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Centennial Perspective
C.Owers
Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.7: Postwar
452

C.Owers - Fokker Aircraft of WWI. Vol.7: Postwar /Centennial Perspective/ (67)

Kalidjati airport, Netherlands Easts Indies (now Indonesia). KNIL Avros 504 trainers, de Havilland D.H.9 bombers and Fokker D.VII trainers on the field. The cat emblem appears on the rudder of at least two of the D.H.9 bombers.
D.VII No 13 leads this line-up. An Avro 504K is at the far end of the line.
British and German staff with Fokker D.VII post-Armistice. Appears to be an Albatros built machine. De Havilland D.H.9 in background.
Kalidjati airport, Netherlands Easts Indies (now Indonesia). KNIL Avros 504 trainers, de Havilland D.H.9 bombers and Fokker D.VII trainers on the field. The cat emblem appears on the rudder of at least two of the D.H.9 bombers.
Gift aircraft that the Australian Flying Corps used in Australia during WWI.
Given the number of people who saw the display of the German aircraft brought back to Australia in the displays in Melbourne. Victoria, and Adelaide, South Australia, the paucity of photographs of these aircraft is hard to understand. This page from The Australasian of 26 June 1920, shows the Gift De Havilland D.H.9a of the Australian Air Corps.
This photo of 6810/18 is thought to have been taken soon after the war, and this time a Fokker-built rudder is installed, while the tail fin appears to be an Albatros-built component. This particular aircraft survives to this day, and is exhibited as the only unrestored surviving Fokker D.VII at the Lac-Brome Museum in Knowlton, Canada.
Note the Imperial Gift De Havilland D.H.9a in the background. Canada received 12 D.H.9a bombers to form an airforce.
The RAF F.E.2b that the Australian Flying Corps used in Australia during WWI.
B.E.2e that the Australian Flying Corps used in Australia during WWI.
A D.VII and a S.E.5a line-up before shooting a scene. The camera mounted on the back of the D.VII was one of the ways that the aerial sequences in Hell's Angels have seldom been equaled. (via late H Woodman)
Fokker D.VII F 7744/18 with the 25th Aero Squadron, Toul, post-Armistice. The Squadron's S.E.5a fighters are in the background.
Fokker D.VII F 7744/18 with the 25th Aero Squadron, Toul, post-Armistice. The Squadron's S.E.5a fighters are in the background.
8539/18 leads the line-up of the three Fokker D.VII fighters at Rockwell Field before leaving on their Victory Loan Flying Circus tour of the far west, April-May 1919. An SE-5a and Curtiss Jenny are at the end of the line-up.
Given the number of people who saw the display of the German aircraft brought back to Australia in the displays in Melbourne. Victoria, and Adelaide, South Australia, the paucity of photographs of these aircraft is hard to understand. This page from The Australasian of 26 June 1920, shows the Ross & Keith Smith's Vickers Vimy with a Deperdussin monoplane trainer.
The Vickers Vimy, the first aircraft to fly from the UK to Australia, was always the centre piece of any articles on the exhibition.
The semi-permanent display at the Exhibition Building in Melbourne. The Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 8371/18 is surrounded by aerial bombs with the Vickers Vimy and a Junkers monoplane wing in the background. (AWM photo)
D.F.W. C.V
Czechoslovakia
  
  After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in October 1918, the newly formed Czechoslovakia found many Fokker types in its new territory. 198 decommissioned aircraft were found at Plana near Pilsen, where Fligermaterialdepot IV operated, there was a warehouse of discarded Austro-Hungarian aviation material. Amongst the 198 aircraft were the following Fokker types:
  Fokker A.III Type M 14: 03.45, 03.47 and 03.50.
  Fokker A.III type E.I: 03.51
  Fokker B.I type M 7; 03.01, 03.02, 03.06 to 03.12, 03.25, 03.27 and 03.28.
  Fokker B.I type M 10; 03.17, 03.18 and 03.32.
  Fokker B.II type M 17: 03.55, 03.57 to 03.61, 03.69. 03.76 and 03.80.
  03.08 was sent on 3 November 1919 the High Technical School at Brno as a teaching aid. 03.25 was given to the school at Cheb as a ground instructional airframe, it had never been flown. It was deleted on 10 August 1921.
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Switzerland
  
