a square-tipped upper wing.
  Bristol Fighters Mark IV were issued to the Oxford and Cambridge University Air Squadrons in July 1928 until finally superseded in 1931, when a few were released for sale and came on to the Civil Register. Apart from Royal Air Force service, Bristol Fighters were supplied in small quantities to many foreign air forces, including Belgium, Greece, Mexico, Norway, Peru and Spain, as well as to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the Irish Free State. A large proportion of these were sold in 1920-23 from war disposal stocks and were fitted with 300 h.p. Hispano-Suizas; in Belgium, S.A.B.C.A. acquired a manufacturing licence after 16, Nos. 6223-6238, with Frise ailerons and oleo landing gear, had been purchased new. Twelve similar new Fighters, Nos. 6510-6521, were supplied to Spain between July and October 1924, and ten more with further revised control surfaces and oleo landing gear, Nos. 7222-7231, went to Mexico in 1927. The grand total of all Bristol Fighters built, excluding the Jupiter-engined variant described later, was 5,252. The last Bristol Fighters in service, those of the R.N.Z.A.F., were scrapped in 1938, No. 7121 having crashed during air-firing practice at a range near Christchurch in February 1936. Only two Bristol Fighters now survive and are being preserved for posterity. One is E2581, still in its 1918 camouflage, in the Imperial War Museum, London; the other is D8096, maintained in airworthy condition and flown on suitable occasions by the Shuttleworth Trust, at Old Warden, Beds.

SPECIFICATIONS AND DATA
  Types: R.2A, R.2B, F.2A and F.2B
  Manufacturers:
   The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Filton and Brislington, Bristol
   The Bristol Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Filton, Bristol;
   Angus Sanderson & Co. Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne;
   Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd., Gosforth and Elswick, Newcastle-on-Tyne;
   Austin Motors Ltd., Longbridge, Birmingham;
   Cunard Steamship Co. Ltd., National Aircraft Factory No.3, Aintree, Lancs.
   Gloucestershire Aircraft Co. Ltd., Sunningend, Cheltenham;
   Harris & Sheldon, Ltd., Stafford Street, Birmingham;
   Marshall & Sons, Ltd., Gainsborough, Lincs.
   Standard Motor Car Co. Ltd., Coventry;
   Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A.;
   Dayton-Wright Airplane Co., Dayton, Ohio, U.S.A.
   Engineering Division, Bureau of Aircraft Production, McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.A.
  Power Plants:
   (R.2A) One 120 hp Beardmore;
   (R.2B) One 150 hp Hispano-Suiza;
   (F 2A)
   One 190 hp Rolls-Royce Falcon I
   One 150 hp Hispano-Suiza
   (F.2B)
   One 190 hp Rolls-Royce Falcon I
   One 220 hp Rolls-Royce Falcon II
   One 275 hp Rolls-Royce Falcon III
   One 200 h.p. Hispano-Suiza
   One 200 hp Sunbeam Arab
   One 200 hp R.A.F.4d
   One 180 hp Wolseley Viper
   One 230 hp Siddeley Puma
   One 300 hp Hispano-Suiza
   (USA O-1)
   One 400 hp Liberty 12
   One 290 hp Liberty 8
  Span:
   (R.2A) 40 ft 8 in
   (R.2B) 39 ft
   (F.2A & F.2B) 39 ft 3 in
  Length:
   (R.2A) 26 ft 3 in
   (R.2B) 25 ft 5 in
   (F.2A & F 2B)
   Falcon 25 ft 10 in
   Arab & Hispano 24 ft 10 in
   Puma 26 ft
   (USA O-1)
   Liberty 12 26 ft 2 in
   Liberty 8 25 ft 5 in
  Height: 9 ft 6 in
  Wing Area:
   (R.2A) 430 sq ft
   (R.2B) 320 sq ft
   (F.2A) 389 sq ft
   (F.2B) 405 sq ft
  Maximum Speed:
   (F.2A: Falcon I) 110 mph
   (F.2A: Hispano) 102 mph
   (F.2B: Falcon III) 125 mph
   (F.2B: Arab) 115 mph
   (F.2B: Hispano 200) 115 mph
   (F.2B: Puma) 116 mph
   (F.2B: Hispano 300) 120 mph
   (Mark II & III) 112 mph
   (Mark IV) 110 mph
   (USA 0-1) 138 mph
  Service Ceiling: 20,000 ft
  Endurance: 3 hours
  Accommodation: 2

Weights:

Type Engine Empty Weight All-up Weight
F.2A Falcon I 1,700 lb 2,700 lb
   Hispano 1,500 lb 2,500 lb
F.2B Falcon III 1,930 lb 2,800 lb
   Arab 1,890 lb 2,800 lb
   Hispano 200 1,740 lb 2,700 lb
   R.A.F.4d 2,000 lb 2,800 lb
   Puma 1,920 lb 2,810 lb
   Hispano 300 2,070 lb 3,000 lb
Mark II Falcon III 2,095 lb 3,160 lb
Mark III Falcon III 2,150 lb 3,250 lb
Mark IV Falcon III 2,200 lb 3,350 lb
USA O-1 Liberty 12 - 2,940 lb


O.Tapper Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913 (Putnam)


The Bristol F2B Fighter

  By the year 1918, the F.K.8, which had been Armstrong Whitworth's main preoccupation in Newcastle since the autumn of 1916, was becoming obsolete and, in the spring of that year, production of this aircraft ceased and its place was taken by the Bristol Fighter, 250 of which had been ordered in February 1918.
  The Bristol F2B Fighter, first produced in the autumn of 1916, was one of the outstanding aircraft of the First World War. Designed as a fighter-reconnaissance aircraft, the Bristol Fighter, with its high performance, combined the best characteristics of the fast, manoeuvrable, single-seat fighter with the fire power of the two-seater, and it proved itself to be a formidable opponent in the battles on the Western Front from the middle of 1917 onwards.
  The engine of the standard Bristol Fighter was the Rolls-Royce Falcon, but production of this engine could not keep pace with the demand, and other powerplants had, perforce, to be used, with some inevitable loss of performance. One of the alternative engines was the 200 hp eight-cylinder water-cooled Sunbeam Arab, and it was this version that was ordered from Armstrong Whitworth. But the Arab engine was, itself, a disappointment: it suffered from severe vibration problems and, at some stage during the production run at Gosforth, the Siddeley Puma engine was substituted. This change-over probably occurred after the Armistice, by which time some sixty per cent of the order had been completed. The Bristol Fighter continued in production at Gosforth after the end of the war, but it cannot be confirmed whether or not all the 250 aircraft ordered, which were allotted the serial numbers E1901 to E2150, had been completed when, according to the company records, the contract was cancelled in September 1919.

Span: 39 ft 3 in (11.96 m)
Length: 24 ft 10 in (7.57 m)
Height: 9 ft 5 in (2.87 m)
Wing area: 405.6 sq ft (37.63 sq m)
All-up weight: 2.800 lb (1.270 kg)


P.Bowers Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 (Putnam)


Bristol Fighter

  One of the successful European combat aeroplanes selected by the Bolling Commission for mass production in the United States was the Bristol F.2B, better known as the Bristol Fighter. The US government owned the rights to the design and assigned the official designation of USAO-l as an observation type, but the Bristol Fighter name stuck. This was to be Americanized to the extent of having parts dimensions altered to be compatible with standard American tooling and altering the front end to accommodate the new 400 hp Liberty engine in place of the original British Rolls-Royce Eagle. Curtiss was given a contract for 2,000 in October 1917.
  Production lines were set up in the new Elmwood Plant m Buffalo, and the first Liberty-powered Bristol was ready for flight in April 1918. The Liberty engine installation was troublesome from the start. It was both too heavy and too powerful for the relatively standard Bristol airframe and there were cooling problems. Because of the size of the Liberty, the original neat nose radiator of the Bristol could not be used; several arrangements of side and belly radiators were tried as well as fixed and movable units in the upper wing centre section.
  Following several serious crashes of early test models, the Curtiss contract was cancelled after 26 Bristols had been completed (US Army serial numbers 34232/34257). This did not kill off official US interest in the design, however. While Curtiss tried to develop its own version of a Bristol replacement, the CB, the Air Service Engmeenng Division at McCook Field developed lower-powered versions with 300 hp Wright-Hispano engines and new laminated wood monocoque fuselages. Thirty of these were eventually produced by the Dayton-Wright Aircraft Company under the designation of USXB-1A.

Bristol Fighter (USAO-1)
  Observation aircraft. Pilot and observer/gunner.
  400 hp Liberty.
  Span 39 ft 4 in (11,98 m): length 27 ft 1 in (8,25 m); height 10 ft 2 in (3,09 m); wing area 416 sq ft (38,64 sq m).
  Empty weight 2,245 lb (1.018,3 kg); gross weight 3,500 lb (1.587,57 kg).
  Maximum speed 125 mph (201,16 km/h) at sea level: climb to 10,000 ft (3,048 m) 7,05 min; absolute ceiling 25,000 ft (7,620 m): endurance 2 hr.
  Armament - two fixed Marlin and two flexible Lewis machine-guns.


O.Thetford Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 (Putnam)


Bristol Fighter

  The Bristol Fighter, known affectionately as the 'Biff' or 'Brisfit', was one of the mainstays of the R.A.F. in its formative years. The first prototype (A 3303), with a 190-h.p. Falcon engine, flew late in 1916, and the first Fighters went into action with No. 48 Squadron of the R.F.C. over the Western Front in April 1917. With the formation of the R.A.F. on 1 April 1918, the Fighter was in wide service, and those of No. 22 Squadron made the first sortie of the new Service at dawn on that historic day.
  When the Armistice came, no fewer than 3,100 Fighters had been delivered, and the type continued in production for the post-war R.A.F., a further 1,369 being built before production ceased with J8458 in December 1926. The peacetime R.A.F. used the Bristol Fighter mainly for Army Co-operation duties, both at home and overseas, and later as a dual-control trainer with the R.A.F. College, Cranwell, and the University Air Squadrons. The first post-war variant was the Mk. II, with tropical radiator, desert wheels and increased all-up weight (some of which were wartime aircraft reconditioned to Spec. 21/21). In 1924 a complete redesign appeared, the Mk. III, incorporating all Mk. II modifications as integral features and introducing an oleo tailskid (see three-view drawing). The final variant was the Mk. IV which had Handley Page slots, a taller rudder with horn balance, strengthened under-carriage and cambered fin. These features also characterized the Mk. III (dual) which from July 1928 gave staunch service with the Oxford and Cambridge University Air Squadrons.
  Bristol Fighters served in Ireland until 1922 and on the Rhine until the last squadron (No. 12) left Germany in July 1922. Overseas they were finally supplanted in 1932 (when No. 6 Squadron received Gordons), after years of faithful service in Iraq and India. At home, they are superseded by the Atlas.

TECHNICAL DATA (FIGHTER MK. III)

  Description: Two-seat Army Co-operation or dual-control trainer. Wooden structure, fabric covered. Maker's designation, Bristol Type 96.
  Manufacturers: Bristol Aeroplane Co. Ltd., Filton, Bristol. Sub-contracted.
  Power Plant: One 280-h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon III.
  Dimensions: Span, 39 ft. 4 in. Length, 25 ft. 10 in. Height, 9 ft. 9 in. Wing area, 406 sq. ft.
  Weights: Empty, 1,745 lb. Loaded, 2,590 lb.
  Performance: Maximum speed, 125 m.p.h. at sea level; 108 m.p.h. at 13,000 ft. Climb, 838 ft./min.; 11 mins. 15 secs, to 10,000 ft. Endurance, 3 hrs. Service ceiling, 20,000 ft.
  Armament: One Vickers and onу Lewis gun. Two 112-lb. bombs below wings.


L.Andersson Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 (Putnam)


Bristol F.2B Fighter

  The Bristol F.2B Fighter, of which one (2049, possibly ex-E2049) was captured by the Red Army during the Civil War, was a two-seat reconnaissance, light bomber and fighter aircraft. It was easily recognised by having its fuselage mounted midway between the upper and lower mainplanes, with a gap between the lower wing and the fuselage. Armament consisted of one forward-firing machine gun, one or two machine-guns mounted on a ring in the observer's cockpit and up to 120kg of bombs. The F.2A first flew in September 1916 and about 4,500 were built until 1919 of the F.2B model, which served with the RAF in great numbers and was also used by the air forces in Afghanistan, Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Poland, Spain, the USA and Yugoslavia.
  A second example (identified as c/n 1088) was obtained in Britain in connection with other aircraft purchases for evaluation and was delivered in May 1922. It was assigned to the Martinsyde-equipped 2nd Otdel'naya istrebitel'naya aviatsionnaya eskadril'ya in Moscow after being tested and the other F.2B was issued to the 2nd Otdel'nyi istrebitel'nyi aviatsionnyi otryad in Kiev after it had been repaired. Both were used as trainers until withdrawn from use in 1925.

  300hp Hispano-Suiza 8Fb
  Span 11.97m; length 7.57m; height 2.9m; wing area 37.63m2
  Empty weight 940kg; loaded weight 1,360kg
  Maximum speed 191km/h; landing speed 75km/h; climb to 2,000m in 7.2min; ceiling 6,100m; endurance 3hr


H.King Armament of British Aircraft (Putnam)


Fighter. The Bristol Fighter of 1916/17 endures in history as a preeminent example of an aeroplane designed round its armament. Not only is this quite literally true of the fixed-gun installation, but in the concentration of the crew and the studied provision of an effectively emplaced free gun - this to afford not only rear protection, but to augment the pilot's fire-power for attack. Allied with excellence of all-round performance and manoeuvrability, these qualities had their summation in an aircraft of which Oliver Stewart has declared that it 'should be spoken of in terms of the heroes of classic mythology', being 'in the fullest sense a hero after their pattern a fighter by name, inclination and aptitude'.
  With this aeroplane the name of Frank Barnwell is identified, and it may have been Barnwell himself who declared: 'The fuselage is of rectangular section tapering to the rear to a horizontal knife-edge, thereby enabling the various tail members to be brought down low, out of the way of the gun. The top of the fuselage is kept flat for this purpose also.' It was further explained that, in order to bring the position of the pilot and the gunner as high as possible in relation to the top plane without increasing the depth of the fuselage, the latter was placed between the wings. In 1929 Barnwell remarked in a letter: 'I'm not sure that the happy guesses often years or so ago did not produce as efficient machines as many present-day ones. We've got performance by piling on BMP but this is not per se advance.' Yet Barnwell's masterpiece, the Bristol Fighter, was no mere happy guess. It evolved, in fact from 1916 designs for a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft along generally similar lines but armed with a synchronised Lewis gun to starboard and a second Lewis gun on a pillar-type mounting at the rear. This gun could be stowed in the fuselage decking as on much later multi-seaters. Field of fire was very carefully studied. Meanwhile Barnwell had been watching armament development and his fancy fell upon the Vickers gun for pilot use. Forthwith his assistant. L. G. Frise, was sent off on a Vickers-gun course at Hythe, and, as soon as Barnwell had learned all that he needed to know concerning the gun, he decided that it should be on the centre line of his new aeroplane with the breech casing to the pilot's hand even though this involved forming a tunnel through the petrol tank. And there it went, its presence being proclaimed only by the sights, frontal port, and low-sited ejection chute in the port side of the cowling. Proximity to the engine served to keep the lubricating oil relatively warm. The belt box was immediately behind the petrol tank and was tilled through an access panel in the top fuselage decking on the starboard side, between the centre-section struts. When the Siddeley Puma engine was installed it became necessary to move the Vickers gun to starboard, and the front of the gun was then exposed near the front centre-section strut. The gunner's Lewis gun was on a Scarff ring-mounting, attached to the upper longerons immediately behind the pilot. Six or more double drums were provided, and there were firing steps and a folding seat. Production-type Fighters had both ring-and-bead and Aldis sights, the former bracketed to the top centre-section. The Aldis sight was offset to starboard and was fixed to a special fore-and-aft tubular mounting, likewise attached to the centre-section, and earning the two circular clamps. The C.C. gear was of 'B' type and the loading handle a Hyland Type B also. An official document of 1917, relating to the F.2B, gave the empty weight, including guns and mountings, as 1,700 lb and the weight of 'ammunition' as 150 lb. This figure, however, represents a total of about 2,000 rounds of 0.303-in ammunition and corresponds to the total military load for one known condition. Other figures quoted for military load are 180, 185 and 192 lb, but in this connection it must be noted that a load of up to twelve 20-lb bombs could be carried beneath the inner lower wings and centre-section. A Negative Lens bombsight could be fitted. On production aircraft the pilot's seat was not armoured as on the two prototypes.
  How the earliest F.2A Fighters met disaster, until their pilots learned to use them as single-seaters with rear cover, is a thrice-told tale, but in basic armament there was little variation. On F.2Bs two Lewis guns were sometimes fitted on the ring-mounting, and on one machine at least there was a third Lewis gun, arranged to fire upwards and forwards over the top centre-section. For this gun there was a massive 'four-poster' mounting. By far the most interesting departure from standard was made on Home Defence F.2Bs for night fighting, following a similar experimental installation on an F.2A. A Neame illuminated sight was fitted on the centre-section, pointing upward at an angle of 45 degrees from the pilot's eye. The pilot took aim, and the gunner, having aligned his gun accordingly, fired on receiving a signal from the pilot. A device enabling the pilot to rotate the gun mounting himself is said to have been fitted, though the virtue of this is not apparent.
  A confirmed installation of the greatest interest was the tilting of one of the earliest Browning aircraft machine-guns (Model 1918, M1, Cal .30) on a Bristol Fighter F.2B during 1918. In general pattern this gun was similar to that which armed the Hurricane and Spitfire in the Battle of Britain, a fact which is clearly apparent in the photograph on page 93.
  In post-war years the Bristol Fighter was adapted for army co-operation and general purpose duties, and during early 'A.C.' trials the guns were unshipped to make weight allowance for heavy wireless gear. In 1921 an Air Ministry order instructed that the 'C' type C.C. gear would in future be standard on all Falcon-engined Bristol Fighters, in conjunction with a new-type nose-piece for the engine in which the generator brackets were incorporated in the castings.
  The last honoured years of the Bristol Fighter in RAF service have been fittingly expressed by one who shared them, thus:
  'The Brisfit of North-West Frontier vintage actually carried an operational load of eight 20-lb Coopers and one 112-lb H.E. The latter was sometimes replaced by a can of 200 B.I.B. incendiaries. This was, of course, in addition to the front and rear guns, extra tropical radiator and an extra fuel tank under the rear seat. For squadron transport purposes the load was slightly different. Two bundles of bedding, complete with mosquito nets and poles (with galvanised-iron wash-bowls as nosepiece) were lashed to the wing bomb racks'.
  The last variant (Mk.IV) could carry two 112-lb bombs.