  The first Fokker to enter Swiss service was a D.II fighter. This machine came down in Swiss territory on 13 October 1916, after the pilot, Oblt Otto Desloch, was lost due to bad weather. He made an emergency landing near Solothurn. This modern fighter was a valuable addition to the Swiss air component. It remained in service until the middle of 1921, serving under the serial No. 62. In June 1921 the sports pilot Gottfried Batt acquired the plane, which in August became CH-55 on the civil register. Herr Batt emigrated to the USA in January 1923. CH-55 remained at Dubendorf and was struck from the register in October 1923, whereupon it was scrapped
Bad landing Fokker D.V 2773/16 '29' trainer from Kampfeinsitzerschule Warschau-Mokotow surrounded by Polish soldiers fighting for the Central Powers. This plane and the Russian Voisin captured by soldiers from the Polish Legions were to become the nucleus of the Polish Aviation. Unfortunately, due to strong protests by the German command, both planes were returned to the Germans; 1915-1916 turned out to be too early for such ideas...
Czechoslovakia
  
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  In January 1920, two Fokker D.VI biplanes were taken to Bratislava by Vilem Zurovec with the permission of IAACC. One was converted to a two-seater. Zurovec offered both to the military in November 1921, but the offer was refused.


United States of America
  
  The US obtained six D.VI biplanes at Koblenz in January 1919, including 1639/18.1655/18 (shipped to USA 12 March 1919); 1675/18 (shipped to USA from Romorantin 17 February 1919) and 1676/18 (shipped to USA 12 March 1919). One D.VI became A.S.94033 and acquired the McCook Field number P-385. It was transferred to the McCook Field museum on 30 August 1921.
Unarmed Fokker D.VI civil two-seat conversion in Czechoslovakia postwar.
Argentina

  Argentina’s Aviation Naval acquired a single Fokker D.VII. This aircraft had been brought to Argentina by an organization known as the Franco-Argentine Commission which had organized an exhibition in Buenos Aires with a mixture of Allied and captured German aircraft of WWI. The single D.VII was then donated to the Aviation Naval. Most of the aircraft displayed at the exhibition were apparently hulks and non-airworthy, but the D.VII was flown by a Sr. Estegui who had obtained permission (though a civilian) to use the aircraft in a flight across the Andes, but he shortly destroyed the engine.
  This aircraft never gained a Navy serial and may, in fact, not have been painted in Argentine Navy colours of the period. No photograph of this unique aircraft is known and, almost certainly, the only WWI German Fokker fighter to reach Latin America.


Australia

  Being a young country, Federation only occurring in 1901, Australia was anxious to prove its worth to Great Britain and followed Britain into WWI. Australia fielded a Flying Corps with one squadron in Palestine, and three on the Western Front as well as training squadrons in the UK.
  The Australian War Records Section (AWRS) was established to collect material and trophies for a Museum that was to be built after the war. Aircraft were particularly wanted. With the end of the war the Australian Government wanted their share of the aircraft that the Germans had to turn over to the Allies under the Armistice conditions. The aircraft obtained were stored at No.2 Aircraft Salvage Depot (ASD), Fienvillens, France. Seven Fokker D.VII were recorded as ‘New, complete.’ During the week ending 23 August 1919, a Fokker D.VII (no serial listed) and an E.V monoplane serial 140/18, were amongst the aircraft sent across the Channel to the UK. Eventually 16 German aircraft were shipped to Australia. They included Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 8371/18 and Fokker E.V 140/18. Both were recorded as ‘Complete.’
  The two Fokkers were exhibited at the Exhibition Building in Nicholson St, Melbourne, to raise funds for the proposed war museum. The Fokkers then traveled by train to the Motor Trader’s Association of South Australia’s show in 1920 in Adelaide. Here they were displayed with the local boys, the Smith brother’s, Vickers Vimy bomber that had flown out from the UK to Australia.
  The Australian magazine Aircraft, for 1 October 1920, records that when Parer and McIntosh arrived in Melbourne after their epic flight from England to Australia in a single engine Airco de Havilland D.H.9 biplane, they were greeted by an aerial escort of a DH9a, DH6, Fokker Biplane, Sopwith “Pups”, “Doves” and “Gnu”; Bristol scouts, Se5 (sic),Avro, Boulton and Paul and an old Maurice Farman. The Melbourne Herald newspaper for 31 August devoted much space to the “Airman’s Odyssey” and noted that amongst the machines was a Fokker from Point Cook - a captured German machine still bearing the signs of war service. This Fokker was the D.VII and was stunted over the city as part of the aerial welcome. Parer and McIntosh’s D.H.9 was later purchased by the Australian Government and ended up in the Australian War Museum (AWM)’s collection.
  Each state was offered one aeroplane but the two Fokkers were not allocated. In 1936 the AWM needed space in the part of the Exhibition Building it occupied in Melbourne. It was suggested that the aircraft stored here could be sold to raise funds for the Memorial. The aircraft were described as being in a very bad condition after being stored for a long time in cases which were not waterproof and had been raided once or twice by local ‘hobos’.
  The two Fokkers were included in the aircraft still in store. The RAAF inspected the aircraft and reported that the civil aviation authorities would never allow the aircraft to fly in Australia. The engines were said to be too expensive to consider selling them to operate from motor boats.
  There was a fire in the Exhibition Building in February 1925. The nightwatchman, J Kirby, reported that he came on duty around 10.30 pm and did his regular rounds. At 6 am he checked that the aeroplanes had not been interfered with overnight... At 12.20p. m. I was in the curators office when A. Horneman ran in through the engine room shouting to me to call the Fire Brigade. It was reported that five cases and their contents had been destroyed. Three cases were untouched. There was apparently no report on what was burned and what survived in the three untouched cases.
  Newspaper reports stated that six aircraft had been lost. Kevin Murray recalled seeing the Fokker D.VII still in the tin storage shed in the early 1940s. Mr Murray’s research showed that an aircraft, type unknown, was still stored in the iron shed in June 1948 when the Exhibition Trust notified the AWM that the shed was to be demolished. The aircraft had been disposed of by 16 September.


Belgium
  
  Under the terms of Armistice and Peace Treaty, Belgium received 75 D.VII fighters in February to March 1919, and another nine from Germany in 1920. At the 7° Groupment at 35 were selected for service in the Aviation Military Beige and received the serial F1 to F35. Like the USAS, some were used in the occupied zones in Germany by the 9th and 10th fighter squadrons in 1919, as close-support for the Breguet XIV and Spad XI reconnaissance machines. They were also utilised by the 11th fighter squadron. From 1922 they were used only as unarmed advanced trainers with the VIth training group that was composed of three squadrons. In 1924 the training school at Asch was closed and all training transferred to Wevelgem.
  In 1928, 15 Fokkers remained in service with the training units: - F5 to F7, F10, F13-F15, F17, F18, F20, F21, F23, F25, F34, and F35. Due to their age and problems with obtaining spares, in 1930 the last Fokkers were withdrawn from service. It appears all, except three, were scrapped.
  These three entered the civil register as OO-AMH, OO- AMI and OO-AMY.
  As noted in the above table, a number of the military’s D.VII fighters found their way onto the civil registry. The following lists aircraft that cannot be identified as ex-military aircraft. In 1930 when the fighters were withdrawn from service three were sold to private owners: OO-AMH, OO- AMI, and OO-AMY.
  The Fokker D.VII fighters served with the following Belgian units: 4th Escadrille (Zebra insignia); 9th Escadrille (Thistle); 10th Escadrille (Comet); 11th Escadrille (white paper doll); VIth Training Group comprising three training squadrons (penguin) from 1919 to 1930 with schools at Asch and Wevelghem. With the reorganization of the Aeronautique Militaire in July 1921, the remaining Fokkers with the operational squadrons were transferred to the training squadrons at Asch.
  In 1928 the film L'Yser was released. It was a Belgian production by Rigo Arnould after a screenplay by Maurice des Ombiaux. The announcement made mention of a grand reconstruction of WWI. A reenactment was filmed of the dogfight between Guynemer and von Richthofen(?). A Nieuport-Delage ND.29 C1 was painted with the stork emblem and the name Le Vieux Charles as Guynemer’s mount. A Fokker D.VII was marked with the serial No. 6689/18 in an unusual manner, however the original 6689/18 had crashed in 1921. The machine can be identified from photographs as a Fokker Schwerin built D.VII.

Fokkers of the Film L’Equipage

  The 1923 novel L'equipage by Joseph Kessel was filmed by Anatole Litvak in 1935. The lack of actual WWI aircraft saw Hanriot 436 two-seaters used for the French Salmsons. Four of the civil Belgium Fokkers were obtained for the film. After he moved to the USA, Litvak remade the story as his first film in his new country. Stearman C 3 biplanes were modified to look like the French aircraft of the first film as the remake used the aerial scenes from the first film. Released in 1938 as Flight into Darkness it is also known as The Woman I Love. The original French and the US version of the film were on release in New York after 1938.
  On 12 November 1934, after a half-hour flight, Avro 504K OO-ANY returned to the airfield, near Nourlemon, France, but D.VII OO-AMI was performing low level aerobatics at the field, and coming out of a loop he drove the wheels of the D.VII into the upper wing of the 504K, the force of the collision driving both aircraft to the ground. Nagant, the pilot of the D.VII, suffered a broken arm, but the pilot of the Avro, Marc Henry, was pulled from the wreckage with several broken bones and his face unrecognizable, having been thrown into the instrument panel. Henry was later to say that he was lucky because, in a way, he was a guinea pig for cosmetic surgery that was in its infancy after the mid-1930s.