P.Lewis The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)


Although neither the T.T.A. nor the S.2.A passed into production, Frank Barnwell’s next two-seat fighter design for the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company was destined to be an outstanding success and to have many years of excellent service ahead of it.
  By the beginning of 1916, it had become quite obvious that a replacement was imperative for the primitive and obsolete two-seaters plodding their way warily across the increasingly dangerous skies over the Front. By March of that year, Barnwell was able to settle down to transferring to paper his idea of an advanced and powerful new two-seater. With a considerably enhanced fund of experience to draw upon, his versatile mind devised a layout for a biplane of eminently purposeful aspect.
  At first the new project was known as the R.2A with the intended engine to be the 120 h.p. Beardmore. To obtain the desired performance it became obvious that more than 120 h.p. would be needed and thought was given to using the more powerful Hispano-Suiza as an alternative. Barnwell’s mind was finally made up for him by the advent at a most propitious time in April, 1916, of a newcomer to the range of Rolls-Royce aero engines - the twelve-cylinder water-cooled V Falcon of 205 h.p. Never satisfied that significantly increased output could not be gained by intensive development, Henry Royce was able steadily to improve the rating to 228 h.p. in May, 247 h.p. in February, 1917, and 262 h.p. by April, 1917.
  The Falcon was a gift to Barnwell of a fine, reliable, powerful engine around which he proceeded to completely redesign the R.2A as the Bristol F.2A Fighter. The power unit was well blended into a fuselage of rectangular section which tapered in side elevation to a knife-edge at the tail, and which was suspended by struts between the two-bay, equal-span wings. In deference to the essential requirement in a two-seat fighter that the pilot and gunner should be able to communicate immediately with each other, the cockpits were adjacent and in every other way the needs of the crew for their utmost efficiency were borne in mind in the layout. The pilot’s view was enhanced by adequate stagger of the wings and by cut-outs in the centre-section trailing edge and roots, while the gunner was given as broad a field of fire as could be arranged.
  Two prototypes were soon ordered but incorporating different engines - one with the Falcon Mk.l and the other with the 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza. Work on the airframes was started during July, 1916, and 9th September saw the Falcon-powered A3303, the first machine, ready. Modification to the engine’s radiators soon took place when the pair originally fitted, one on each side of the fore-fuselage, were removed to improve the view for the pilot and replaced by a neat installation around the nose ahead of the engine. A3304, the Hispano-Suiza-powered F.2A, was complete some six weeks later on 25th October. The F.2A’s pilot was provided with a single Vickers gun installed in the centre of the nose and covered by the cowling so that it fired through an orifice in the radiator face. The observer’s Lewis was carried on a Scarff ring.
  The F.2A was an instant success and went through its trials with flying colours to achieve performance figures which exceeded those expected. An initial order for fifty was placed, to be powered with the Falcon to circumvent the shortage of Hispano-Suizas, and with revised wingtips.
  The first operational squadron to use the F.2A was No. 48, which went into action with the machine on 5th April, 1917, but suffered unexpectedly high losses immediately owing to the lack of appreciation by the crews of the vastly superior capabilities of their mounts compared with previous two-seaters. Once the speed and great manoeuvrability inherent in the Fighter were recognized, the machine came into its own in combat with the pilot able to use his gun really effectively and the observer simultaneously making the most of his armament. The technique which had to be learned and exploited was one of flying and fighting with the machine in a manner hitherto reserved for a single-seater.
  Even after the deletion of the side radiators, the forward view from the pilot’s cockpit was still not all that it could be and was improved by incorporating downward slope in the upper longerons from the rear cockpit forward to the bearers for the engine. The modified machine went into production as the F.2B and proceeded to enhance the reputation already earned by the F.2A.
  The Biff, as it soon became affectionately known, proved itself to be a brilliant design and an outstanding success among the British warplanes of 1914-18.
  Although the Sopwith 1 1/2-Strutter had pioneered the two-seat armed tractor layout successfully, Frank Barnwell’s Bristol Fighter marks the start of the classic concept and employment in battle of the single-engine, two-seat, high-performance fighter, born in the heat of war and continued into the years of peace as a type of aircraft in the development of which British designers excelled. Provided that sufficient power were available from the engine, around which the machine was designed, the two-seat fighter could prove itself to be a very welcome and useful addition to air strength. The twin-engine multi-seat concept for a fighter was a far less happy combination owing to the attendant drastic sacrifice of manoeuvrability, which its size and layout involved, and which was not a pronounced feature of the single-engine formula. Some loss of performance was inevitable in the two-seat fighter, owing to increased size and the extra weight of airframe and gunner, but the Bristol Fighter was able to offset these disadvantages handsomely by virtue of its excellent, powerful Rolls-Royce engine.


F.Mason The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam)


Bristol F.2A

  In March 1916 Frank Barnwell began the design of a new two-seat fighter embodying many of the lessons learned from the Royal Aircraft Factory’s B.E.2 (of which Bristol had produced several hundreds). Intended to use the 120hp Beardmore engine, this design was referred to as the R.2A, and was a fairly large two-bay biplane with wings of equal span; the pilot’s cockpit was located under a large trailing edge cutout, and his observer/gunner was situated close behind with a Lewis gun on a Scarff ring. A single synchronized Lewis gun was mounted forward on the upper starboard longeron. It was realised that the R.2A would be somewhat underpowered and in May the design was altered to introduce a 150hp Hispano-Suiza, and to feature wings of unequal span and part-Warren girder interplane struts; this was the R.2B.
  Two months later Bristol was offered one of the new 190hp Rolls-Royce vee-twelve water-cooled engines (soon to be named the Falcon I), and Barnwell undertook a fresh re-design, the F.2A, based largely on the R.2s and returning to the equal-span two-bay wings of the original design, but retaining the sprung tail skid of the R.2B. The front Lewis gun was changed to a Vickers and re-positioned in the centre of the nose where it was located in a tunnel through the front fuel tank; fifty gallons of fuel were carried in two tanks, sufficient for 3 1/4 hours’ flying.
  The fuselage box girder structure was strengthened and an adjustable-incidence tailplane incorporated, permitting the aircraft to be flown ‘hands-off over a wide speed range. The rear fuselage was given more pronounced taper in side elevation, thereby slightly increasing the observer/gunner’s rearward field of fire. Wireless equipment was to be provided as a standard fitting. One of the characteristic features of the F.2 family that would become familiar for many years was the continuous lower wing structure which was located about ten inches below the fuselage, being ‘carried’ by struts attached to the lower fuselage longerons. The centre section of this wing was an open structure with steel carry-through spars without fabric covering. The wings, with top and bottom ailerons, were rigged with 17.1 inches of stagger.
  The first prototype, A3303, was flown on 9 September at Filton by Capt C A Hooper, and went on to Upavon for Service evaluation on the 21st. It was soon found that the Falcon’s vertical radiators, mounted on the sides of the nose, obscured the pilot’s field of view during landing and a new nose configuration was designed to incorporate a single annular radiator within the engine cowling.
  A second prototype, A3304, was flown on 25 October, this aeroplane being fitted with a 150hp Hispano-Suiza - also with front annular radiator. This was the version intended for production, but all Hispano-Suizas were now required for the Royal Aircraft Factory’s S.E.5, and an order was issued for fifty F.2As, to be powered by Rolls-Royce Falcon Is. The production version also featured blunt wingtips, a feature that was to remain unchanged in all subsequent F.2s.
  These F.2As began delivery to the RFC in February 1917 and were issued to No 48 Squadron at Rendcombe, Gloucestershire, where a special training unit was formed for the Bristols’ crews. No 48, commanded by Maj A Vere Bettington (later Gp Capt, CMG, raf) flew to Bertangles in France on 8 March, moving on to Bellevue soon after. The Squadron’s debut in action on 5 April ended in disaster when six F.2As, led by Capt W Leefe Robinson vc, ran into five Albatros D IIIs, led by Manfred von Richthofen. Four of the Bristols were shot down, two of them by the enemy leader. Further casualties were suffered in the days following until it became apparent to the British pilots that the F.2A was being flown incorrectly in combat, and that relying wholly on the rear gun was to exploit only a small part of the fighter’s potential. Gradually the pilots began to fly their aircraft as if they were single-seaters, using the front gun offensively, and relying on the rear gun primarily for defence. Thereafter the Bristol’s true value was fully appreciated and, when the F.2B arrived soon after, the RFC found that it had a superb general purpose fighter.
  [There was to be a curiously analogous combat twenty-three years later, when Boulton Paul Defiant two-seat turret fighters of No 141 Squadron, fighting their first combat in the Battle of Britain, encountered enemy Messerschmitt single-seaters over the English Channel. Once again the British pilots fought their fighters as gun platforms for their rear gunners and once more suffered catastrophic losses, six out of nine Defiants being destroyed. After the incident, however, there was to be no recourse to front gun armament - the Defiant had none.]


  Type: Single-engine, two-seat, two-bay biplane general purpose fighter.
  Manufacturer: The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co Ltd, Filton and Brislington, Bristol.
  Powerplant: First prototype and production F.2As. One 190hp Rolls-Royce Falcon I 12-cylinder water-cooled in-line engine. Second prototype. 150hp Hispano-Suiza.
  Structure: Wooden structure with duralumin, ply and fabric covering, reinforced locally with steel tubular members.
  Dimensions: Span, 39ft 3in; length, 25ft 10 in; height, 9ft 6in; wing area, 389 sq ft.
  Weights: Falcon I. Tare, 1,700lb; all-up, 2,700lb.
  Performance: Falcon I. Max speed, 110 mph at sea level; climb to 10,000ft, 14 min 30 sec; service ceiling, 16,000ft; endurance, 3 1/4 hr.
  Armament: One 0.303in Vickers machine gun in nose with Constantinesco CC interrupter gear, and one Lewis gun on Scarff ring in rear cockpit.
  Prototypes: Two, A3303 (first flown on 9 September 1916 by Capt CA Hooper at Filton), and A3304.
  Production: 50 aircraft (A3305-A3354).
  Summary of Service: Bristol F.2As served with No 48 Squadron, RFC, in France, and at a training unit at Rendcombe.



Bristol F.2B Fighter

  The first Bristol F.2 with alterations recommended by the AID during the F.2A trials was flown on 25 October 1916. These modifications included the covering of the lower wing centre section below the fuselage, and the angling downwards of the upper longerons from the rear of the front cockpit forward in order to improve the pilot’s view while landing. The first 150 F.2Bs, from a contract for 200 (A7101-A7300), retained the 190hp Rolls-Royce Falcon I of the earlier F.2A, but from A7251 onwards the 220hp Falcon II was fitted.
  The next order for 250 aircraft introduced the definitive Falcon III of 275hp, and this engine remained standard for the Fighter for the remainder of the War and beyond - although several alternative engines were adopted when pressure on Falcon production increased sharply in 1918.
  The Bristol F.2B Fighter was one of a handful of truly great British fighters of the War, alongside such aircraft as the S.E.5A, and Sopwith Pup and Camel. The shock defeat of No 48 Squadron, with its heavy losses of F.2As, might have had serious repercussions had the War Office concluded that the British fighters suffered a fundamental design flaw, and decided to cancel the large production contracts which had by then been negotiated. Fortunately it was the line pilots themselves who took matters into their own hands, changing tactics by employing the Fighter’s front gun offensively.
  By the time No 11 Squadron, commanded by Maj Cuthbert Trelawder Maclean (later Air Vice-Marshal, cb, dso, mc, RAF), arrived in No 13 Wing at La Bellevue, the new tactics were paying off handsomely. On 20 June the Squadron drew first blood when an Albatros D III attacked a Bristol head-on, but was met and destroyed by a short burst from the British fighter’s front gun. The pilot of the F.2B was Lt Andrew Edward McKeever, a Canadian from Ontario who was to become the finest exponent of the two-seat fighter. This was his first victory, and by the end of the year (when he was posted to England as an instructor) he had destroyed a total of thirty enemy aircraft, of which eight fell to the gun of his observer, Sergeant L F Powell. McKeever was to be awarded the DSO and two MCs (and Powell the DCM), only to die on Christmas Day 1919 from injuries suffered in a car accident.
  Such was the esteem in which the Bristol Fighter was now held that in July 1917 the War Office decided to standardize the aircraft on all fighter- and corps-reconnaissance squadrons of the RFC, replacing the B.E.2 and B.E.12 and, in due couse, the R.E.8 - a process that lasted well into the post-War years. On 2 September the parent company received an order for a further 800 F.2Bs (which it could meet as the B.E.2 production at Filton was coming to an end), and the following month orders for a further 800 were placed with three manufacturing sub-contractors.
  Meanwhile No 20 Squadron (Maj E H Johnston) at St Marie-Capelie, and No 22 Squadron (Maj L W Learmont dso, mc) at Boisdinghem had received F.2Bs, replacing F.E.2s, and in September No 39 Squadron at Woodford, Essex, changed to F.2Bs for Home Defence duties. The same month a small number of Bristol Fighters joined the newly-formed No 111 Squadron in Palestine, joining Bristol Scouts, D.H.2s and Nieuports.
  As the numbers of F.2Bs in France continued to grow, it became increasingly noticeable that German pilots were deliberately avoiding combat with them unless they possessed overwhelming numerical superiority. Even so, there were Bristol pilots who seemed undaunted by unfavourable odds. On 30 November 1917 McKeever and Powell encountered two German reconnaissance two-seaters escorted by seven Albatros single-seaters, and shot down both the former and two of the latter before making good their escape.
  In 1918 the pace of production was further increased, with a total of 2,867 aircraft completed by Bristol and four sub-contractors (the latter producing 1,000 aircraft between them). Inevitably it was not long before Rolls-Royce reported that it would be unable to keep pace with engine demand, as production of both the Eagle and Falcon was already running at capacity, while the very large 600hp Condor would soon enter production. This situation had been foreseen some months earlier, but continuing indecision by the War Office had already led to delays in the delivery of engines. A number of alternative engines had been specified, including the 200hp Sunbeam Arab and the 200hp Hispano-Suiza, the latter being intended for aircraft built by the National Aircraft Factory No 3 at Aintree, Liverpool. The available Falcons were intended to be confined to aircraft built by Bristol, with Arabs suggested as suitable alternatives should airframe production outstrip engine availability. In the event only a tiny number of Bristol-built F.2Bs was completed with the Sunbeam engine.
  These alternative engines underwent official tests in F.2Bs early in 1918, the Hispano-Suiza in B1201 during January, and the Arab in B1204 in March. The performance in both was most unsatisfactory and bestowed a much inferior performance compared with those aircraft with Falcons. Moreover, production of the 200hp Hispano-Suiza had encountered problems, and the reduced numbers available were reserved for the S.E.5A, with the result that the Hispano-powered F.2B was abandoned, and the NAF No 3-built aircraft were completed with Falcons.
  Choice of the Arab had also been unfortunate. The engine had been ordered in considerable numbers as early as 1916, largely on the strength of design figures submitted before it had undergone rigorous testing. In January 1917 the engine had been ordered in quantity from the Auston Motor Company and from Willys-Overland in Canada. When the trials were completed in May that year, the engine was found to have serious cylinder and crankcase design faults, so that final drawings could not be issued until December. Production plans had called for 1,800 engines to be delivered by the end of 1917, but only 81 had been completed. Furthermore, when installed in the Bristol Fighter, it is said that engine life was an average of only four hours due to excessive vibration causing crankshaft failure.
  Because of the much-reduced performance of the Arab engine, it was decided to confine it to F.2Bs entering service with Corps Reconnaissance squadrons in April 1918, and to issue Falcon-powered aircraft to the Fighter and Fighter-Reconnaissance squadrons. This was rescinded after the creation of the Air Ministry on 2 January 1918, and it transpired that Arab-powered aircraft were only used as replacements for second-line units.
  By mid-1918 fifteen squadrons had been equipped with F.2B Fighters. Of these, Nos 11, 48 and 62 were flying primarily fighter patrols, including escort duties, over the Western Front; Nos 20, 22 and 88 Squadrons were performing fighter-reconnaissance duties in France; No 12 was engaged in Corps Reconnaissance (what would later be termed army co-operation), and would be joined by No 9 Squadron in July. Nos 33, 36, 39,'75, 140 and 141 Squadrons were based on airfields in England for home defence against German bombers and airships, and would be joined by No 76 Squadron soon after. Further afield No 34 Squadron was engaged in fighter-reconnaissance on the Italian Front, being joined by No 139 in July. In Palestine No 67 Squadron was flying fighter patrols in aircraft that had formerly been used by No 111 Squadron. One other Squadron, No 35, would begin to equip with Bristol F.2Bs in France, replacing Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8s for army co-operations duties, but was not fully operational before the Armistice in November.
  Before going on to summarise the Bristol Fighter’s peacetime activities, it is necessary to mention some of the numerous experiments undertaken with the aircraft as it underwent a continuous programme of development. Engines which were flown experimentally in the aircraft included the 230hp Siddeley Puma (and a 290hp high-compression version), 200hp Wolseley Viper, 300hp Hispano-Suiza and 200hp RAF 4D; single-bay wings were flown on several test aircraft, and three-bay high aspect ratio wings were also flown, both types in 1923.
  Although strictly outside the scope of this work, extensive plans were laid to build Bristol Fighters in the United States of America (on the recommendation of General Pershing), and with them to equip American forces, as that country had entered the War with scarcely a respectable modern military aeroplane. Unfortunately these plans were long delayed, partly due to an attempt to fit the unsuitable American Liberty 12 engine in the aircraft; various other American engines were tried, including the Liberty 8, Wright H, Curtiss D-12 and a 350hp Packard, but none produced any significant improvement over Frank Barnwell’s original design. In all, some 68 aircraft (including prototypes) were produced in America.