Fokker D.VIII
One Fokker E. V was flown in Belgium colours This was Werke Nummer 2842, Serial No. 201/18. This was one of the E.V monoplanes that were brought up to D.VIII standard after the wing failures on the early E.V type. As far as is known this machine was never taken onto the Aeronautique Militaire register. It served a short time at the Flying School at Asch, apparently by Lt van Cotthem as his personal aircraft. Its eventual fate is unknown but it is assumed to have been scrapped.

Known Belgian Fokker D.VII Fighters
Serial German Serial Notes
F1 23 March 1923, Flying school. October 1923, transferred to TD at Evere for repairs. Written off 12 May 1924.
F2 6693/18 With 9 Squadron in 1919. Written off 2 July 1924.
F3 (18 March 1922). Crash. Sgt Fernand J Gh Dony severely injured. Probably 9th Squadron.
F4 Written off 12 May 1924.
F5 16 November 1925, from TD to Flying School, Wevelgem. No further data.
F6 8 July 1921, From VII to III Squadron, Haren. 11 October 1923, when sent for repairs. 27 July 1927, from TD to Flying School, Wevelgem. No further data.
F7 2 July 1921, in service. 29 November 1928, from TD to IV/1 at Evere No further data.
F8 20 October 1922, Transferred from VII Groupe to VI Groupe. 14 June 1924, Written off.
F9 2 July 1921, into service. Destroyed as at 30 May 1922.
F10 2 July 1921, into service. 24 October 1929, somersaulted in landing. Kpt. Emile Courtois
F11 5370/18 Written off 20 January 1925
F12 6690/18 19 September 1929, written off after bad landing
F13 June 1922 sent for repairs. No further data.
F14 7711/18 On 9 October 1925, Kpl Joseph Lambrechts put the D.VII into a roll and crashed fatally. Written off 28 November 1925.
F15 6687/18 28 April 1922. Transferred from IV Groupe to VI Groupe. 23 April 1924. Still in service 11/3 Flying School.
F16 6743/18 28 April 1922. Transferred from IV Groupe to VI Groupe. Written off 12 May 1924.
F17 6681/18 1921. 10th Squadron. 28 July 1922. Transferred from VI Groupe to VII Groupe. 20 July 1928 to TD for repairs.
F18 7707/18 16 April 1929, Stood on nose at Wevelgem by Johannes Braun.
F19 5139/18 14. October 1922, Transferred from VI Groupe to VII Groupe for repairs. Written off 19 September 1927.
F20 6679/18 14 October 1922. Transferred from VI Groupe to VII Groupe for repairs.
F21 5149/18 27 May 1922. Noted in service. Still in use in November 1926.
F22 5443/18 23 March 1922. Aircraft considered repairable. In service. 3 September 1924. From II/3 Flying school to 1/3 Training Depot for repair. 29 October 1924, written off.
F23 6670/18 27 May 1922. Recorded in service.
F24 6688/18 26 October 1921. Recorded in service.
F25 6683/18 Crashed tearing undercarriage off. 19 April 1922. Transferred to VII Groupe for repairs, previous order to destroy revoked.
F26 6703/18 Crashed December 1921.
F27 7620/18 Crashed December 1921.
F28 27 May 1922. Noted in service. 21 September 1923. Transferred from Flying School to Evere for repairs.
F29 27 January 1922. Transferred from VII Groupe to VI Groupe.
F30 16 July 1928. Fatally crashed by Lt Valere Decloet due engine problems during ‘Coupe de Challenge’
F31 27 May 1922. Recorded in service. 19 September 1927. Write off.
F32 27 May 1922. Recorded in service.
F33 1 August 1922. Placed in service. 6 October 1922, Transferred from VI Groupe to VII Groupe for repairs. 19 September 1927. Write off.
F34 1 August 1922. Placed in service.
F35 1 August 1922. Placed in service.