Post-War Service

  The Armistice of November 1918 ended any immediate threat of air attack on Britain, and brought about enormous reductions in her air force, so much so that home-based interceptor fighter squadrons almost entirely disappeared in the post-War cutbacks. The Bristol Fighter, of which the new Royal Air Force possessed no fewer than 1,583 at the end of the War, had shown itself to be an excellent reconnaissance fighter, well suited to the role of army cooperation.
  As the RAF assumed the role of air policing, under international mandate in the Middle East, squadrons equipped with D.H.9s and Bristol F.2Bs were sent out to, or re-formed at numerous foreign stations, many of them with very rudimentary landing strips. The majority of wartime F.2B squadrons remained in being only until 1919 or 1920, the exception being No 20 which, without even returning to Britain from the continent after the Armistice, was posted direct to India for service on the North West Frontier, continuing to fly Bristol Fighters until March 1932 - the longest term of service by an F.2B Squadron.
  It had already been discovered that operating the Falcon-powered fighters in the harsh conditions of heat and dust in the Middle East during the War had resulted in very low serviceability among the aircraft, their engines frequently overheating and quickly wearing out. The Royal Aircraft Establishment (formerly the Factory) at Farnborough undertook a programme of trials to find means by which these problems might be overcome. Early remedies included the simple expedient of cutting extra louvres in the engine cowling to allow unrestricted airflow through the frontal radiator; radiator shutters were removed and, eventually, tropical radiators with coarse matrices were introduced; aircraft thus built or modified became Bristol Fighter Mark Ils, and also carried desert survival equipment.
  In due course aircraft engaged in operations, particularly on the North West Frontier of India, were required to carry up to twelve 20-pound Cooper fragmentation bombs, and this in turn demanded local strengthening of the airframe; these aircraft were termed Mark IIIs. In 1926 further design changes introduced Handley Page slots on the upper wings, revised upper fin and an enlarged, horn-balanced rudder and further strengthening of the undercarriage, aircraft with these modifications being Mark IVs. And all the while the Rolls-Royce Falcon III remained the standard engine.
  At home a total of four army cooperation Squadrons (Nos 2, 4, 13 and 16) continued flying F.2Bs until the late nineteen-twenties, and No 24 Squadron flew them on communications duties. Nos 5,20,28 and 31 were equipped with successive versions in India and on the North West Frontier until the early nineteen-thirties, as Nos 6, 14 and 208 served on various stations throughout the Middle East (Nos 4 and 208 Squadrons were also engaged in the brief activities in Turkey during and after the Chanak crisis of 1922, and No 2 was sent to China for several weeks in 1927 to protect the international settlement at Shanghai).
  The ‘Brisfit’ was a very popular aeroplane among its crews throughout its long service, largely thanks to its excellent Rolls-Royce Falcon engine; it was a sturdy aircraft, capable of withstanding considerable combat damage in war, and rough field conditions before the age of metalled runways.


  Type: Single-engine, two-seat, two-bay biplane army co-operation reconnaissance fighter.
  Manufacturers (in Britain): The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co Ltd (Bristol Aeroplane Co Ltd), Filton and Brislington, Bristol; Sir W G Armstrong, Whitworth & Co Ltd, Newcastle-upon-Tyne; The Gloucestershire Aircraft Co Ltd, Cheltenham; Harris & Sheldon Ltd, Birmingham; Marshall & Sons, Gainsborough; National Aircraft Factory No 3, Aintree, Liverpool; Angus Sanderson & Co, Newcastle-upon-Tyne; The Standard Motor Co Ltd, Coventry; The Austin Motor Co (1914) Ltd, Birmingham.
  Air Ministry Specification: Spec 21/21 covered post-War re-building and reconditioning of wartime aircraft.
  Powerplant: One 190hp Rolls-Royce Falcon I twelve-cylinder liquid-cooled in-line engine; 220hp Falcon II; 275hp Falcon III; 200hp Sunbeam Arab; 200hp Hispano-Suiza; 300hp Hispano-Suiza; 230hp Siddeley Puma; 290hp Siddeley Puma (high compression); 200hp RAF 4D; 200hp Wolseley W4A Viper; 290hp Liberty 8; 400hp Liberty 12.
  Structure: All-wooden construction with ply and fabric covering.
  Dimensions: (Falcon) Span, 39ft 3in; length, 25ft 10in; height, 9ft 9in; wing area, 405.6 sq ft.
  Weights: (Falcon III) Tare, 1,934lb; all-up, 2,779lb.
  Performance: (Falcon III) Max speed, 126 mph at sea level, 105 mph at 15,000 ft; climb to 10,000ft, 11min 15 sec; service ceiling, 20,000ft; endurance, 3 hr.
  Armament: One fixed, synchronized 0.303in Vickers machine gun mounted centrally beneath nose cowling with Constantinesco CC interrupter gear, and one or two Lewis guns on rear cockpit Scarff ring; later aircraft could carry up to twelve 20lb Cooper fragmentation bombs under the lower wings.
  Prototypes: See Bristol F.2A
  Production: (in Britain) Total of 5,329 built. (Bristol, 3,451: A7101-A7300, Bl 101-B1350, C751-C1050, C4601-C4900, D7801-D8100, E2151-E2650, E5253-E5308, F4271-F4970, H1240-H1707, J6586-J6800 (Mk II), J7617-J7699 (Mk II), J8242-J8291 (Mk III), J8429- J8458 (Mk III); Gloster, 550: C9836-C9985, E9507-E9656, H834-H1083; Austins, four known: H6O55-H6O58; Armstrong, Whitworth, 250: E1901-E2150; Harris & Sheldon, 100: F5074-F5173; Marshalls, 150: D2626-D2775; NAF No 3, 500: D2126-D2625; Angus Sanderson, 250: E2651-E2900; Standard Motors, 74: E5179-E5252.)
  Summary of RFC and RAF Service: Bristol F.2Bs equipped Nos 9, 11, 12, 20, 22, 48, 62 and 88 Squadrons, and also served with Nos 4, 10, 12, 15, 16 and 35 Squadrons, Western Front; Nos 33,36, 39,76,140 and 141 Squadrons, Home Defence; equipped No 67 Squadron (later No 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps) and flew with No 111 Squadron in Palestine; Nos 34 and 139 Squadrons, Italian Front. Post-War, F.2Bs equipped Nos 2, 4, 13, 16 and 24 Squadrons at home; Nos 100 and 105 Squadrons in Ireland, 1918-1922; No 8 Squadron, Belgium, 1918-1920; Nos 5, 20, 28, 31 and 114 Squadrons in India; Nos 6, 14 and 208 Squadrons in Middle East.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


BRISTOL F.2A (FIGHTER) UK

  Known by the appellation of "Fighter" almost from its birth, the F.2 series of two-seat fighter-reconnaissance aircraft designed by Frank Barnwell was to join the ranks of the true immortals of World War I. Designed around the new 190 hp Rolls-Royce 12-cylinder water-cooled engine, but with provision for the alternative installation of the 150 hp eight-cylinder Hispano-Suiza, the F.2A had a single forward-firing synchronised 0.303-in (7,7-mm) Vickers gun and a Lewis gun of the same calibre on a Scarff ring in the rear cockpit. The first of two prototypes was flown on 9 September 1916, a production contract for 50 aircraft having been placed 12 days earlier, on 28 August. Deliveries began early in 1917, but initial operational experience in April 1917 was disappointing, thanks to the use of incorrect combat techniques. Confidence in the type was restored when newly-evolved methods were proved successful. Meanwhile, the improved F.2B had been evolved, the 51st and subsequent production aircraft being of this standard, and delivery of the F.2B resulting in the withdrawal from frontline use of the F.2A.

Max speed, 110.mph (177 km/h) at sea level, 106 mph (171 km/h) at 5,0 ft (1 525m).
Time to 5,000 ft (1 525m), 5.45 min.
Endurance, 3 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,727 lb (783 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,667 lb (1210 kg).
Span, 39 ft 3 in (11,96 m).
Length, 25 ft 10 in (7,87 m).
Height, 9 ft 6 in (2,89 m).
Wing area, 389 sq ft (36,14 m2).


  
BRISTOL F.2B (FIGHTER) UK

  The F.2B two-seat fighter-reconnaissance aircraft differed from the F.2A in having a revised centre fuselage to provide improved pilot view, an enlarged fuel tank, increased ammunition capacity for the synchronised Vickers gun and a modified lower wing affording a small increase in gross area. New horizontal tail surfaces of greater span and increased aspect ratio were introduced, and after the first 150 F.2Bs had been delivered with the 190 hp Rolls-Royce engine - by this time designated Falcon I - the 220 hp Falcon II was adopted, this being succeeded in turn by the 275 hp Falcon III which powered the majority of the F.2Bs built. F.2B deliveries began on 13 April 1917, and the success of this type led to the decision to re-equip all RFC fighter-reconnaissance squadrons with F.2Bs. Production continued, in the event, until September 1919, by which time a total number of 4,747 had been completed, 3,126 of these by the parent company. Of the final batch, 153 were delivered with the 200 hp Sunbeam Arab engine and 18 with the 230 hp Siddeley Puma. When the RAF was re-established on a peacetime footing, the F.2B was adopted as standard for the army co-operation role and reinstated in production for this task as the Mk II, others being refurbished to similar standards. Fifty structurally revised aircraft delivered in 1926 were designated as Mk IIIs, all surviving aircraft of this mark being converted in 1928 as Mk IVs. The following data relate to the Falcon III-powered F.2B of 1918.

Max speed, 123 mph (198 km/h) at 5,000 ft (1525 m), 113 mph (182 km/h) at 10,000 ft (3 050 m).
Time to 10,000 ft (3050 m), 11.85 min.
Empty weight, 1,930 lb (875 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,848 lb (1292 kg).
Span, 39 ft 3 in (11,96 m).
Length, 25 ft 10 in (7,87 m).
Height, 9 ft 9 in (2,97 m).
Wing area, 405.6 sq ft (37,68 m2).


E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918


00. Versuchs- und Beuteflugzeuge (Опытные и трофейные самолеты)
00.58 Bristol F.2b Fighter (englisch) RR 275
00.75 Bristol F.2b Fighter D.8075 (englisch) RR 275
00.80 Bristol F.2b Fighter D.8069 (englisch) RR 275
00.83 Bristol F.2b Fighter D.7966 (englisch) RR 275


A.Jackson British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 (Putnam)


Bristol Fighter

  The Bristol F.2B Fighter was designed by the late Capt. F. S. Barnwell in 1916, and built in the standard manner of the period with rectangular section fabric-covered fuselage of wire-braced spruce longerons and cross struts. The mainplanes were of conventional two-spar, two-bay design with the lower wing clear of the fuselage, which was thus in a mid-gap position. Although some Fighters were retained as standard equipment for the peace-time R.A.F., large numbers were taken over, dismantled and stored by the Aircraft Disposal Co. Ltd. in 1919-20. Following complete overhauls to airframe and engines, they emerged in a steady trickle from the Croydon factory as virtually new aeroplanes to be sold all over the world for civil and military purposes. They were fitted with either the Falcon III or 300-h.p. Hispano-Suiza engines, and at the end of 1923 were retrospectively designated Type 14 and Type 17 respectively by the designer, by which time 22 had been registered as British civil aircraft. Handley Page Ltd. were the first to own ‘Brisfits’, G-EASH, ’SU and ’SV with Hispano engines, being registered in April 1920, and a fourth, G-EAWA, in the following November. They were in fact the demonstration aircraft of the H.P. controlled Aircraft Disposal Co. Ltd. and were up for sale at L800 each. Although the initial outlay was low, running costs were excessive, and none were sold on the home market, the majority of the British machines carrying civil marks purely for test flying and delivery flights to the Belgian Air Force. There were two Hispano-engined exceptions, the first of which, G-EBCN, a new aircraft, later styled Type 17A, was built by the Bristol Aeroplane Co. Ltd. in 1922 and fitted with a larger fin and a modified undercarriage using oleo legs instead of bungee rubber shock-absorbers. After demonstration in Norway and Belgium it was eventually sold to the Belgian firm SABCA, together with 15 other certificated but unregistered Fighters and a licence to build further aircraft of the type for the Belgian Government. The other exception was G-EBIO, an A.D.C. demonstration machine which appeared in 1923 and was a common sight at Croydon and in Europe for many years, until sold to F./Lt. D. V. Ivins in August 1931. He used it for week-end trips from Jersey, arriving at Heston late on Friday afternoons, and in May 1932 flew it in the Morning Post Race from Heston round the Eastern Counties. The veteran averaged 85 m.p.h., but proved no match for the light aircraft, and came tenth. At the opening of Speke Airport on 1 July 1933, however, honour was satisfied when Ivins flew it to victory at 114-25 m.p.h. in the race to Blackpool and back.
  A new era in the history of the type began in 1922, when 60 Army Co-operation Mk.IIs were built at Filton for the R.A.F., and all wartime Mk.Is returning to the works for reconditioning were modified up to the same standard. In 1926-27, 80 Mk.III, or Type 96, were also built, of which 30 were dual-control trainers, and after March 1927 all Mk.IIs coming up for reconditioning were also converted into Mk.IIIs. The modification programme reached its final stage in July 1928, when a number were strengthened and fitted with Handley Page auto slots, long-travel undercarriages, cambered fins and horn balanced rudders for the R.A.F. overseas, while some were converted to dual control for the University Air Squadrons. These were designated Mk.IV, or Type 96A, and in 1931, when all marks were declared obsolete, they were offered for public sale, resulting in the appearance of a further 21 as British civil aircraft. The first of these, G-ABXA, was equipped as a tanker and refuelled the Saro Windhover in the air during Mrs. Victor Bruce’s unsuccessful attempt on the world’s endurance record in August 1932. A few were privately owned, notably G-ABXV by the Hon. John Grimston and G-ACAC by W. L. Handley, the others including G-ABYF, used for banner towing, and ’YT, in which Cinque Ports Club instructor K. K. Brown came second in the 1933 Folkestone Trophy Race. In 1933 Commercial Airways (Essex) Ltd. planned an all-Bristol Fighter flying school at Abridge, Essex, but although a quantity of major components was delivered by a local dealer, of the five registered, only the Hanworth-overhauled G-ABZG materialized.
  C. P. B. Ogilvie, well-known collector of veteran aircraft, acquired two machines which were registered G-ADJR and G-AEPH. The former was made airworthy at Heston and sold in August 1935 to London Film Productions Ltd., for whom it was flown by Nigel Tangye as a camera ship. It was on this machine that he gave his memorable aerobatic display at the International Meeting at Lympne in 1935. With the machine in dark-green camouflage and numbered 4, he repeated his performance in the old crocks event at the 1936 Hendon R.A.F. Display. When the Ogilvie collection moved to Watford after the Second World War, the would-be G-AEPH went with it, and some years later was acquired by the Shuttleworth Trust, for which it was rebuilt and subsequently maintained by the makers. After restoration as nearly as possible to Mk.II standard, complete with Scarff ring and genuine R.A.F. serial D8096, it took the air again on 14 February 1951, flown by Bristol’s chief test pilot, A. J. Pegg. It thereafter made annual flying appearances at Royal Aeronautical Society Garden Parties and other functions. The old crocks event at the 1937 R.A.F. Display also boasted a Bristol Fighter, this time an all-silver Mk. IV F4587 flown by Sqn. Ldr. N. R. Buckle, who in 1938, with no more displays at which to fly it, registered it as a private machine G-AFHJ but unfortunately it was destroyed during the war.

SPECIFICATION
Manufacturers: The British and Colonial Aircraft Co. Ltd., Filton, Bristol.
Power Plant (Types 14, 96 and 96A): One 275-h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon III.
Dimensions: Span, 39 ft. 3 in. Length, 25 ft. 10 in. Height, 9 ft. 4 in. Wing area, 405-6 sq. ft.
Weights: Tare weight, 1,934 lb. All-up weight, 2,800 lb.
Performance: Maximum speed, 123 m.p.h. Initial climb, 1,200 ft./min. Ceiling, 21,500 ft.


Журнал Flight


Flight, January 23, 1919.

"MILESTONES"

The Bristol Fighter

  Probably the best known of the Bristol products during the War is the Fighter (F2B). This machine has been extensively used for fighting, reconnaissance, etc., and will be more familiar to readers of "FLIGHT" than, probably, any of the other Bristol types. The impression one receives on examining the F2B is that it was designed in the first instance for the purpose for which it was intended, and not merely designed from the aero-dynamical point of view and afterwards rigged up for certain purposes, for which machines happened to be required. There is a decided difference between the two methods. Thus it will be observed that the designer quite evidently had in his mind to provide as free a field aft as possible, and to this end he chose to flatten the fuselage out to a horizontal knifes edge, bringing the various tail members down lower out of the way of the gun. Also the flat top of the body bears evidence of this intention. Again, it was desired to place the gunner and pilot high in relation to the top plane, and to do this would have meant, with the ordinary arrangement, a very deep body with consequent large maximum cross-sectional area. To avoid this the lower plane is not attached to the body, but runs right underneath and some distance below the bottom of the fuselage. This arrangement has resulted in a somewhat more complicated undercarriage attachment, but everything considered, there is little doubt that it has been worth while.
  From the table it will be seen that the performance of the F2B with Rolls-Royce "Falcon" engine is very good indeed. A feature of this machine which will not be found in the table and which cannot be put in table form owing to the absence of any standard of comparison, is the excellent stability of this machine. We are informed by pilots that although she is not in the least sluggish on the controls the Bristol Fighter is endowed with a remarkable amount of inherent stability, which renders her particularly easy to fly. It would, therefore, appear that Capt. Barnwell has managed to find the solution to the problem of good stability combined with ease of control, a fact which should be extremely valuable for post-war aeroplanes.