Other Belgian Military Fokker D.VII Fighters
Serial Notes
2045/18 O-BABY.
3190/18 O-BLUF. Also given as 5089/18.
6162/18 O-BEBE. Registered March 1920.
6684/18
6686/18
6689/18
6695/18
6718/18
6740/18
6743/18
6748/18
6840/18 O-BOBE.
7626/18 O-BISE.
7684/18
8447/18 Possibly O-BAFA

Civilian Belgian Fokker D.VII Biplanes
Civil Registration German Serial Notes
O-BABE March 1920.
O-BABY 2045/18 August 1920.
O-BEBE 6162/18 March 1920. Scrapped 13 November 1923.
O-BILL April 1921, to Societe Nationaled’Etudes et de Transport (SNETA).
O-BISE 7626/18 May 1920. Scrapped 19 February 1926.
O-BLUF 3190/18 August 1921, and scrapped 9 February 1924
O-BOBE 6840/18 October 1920.
O-BOFA 8447/18 August 1921. Scraped 15 September 1923.
OO-AMH 22 August 1931. Texaco Oil &Co. Converted to a two-seater by SABCA. Scrapped 21 October 1937.
OO-AMI Registered on 5 September 1931. Modified to two-seater by SABCA in 1934. Crashed near Chalonssur-Marne, France, during filming of ‘L’Equipage’ when it collided with Avro 504K OO-ANY. on 12 November 1934. Deleted 29 December 1934.
OO-AMY 13 September 1931. Became OO-UPP on 25 December 1934. Crashed near Paris on 6 July 1937. Was used in film L’Equipage. Possibly the RAF Museum’s D.VII.


Bulgaria

  Bulgaria had received eight Fokker D.VII fighters during the war but they were too late to see action. 5324/18 was examined by the British after the Armistice. It has the usual German national markings. It was stated to be a Very sensitive machine and difficult to land, not tiring to fly. Range of vision very fair. Strongly constructed. Given the reports of the types good flying qualities in all other reports, it would appear that the machine was not flown and the reporter relied on the verbal reports of the Bulgarians. Under the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine of 27 November 1919, Bulgaria could not have a military air arm. Six Fokkers were destroyed at Bozhurishte in October 1920, including 5324/18 and 5355/18, and a Fokker E type.
  In 1923 the first school for aviators was opened. Military buildup of the air force was covered by posing as a sports organization or civil company. At least one D.VII was retained and was converted to a two-seater, this machine appeared in civil registration after the war as B-BIXP. The second seat was a decoy and it was flown with the rear opening faired over. In 1926 a Yugoslavian Breguet XVI stumbled into Bulgarian airspace and B-BIXP was sent up to intercept, but the interloper turned away before an interception could be accomplished. New Lucifer powered Bristol Fighters were obtained from the UK and flew under civil registrations. The peace treaty had stipulated that Bulgaria could not have aircraft with engines of more power than 180-hp and that any such must be obtained from France, Italy of the UK.


Canada
  
  The Canadian Air Force (CAF) had been created in the UK on 3 November 1918. No CAF squadron reached the Front. No. 1 Squadron, CAF, (No. 81 Squadron (Canadian), RAF), was formed at Upper Heyford, Oxfordshire, England, on 20 November 1918. The squadron flew Sopwith Dolphin and S.E.5a fighters. Amongst the German aircraft returned from Europe to be crated and sent to Canada, were Fokker D.VII fighters. Photographs show some of these with the CAF maple leaf emblem of No. 1 Squadron painted on their fuselage sides. Twenty D.VII fighters were collected at Chingford for shipment to Canada in early 1919. Some were flown while others were prepared for shipment. Thirty-six D.VII fighters were actually allocated to Canada but not all were shipped. The actual numbers received in Canada vary according to source, but it appears that twenty-three actually arrived.
  On arrival in Canada, some were erected and loaned to the Bishop-Barker Aeroplanes Ltd that had been set up by William Billy Bishop and William Barker, both celebrated Canadian fighter pilots. The company operated a Curtiss HS-2L flying boat at Toronto Island that flew Toronto’s elite to their summer homes in nearby Muskoka. The company’s pilots flew the Fokkers for the Canadian National Exhibition over Toronto.
  The Celebration of Victory saw an exhibit of war trophies at the Hamilton Armories around Armistice Day 1919. They included an unidentified Fokker D.VII, AEG G.IV 574/18 bomber and Junkers J.I 586/18 armoured trench strafer, together with Sopwith Snipe E8102.
  The First International Air Race in August 1919, was a big event in North America that year. The American Flying Club, the Aero Club of Canada and the Canadian National Exhibition came to an agreement to run the race from New York to Toronto. It was reported that all entries were from the USA, but twelve Canadian entries are expected before the exposition opens. Captured German Fokker planes, now in the possession of the Dominion government will be admitted to the contests, it has been decided, provided their pilots hail from allied countries. There are now twenty-two of these craft in Toronto now.
  Barker was quick to use the D.VII that he had access to, to enter the race. The entrants included D.H.4, S.E.5a, Curtiss Jenny of various marks, D.H.9A, Caproni Ca.3, Italian S.V.A., L.W.F. G-2, Curtiss Oriole, Lepere LUSAC 11, Standard J-I, USD-9A, Avro 504K and two Fokker DVII fighters. These were race Nos 50 (W.G. Barker) and 56 (Capt C.W. Cook).
  Lieut.-Col. WC. Barker, Canadian ace, winner of several decorations in the war, arrived at New York from Toronto early Tuesday morning in a captured Fokker. Colonel Barker carried a bag of mail for Washington. He flew his plane with one hand because of injuries received in a fight with a squadron of enemy machine in October, 1918, and could not use his compass. His plane was the center of interest at Roosevelt Field. His was the first international mail. Colonel Barker started right back, and latest reports had left Albany for Syracuse, reported the Aircraft Journal.
  Both Canadians started from Toronto and completed the race. Cook came in 16th at 759 1/2 minutes that included a penalty of 90 minutes as he had to have the axle straightened twice. Barker came in 25th at 1434 1/2 minutes. They were placed 23rd and 29th in the reliability section.
  In November 1921, the Canadian Air Board took custody of the remaining Fokkers, the Royal Canadian Air Force not being established until 1924, and Lt Col Robert Leckie, the Superintendent of Flying Operations, had the machines scrapped and destroyed.
  It is evident that the D.VII fighter that came to Canada had parts of other machines used to make a complete flyable D.VII before they left the UK, as 6810/18, Brome County Historical Society D.VII, has tailplane from 6506/18 and elevators from 8318/18, two fighters that were not received in Canada.