В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Бристоль "Файтер", 22-й дивизион RFC, пилот - лейтенант Дж.В.Балмер, март 1917г.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Бристоль F.2B
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
A Bristol-built, Falcon-engined F.2B Fighter on the strength of No 139 Sqn in Italy, August 1918.
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Двухместный истребитель Бристоль F.2B "Файтер" 139-го эскадрона RAF (Итальянский фронт, 1917г.)
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
F.2B "Файтер" 11-го эскадрона RAF - пилот Эндрю Мак Кивер, стрелок Пауэлл (1917г.)
А.Шепс - Самолеты Первой мировой войны. Страны Антанты
Трофейный F.2B "Файтер", использовавшийся ВВС Австро-Венгрии (1918г.)
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Бристоль "Файтер", захваченный Красной армией у поляков в октябре 1920г. и включенный в состав 2-го истребительного авиаотряда РККВФ.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
First prototype F.2A A3303 with original side radiators at Filton in September 1916.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The prototype Bristol F.2A Fighter (A3303) on the landing ground at the Central Flying School at Upavon during September of 1916
F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
The first Bristol F.2A prototype, A3303, at about the time of its first flight on 9 September 1916, powered by a 190hp Rolls-Royce Falcon I with vertical radiators on the sides of the nose. This aircraft featured wing-root endplates and wingtips reminiscent of the B.E.2, of which Bristol had produced so many.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The F.2A prototype (A3303) is prepared for take off at Orfordness
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A3303 on the grass at Upavon after it was modified with the round radiator and deeper cowling. At this time the aircraft had no gun mounting in the observer's cockpit
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The development of the much-loved two-seat Bristol F 2B fighter, or 'Brisfit' for short, commenced during March 1916 around a 120hp Beardmore. Clearly, with this engine, the design was in serious danger of being underpowered and in July 1916, Bristol's Frank Barnwell was delighted to be offered the use of both the 150hp Hispano-Suiza and the 190hp Rolls-Royce Falcon to be fitted in his two Bristol F 2A prototypes for comparative testing. The first of these, serial no A 3303, seen here in its unfamiliar initial form, was fitted with the Rolls-Royce engine and first flew on 9 September 1916. By now, because of the unavailability of the Hispano-Suiza unit, it had already been decided to order 50 Falcon-powered production F 2As, delivery of which commenced on 20 December 1916. Even before this contract was completed a further 200 of the improved F 2B version were ordered, deliveries of which started on 13 April 1917. In the interim, No 48 Squadron, RFC, had been formed with F 2As, the unit going into action against the Albatros D IIIs of Manfred von Ricthofen's Jasta 11 on 5 April 1917. Using their F 2As quite inappropriately as gun platforms for their observers, No 48 Squadron took a mauling with the loss of four F 2As. Indeed, more losses were to follow during most of April until No 48's pilots realised the best way to fight with a 'Brisfit' was to use it as a single seater. From this point, the fortunes of the 'Brisfit' became legendary. No 11 Squadron, the first unit to form with F 2Bs, had one crew that downed 30 enemy aircraft between June 1917 and January 1918. By July 1917, it had been decided to standardise around the F 2B for all RFC fighter reconnaissance and corps reconnaissance squadrons. When equipped with the 275hp Rolls-Royce Falcon III, the top level speed of the F 2B was 125mph at sea level, the machine having a ceiling of 20.000 feet. The F 2B's armament comprised a single fixed Vickers gun for the pilot, along with one or two flexibly mounted Lewis guns for the observer. Besides this, the F 2B could carry an up to 240lb bomb load. Of the 5,250 F 2Bs ordered at the time of the Armistice, some 3.101 had been completed by the end of 1918. The F 2B also engendered interest in America, with a 300hp Hispano-Suiza powered version being proposed, but due to the inappropriate installation of a 400hp Liberty at the Curtiss plant, followed by the machine crashing, US interest waned until McCook Field demonstrated where the trouble lay, leading to the post-war production of 40 Hispano-Suiza-powered Dayton Wright-built F 2Bs.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
A3303 at Upavon with nose radiator fitted and lower wing-root end-plates removed.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The first F.2A prototype (A3303) at the experimental armament center at Orfordness
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
THE ROYAL VISIT TO THE BRITISH WESTERN FRONT. - Queen Mary interested in one of our aeroplanes.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The second F.2A prototype at Filton in December of 1916
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Three-quarter Rear View of second prototype Bristol F.2A "Fighter" with 150 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. Production F.2As adopted the 190 h.p. Rolls-Royce Falcon engine.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Second prototype of the Bristol F.2A which was powered by a 150 hp Hispano Suiza engine, only 50 aircraft of this type being built.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Second F.2A A3304 at Filton in December 1916, with longerons and lower centre section modified to F.2B standard.
Журнал - Flight за 1917 г.
In captivity. - A Bristol biplane captured by the Germans.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
During 1916 a number of new types were in their design and development stage: such was the Bristol F2A, another machine seen as a replacement for the BE2c. The type first flew in September 1916 and initial deliveries were made before the end of the year. 48 Squadron was the only fully equipped unit but the type led to the F2B - one of the best general-purpose aircraft of the war and one that had a lengthy post-war career.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This F.2B (A7106) was powered by a 190 hp Rolls Roys Falcon I engine and was part of the first production batch
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This Falcon I powered F.2B (A7106) was built by the Bristols and is known to have been at No 8 Aircraft Acceptance Park, at Lympne during 1917
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
At one time this F.2B (A-7107) served with No 48 Squadron in France. It later flew with the Wireless Training School at Biggin Hill, doing pioneer experimental radio work
F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
The second F.2B to be fitted with a Rolls-Royce Falcon III engine, A7183 from the first production batch built by The British (A Colonial Aeroplane Company. This aircraft was used primarily for engine testing.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Another F.2B from the first production batch, A7183 carried navigation lights above the lower wing outboard of the struts and on the rudder trailing edge. The aircraft was at Orfordness in February of 1918
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This early production F.2A on the landing ground at Ayr, Scotland during April of 1917 was from the first production batch. It was powered by a 190 hp Falcon I engine
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
The image of the F 2B chosen here is of serial no A 7231, captured by FI Abt 210 near Cambrai, during the summer of 1917.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This F.2B (A7238) carries the name TIGER on the fuselage in White. The aircraft has no wheel cover over the starboard wheel. It served at Rendcombe during July of 1918 and was later transferred to No 44 Training Squadron of that same year
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Bristol Fighter with Lieutenant CWM Thompson of 22 Squadron standing by it
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
F.2B B1134 was assigned to No 35 Squadron after having served with No 48 Squadron which had received the type in March of 1917
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This F.2B (B1153) was powered by a 220 hp liquid cooled 12 cylinder Rolls-Royce Falcon II engine
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
To solve the engine shortage problem, an number of F.2Bs were tested during the war with different engines. This F.2B (B1200) at the experimental establishment at Marlesham Beath in September of 1918 was powered by a 200 hp Wolsey Viper liquid cooled engine
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The shape of the cowling on this F.2B (B1206) indicates that it was powered by the 230 hp Siddeley Puma liquid cooled engine
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
It is uncertain whether the White marking just forward of the fuselage roundel on this F.2B (B1208) is the recognition marking of No 20 Squadron or the aircraft's side number (1)
F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
F.2B night-fighter B1252 of No. 39 Sqn, showing wing-tip lights and pilot's ring-sight.
An F.2B of a Home Defence Squadron in 1918; this aircraft is inscribed ‘Presented by Maharajah Bahadur Sir Rameswar Singh of Darbhanga, No. 2 “The Lord Chelmsford’”.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
F.2B C906 with Arab and S.E.5a radiator at Filton in April 1918.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
Fig. 29. - Two-seater fighter. Bristol Rolls-Royce.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Bristol Fighter of 11 Squadron; the unit re-equipped with this type in June 1917, giving up its FE2bs.
This F.2B (C-4814) of No 19 Squadron carries an early style of squadron recognition markings.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Three-quarter Rear View of the Bristol F.2B Two-seater Fighter
P.Lewis - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
The Bristol F.2B, among the most successful of the 1914-18 two-seat fighters.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
The Bristol fighter, F2 B.
H.King - Armament of British Aircraft /Putnam/
Bristol Fighter F2B, showing port for Vickers gun above radiator, sight attachments on upper centre-section. Scarff ring-mounting, and bomb rails for two 20-lb carriers beneath lower wings.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
In January 1918 Captain Alan P.Maclean and Lieutenant Frederick H. Cantlon, MC, on No.11 Squadron, RFC, posed in Bristol F.2B C.4844, which they had named 'Rickadamdoo'. They were flying this aircraft when they shot down by Jagdgeschwader I aircraft on 18 March 1918
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
While a ground crewmen holds its tail down, the pilot of this F.2B (D2222) runs up the engine. The aircraft was fitted with a 200 hp Sunbeam Arab engine and it was one of a batch of F.2Bs built by the National Aircraft Factory at Alntree, Liverpool
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The small hole in the top of the radiator is the gun port for the pilot's .303 Vickers machine gun. The White stripes around the rear fuselage were recognition markings used by No 139 Squadron in Italy during late 1918
E.Hauke, W.Schroeder, B.Totschinger - Die Flugzeuge der k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe und Seeflieger 1914-1918
Bristol F.2b Fighter, Nummer D-7966, Flugfeld Gardolo, spätere Flugzeugnummer 00.83
Истребитель Bristol F.2b, номер D-7966, аэродром Гардоло, позже самолет номер 00.83
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This F.2B (D7966) was issued to No 139 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps on 16 August 1918. The aircraft was lost in combat with Austrian forces some seven days later and the crew, Lts C.E.G.Gill and T.Newey were taken prisoners of war
F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
A Bristol F.2B Fighter of No 139 Squadron, D8084 ‘S’, at Villaverla on the Italian Front in 1918; formed from ‘Z’ Flight of No 34 Squadron, No 139 Squadron destroyed 27 enemy aircraft in only four months.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
The beautifully restored Bristol F.2B, painted as D8096, is maintained in flying condition by the Shuttleworth Trust at Old Warden, Bedfordshire; it is here shown at Filton.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
The Shuttleworth Trust's veteran F.2B flying at Filton in July, 1961.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
The Shuttleworth Trust’s Fighter Mk.II D8096, which in 1936 was earmarked for civil conversion to G-AEPH. Photograph taken at Filton on 5 April 1957.
O.Tapper - Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913 /Putnam/
F.2B built by Armstrong Whitworth and fitted with Puma at Elswick Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 1918. In 1918 the Bristol Fighter took the place of the F.K.8 in the Gosforth factory.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Bristol Fighter of 48 Squadron, brought down 20 September, the crew being captured
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Major B.E.Baker, DSO, MC, AFC, a very successful Bristol Fighter pilot who served with 48 Squadron in 1917. He is seen here the following year in England whilst serving with 141 (Home Defence) Squadron. He later became Air Marshal Sir Brian Baker
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
BURGATE was flown in France by "L" Flight on long distance artillery spotting duties
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
F.2B Mk IV F4587 converted from Mk II in May 1928; this aeroplane was flown in the 1937 R.A.F. Display at Hendon and registered G-AFHJ in 1938, but was destroyed during the war.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This Bristol F.2B (F4844) is a factory-fresh machine from a production batch of seven hundred produced by Bristol
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Veteran F.2B F4891 on show at Filton in September 1919.
C.Barnes - Handley Page Aircraft since 1907 /Putnam/
Tom Harry England ready to take off with Harold Bolas to demonstrate the automatic slot on Bristol Fighter F4967 at Cricklewood on 18 November, 1927, with Col Seely at port wingtip.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This F.2B (H6058) was fitted with a 240 hp Siddeley Puma engine and was, along with F.2B (H6055) were the only F.2Bs known to have been built by the Austin Motor Company, although a batch of six hundred were ordered on 25 September 1918
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Filton-built F.2B P30 with the first American 300 hp Hispano-Suiza, at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, in 1918.
F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
J6586 was the first Bristol Fighter Mark II, which made its first flight in December 1920; it underwent trials at Martlesham Heath with the tropical radiator in 1921 and was converted to a dual-control trainer in 1924.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
F.2B Mk II J6790 with desert wheels and oleo undercarriage for service trials; Filton 1920.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
F.2B Mk II J6721 of the R.A.E., with steel biconvex (R.A.F. 34) wings and evaporative cooling; Farnborough, January 1930.
P.Jarrett, K.Munson - Biplane to Monoplane: Aircraft Development, 1919-39 /Putnam/
Frank Barnwell's F2B, the famous Bristol Fighter, typifies the state of the art in 1917: a relatively efficient 275hp Rolls-Royce Falcon engine dragging lightly loaded biplane wings and a mass of struts, wires and other excrescences behind it. This Mk.II, with tropical equipment and the Handley Page automatic slats fitted in 1928, had a maximum speed of only 110mph (177km/h).
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
F.2B Mk III J8251 at Filton in October 1926.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
An example of the Fighter Mk III from the 1926 production batch, with structural revisions.
O.Thetford - Aircraft of the Royal Air Force since 1918 /Putnam/
Bristol Fighter III (dual) (J 8257) Oxford U.A.S.
C.Barnes - Handley Page Aircraft since 1907 /Putnam/
Wing Commander Vernon Brown explains the auto-slot to members of Cambridge University Air Squadron during summer training at Old Sarum in 1929.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Летающие экземпляры F.2B нередко участвуют в различных авиашоу.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A Bristol Two-seater Fighter and Reconnaissance Machine in the air
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
A Patrol of Bristol Fighters starting in Formation
P.Jarrett, K.Munson - Biplane to Monoplane: Aircraft Development, 1919-39 /Putnam/
One of the earliest uses of air transport was the carriage of casualties. Here, a Bristol Fighter has been pressed into service in the Middle East to carry a casualty encased in the specially designed Neil Robertson stretcher; strapped to the rear fuselage top-decking.
C.Barnes - Handley Page Aircraft since 1907 /Putnam/
Ross Smith’s O/400 C9861 with two Bristol Fighters of No.1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps, at Haifa after the capture of Damascus in October 1918.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This F.2b was on the landing ground at Malincourt on the day that the First World War ended, 11 November 1918. The aircraft was powered by a Sunbeam Arab liquid cooled engine and was assigned to "B" Flight on No 8 Squadron
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
F.2B of No. 22 Sqn at Vert Galand on 1 April 1918, the birthday of the R.A.F.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
A famous R.A.F. Squadron on the British Western Front in France during the present German offensive. At least three enemy machines have been brought down by every pilot and observer in the above group.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This F.2B of No 98 Squadron's Long Range Reconnaissance flight nosed over after loosing a wheel on landing. The hole in the underside is the opening for the vertical camera which was controlled by the observer/gunner
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This F.2B of No 111 Squadron had the fabric on the rear fuselage pulled lose. The squadron operated a detachment of Bristol F.2Bs from Sarona, Palestine during late 1917
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This Bristol Fighter was reportedly assigned to No 141 (Home Defence) Squadron. It is unclear why the aircraft had the fuselage and fin covered in what appears to be German printed Lozenge camouflage fabric
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
The 230 hp Sunbeam Arab engine differed from the Falcon in a number of ways including the use of front side mounted radiator shutters and a revised exhaust system with a long down sloping exhaust stack
L.Andersson - Soviet Aircraft and Aviation 1917-1941 /Putnam/
One Bristol F.2B Fighter was captured during the Civil War and one was purchased from Great Britain for evaluation during 1922. Both served as trainers until withdrawn from use in 1925.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
A group of officers inspect a Bristol F.2B of No 39 (Home Defence) Squadron at North Weald, Essex. The squadron was based here to intercept German Gotha bombers. The officer looking into the observer's cockpit is GEN T.C.R.Biggins, General Officer Commanding (GOC) of No 6 Brigade
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This F.2B has twin .303 inch Lewis machine guns mounted above the upper wing center section and a twin Lewis mount in the observer's cockpit. It is believed that this F.2B was a night fighter assigned to No 39 (Home Defence) Squadron
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Australian CAPT Ross Smith, who later became a long distance flyer, mans the forward cockpit of an F.2B of No 1 (Australian) Squadron, while his gunner LT E A Mustard, mans the twin .303 Lewis machine gins in the rear cockpit
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Bristol Fighter with Capt. Ross Smith and Lt. E.A. Munster of 1 (Australian) Squadron - this unit had operated Bristits in the Middle East from February 1918.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
This Royal Flying Corps gunner demonstrates the use of a .303 inch Lewis machine gun in the rear cockpit of an F.2B. The gun is mounted on a Scraff ring mount and is equipped with a Norman sight. The gunner carried seven ninty-seven round drum magazines in the rear cockpit
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны

H.King - Armament of British Aircraft /Putnam/
A Browning Model 1918, M1, Cal .30 aircraft machine-gun (top) is shown installed in a Bristol Fighter of the RAF. The original photographs have been somewhat "doctored", but there is no doubting the authenticity of the installation.
C.Owers - Hansa-Brandenburg Aircraft of WWI. Volume 1 - Landplanes /Centennial Perspective/ (1)
The solitary Brandenburg C.I in this lineup of Polish Nieuport and Bristol Fighters has the old rudder markings.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Rigging a 300 hp Hispano-Suiza engined Bristol Fighter for Spain, Filron 1924.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
"STILL GOING STRONG": The short life of an aeroplane is a weapon much beloved by those who refuse to believe in the possibilities of commercial aviation. As a matter of fact, with reasonable care, the life of a well-built machine is much longer than is generally thought. By way of an example, we publish above a photograph of a Bristol Fighter which has been in continuous commission on the fighting front and in Holland for over two years without, we are assured, the expenditure of a single penny on renewals or repairs. Recently this machine paid a visit to this country, piloted by the famous Dutch pilot, Versteegh, who was accompanied by another Dutch officer. While in this country the machine paid several flying visits to places in various parts of the country, including its old home and birthplace at Filton, Bristol.
P.Bowers - Curtiss Aircraft 1907-1947 /Putnam/
The Curtiss-built version of the British Bristol Fighter failed because the American Liberty engine was too heavy for it.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
R.F.C. SALVAGE WORK. - Renovating and re-assembling aeroplanes.
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
The Hispano engined Fighter Type 17A built for the Belgian Government in 1924.
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
G-ACFP, a Fighter Mk.IV conversion owned by Empire Air Services, after the day's passenger flights at Southend, August 1933.
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Bristol F.2B Fighter
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - These are all drawn to a uniform scale, the scale being the same as that of the D.H. Milestones, published on January 9.
Журнал - Flight за 1919 г.
PLAN VIEWS OF THE BRISTOL MACHINES. - The scale to which these are drawn is the same as that of the D.H. machines previously published.
F.Mason - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
Bristol Type 12 F.2A
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
Bristol F.2B with Rolls-Royce Falcon engine.
C.Barnes - Bristol Aircraft since 1910 /Putnam/
Bristol Fighter F.2B Mk.II
P.Lewis - The British Fighter since 1912 /Putnam/
Bristol Fighter Mk.III
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.1 /Putnam/
Bristol Type 96A
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Bristol F.2B