Fokker D.VII Fighters Received in Canada
Serial Present Condition Disposition Notes
5924/18 Undercarriage not fitted. Considerable damage. In storage.
6504/18 Undercarriage not fitted. Slightly damaged In storage. Donated it chin cowl to 6810/18
6769/18 Undercarriage not fitted. Slightly damaged In storage.
6810/18 Undercarriage not fitted. Slightly damaged In storage. Presented to Brome County Historical Society. Still preserved here in its original lozenge fabric.
6818/18 Recorded sent from UK.
6822/18 Mounted on undercarriage. Fair condition. In storage.
6832/18 Mercedes No. 45715. University of Saskatchewan. It disappeared.
6833/18 Undercarriage not fitted. Slightly damaged
6842/18 Allocated to University of Winnipeg.
6846/18 Mounted on undercarriage. Slightly damaged.
6849/18 Serviceable. Mercedes 45628. On loan to Bishop B & Co Presented to University of Manitoba. Engine to National Aviation Museum for their D.VII.
7685/18 Mercedes No. 1284. Ottawa Exhibition.
7728/18 Mounted on undercarriage. Damaged In storage.
8413/18 Mounted on undercarriage. Damaged In storage.
8474/18 Assembled. War Trophies Building.
8488/18 Undercarriage not fitted. Slightly damaged In storage.
8492/18 Undercarriage not fitted. Slightly damaged In storage.
8493/18 Undercarriage not fitted. Damaged Mercedes No. 45105. In storage. Presented to University of Alberta. Disappeared in the 1930s. The engine was ‘discovered’ in Tasmania, Australia. It was purchased by the Vroege Vogels (Early Birds Foundation) in the Netherlands and installed in their flying reproduction D.VII.
8502/18 Serviceable. Mercedes 32746. On loan to Bishop B & Co In US hands in 1919, taken over by the British and shipped to Canada 19 May 1919. Presented to University of Mount Allison. Burnt in 1921. The ailerons on 6810/18 are from this D.VII.
8526/18 Serviceable. Mercedes 45648. On loan to Bishop B & Co In US hands in 1919, taken over by the British and shipped to Canada 19 May 1919.
8583/18 Serviceable. Mercedes 42527. On loan to Bishop B & Co Presented to University of McGill.
8609/18 Serviceable. Mercedes 37176. On loan to Bishop B & Co In US hands in 1919, taken over by the British and shipped to Canada 19 May 1919.
10132/18 Recorded sent from UK. No record of it being in Canada.
10349/18 Serviceable. Mercedes 45700 On loan to Bishop B & Co In US hands in 1919, taken over by the British and shipped to Canada 19 May 1919.
10350/18 Serviceable. Mercedes 45659. On loan to Bishop B & Co In US hands in 1919, taken over by the British and shipped to Canada 19 May 1919.
Unknown Presented to the University of Arcadia.


Czechoslovakia
  
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  The Czechoslovakian authorities had tried to obtain aircraft from Germany and Austria even though this was against the wishes of the Inter-Allied Aircraft Control Committee (IAACC).Ten Fokker D.VII fighters were ordered in March 1920 after similar discussions had broken down. This order, like the previous ones, fell through. The Allies were against any such acquisitions and were interested in obtaining access for their own products into the new nations of Europe. French interests in Czechoslovakia led to the gift of 115 aircraft, including 50 Spad fighters, to the new republic, this gift enabling the establishment of the Czechoslovakian air force.
  The only D.VII that can be confirmed as serving Czechoslovakia was 38.67. This Schwerin-built fighter was one of six that had been obtained from Fokker but had not entered service with the Austro-Hungarian empire’s Luftfahrtruppe before the war ended. It came into the Hungarian Red air force and was serving with the 8th Voros Repuloszazad on 13 May 1919, when, according to some sources, Istvan Fejes was attacking an armoured train when his machine gun fell off damaging the airscrew, forcing him to land. He was captured by Czechoslovakian troops and the machine taken into the Czech inventory, with the same ‘serial’ number. Other sources state that three Hungarian fighters attacked Czech positions at Komarno, and the synchronization gear of Fejes’s D.VII failed causing damage to the airscrew and forcing him to land near Lucenec. Fejes was taken PoW and repatriated in July after hostilities ended.
  D.VII 38.67 was never used by a combat unit in Czechoslovakia. In July 1919, after being repaired, the D.VII was assigned to 5. letecka setnina (No. 5 Aviation Company). In August it was used for propaganda when it and two Spads visited several smaller Bohemian cities for flying days. At the beginning of 1920 the aircraft was recorded at the air school at Prague, and after a change of engine and more repairs, at the Air School at Cheb where the Czechoslovakian air school had been established. It lost its armament and was a trainer from here on. In early 1920 it was awaiting repairs at the air school in Prague. It was to be repaired a number of times during its career. From October it was with the Vzduchoplavecke uciliste (Aeronautical Training Centre), Cheb. It was rearmed with Vickers guns instead of the original Schwarzlose machine guns. In 1921 from January to September it was at the Hlavni letecke dilny (HLD - Main Aviation Works) in Prague.
  The Czechoslovakian Aviation Club organized the First Air Meeting in the country in September 1921. The D.VII took part in activities on the 9th with the racing number 16 on the fuselage together with the reinstated 38.67 serial. Armament had been removed for this civil event. The list of aircraft participating in the Meeting included two Fokker D.VII aircraft with the race numbers 11 and 16. What was No. 11? Was this a misprint? To date no photographic proof of this second D.VII has been uncovered.
  38.67 suffered a crash landing after an engine failure on 18 October 1921. Salvaged, it was repaired at the HLD facility at Olomouc between January and June 1922. It emerged in a new four colour scheme. The machine served at Cheb and after August 1923, a white rectangle was painted on the fuselage indicating the Vzduchoplavecke uciliste in Cheb. Withdrawn from training in October 1924, it was written off in January 1925 with a total flight time just under 34 hours.
  Aircraft 3860, 3871 and 3872 were offered to the Czechs by ex-Austro-Hungarian enterprises, and if these are Fokker werke nummers, then they are D.VII fighters. However, it is unknown how these Fokker machines came to Austria or Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire no longer being in existence.
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Denmark

  The Danish Haerens Flyvertropper only used one Fokker D.VII and this was solely for aerobatic training. This was a civilian aircraft and came from Dansk Luft Rederi (Danish Air Service). The Army purchased it in 1922 together with another that was used solely for spares. Given the serial F.nr.1, it lasted until 4 September 1927, when Lt Carl J.T. Erlind crashed it at an air show at Kastrup Airport. Erlind died on 1 April 1928, from the injuries he had received in the crash.


Estonia

  In 1923 the Estonian airline Aeronaut ordered a D.VII in Germany. The plane received civil registration E.14. It made a forced landing in Poland and was confiscated there.


Finland
  
  The treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, had required the Russians to vacate Finland, however, Red troops continued to cross the border. Germany came to Finland in response to a request from the Finish Government who were under pressure from Soviet Russia. During the Finnish Civil war, the Germans conducted aerial activities. With the Armistice, German forces had to withdraw from the Baltic and when they left Finland, they took their aircraft with them. Finland acquired a number of German and Russian aircraft, fighter types being two Nieuport 17 and one Nieuport 21 ex-Russian fighters, three O.A.W. manufactured Fokker D.VII and a solitary Spad S.VII. The actual source of the Fokkers is unknown, however, they arrived at Utti airfield in 1919. Finland was eager to obtain new German surplus aircraft at bed-rock prices, but he French who were supporting the Finnish government vetoed this. The French were more than willing to sell their surplus aircraft to Finland but at much increased prices than those from Germany.
  The Fokkers were apparently only used for pilot training in aerobatics and fighter tactics. 1C356 was lost on 10 January 1920. Ensign Tauno Hannelius misused the engine throttle on take-off. The high altitude tuned engines did not respond to fast throttle moves, and when Hannelius went over the throttle limit the engine cut out. In trying to make an emergency landing, the aircraft turned over onto its back. Hannaelius was hospitalized by the crash and although he blamed the mechanics for the engine failure, the committee judged it as due to pilot error. Another D.VII was lost in 1920. 1C355 in February. Corporal Gustaf Robert Michelsson under shot while performing an emergency landing into a wooded area. He escaped unhurt but he machine was written off.
  1C352 managed to survive until 1924. It had a close call in July 1922. Lt Eero Antti Heinrichius overshot Utti airfield and as a result, broke the upper wing in three places and the lower wings into four pieces. The undercarriage was smashed and all the fuselage longerons were bent. This was held dure to careless flying. It must have been repaired and placed back into service.
  Finland used the three Fokker D.VII fighters from 1919 to 1924 at the Utti and Viipuri air bases.

Finnish Fokker D.VII Fighters
German Serial Finnish Serial Notes
8532/18 1C350, later 1C355 Received late summer 1919. Destroyed in forced landing at Utti 6 February 1920. Sgt G.R. Michelson.
8515/18 1C351, later 1C356 Received later summer 1919. Crashed during take-off at Utti on 10 January 1920, when piloted by T Hannelius. Written off 14 January 1920.
8545/18 1C352, later 1C357, then 1D357 Received late summer 1919. Written off 19 March 1924, after being crashed by Lt E Konni, with total flight time of 62:30 hours.
Source: Keskinen, K, Partonen, K and Stenman, K. Suomen Ilomavoimat 1918-27 - Finnish Air Force, Vol. I. K Stenman, Finland. 2005.


France
  
  France obtained a number of Fokkers during the war; a few were taken intact and were subject to testing, including 6480/18 and 6718/18.
  The following D.VII fighters were handed over under the peace provisions: 4489/18, 4593/18, 4640/18, 6666/18, 6783/18, 6796/18, 6825/18, 6851/18, 7725/18, 7739/18 and 8509/18. 6852/18 was displayed at the Invalides in 1918. 6796/18 is on display in the Musee de l’Air et de l’Espace, Paris.
  At least one D.VII was flown as a civilian aircraft. This was F-ABGM (ex-6851/18) that was registered on 9 December 1920, to a M Roger Ricaud. The serial number quoted was 6851. It was written off in October 1931.
  A number of Fokker D.VI fighters were surrendered to the French at the end of the war, however, their history in French hands has still to be unearthed.


Germany

  On 21 January 1919, the commander of the German air arm, von Hoeppner, announced the dissolution of the air arm of the army and thanked all units for their service. There were still a few flying units left fighting in the Baltic. The Treaty of Versailles ends all hopes of using these units as the nucleus of a new air arm. All military aircraft and associated equipment were to be handed over to the Allies. The Inter-Allied Aeronautical Control Commission (IAACC) had been established to ensure that all military aircraft were to be destroyed.
  Even before the Treaty of Versailles, the German state had air units operating in the Baltic - the Freikorps. The story of these units is beyond the scope of this document, however the results of the German withdrawal from those new countries that came into being led to the acquisition by their air arms of abandoned Central Power machines, including Fokkers as noted in their individual country chapters. The German military and paramilitary in all its forms, had the Fokker aircraft in service in April 1920 shown in the above table.
  The Polizei-Fliegertruppe - air police - were seen as a measure to keep military aircraft in operation. There were 12 such units established by 21 January 1920, with 14 being the final figure. Fokker D.VII 8516/18 and 7644/18, among others, were used by the police units. This subterfuge did not go unnoticed and in February 1920, the IAACC ordered all such activity to cease while the aircraft were inspected, and the air police were banned and their aircraft eventually destroyed.
  Deutsche Luft-Reederei GmbH (DLR) commenced commercial operations on 5 February 1919, with an AEG J.II (DLR 13) and amongst its mixture of aircraft had three D.VII ex-fighters. The true number of aircraft hat DLR operated will never be known. The IAACC destroyed many aircraft and some would have been those of DLR. On 8 May 1920, DLR sold Fokker D.VII (D-179 ex-7609/18) to Deutsche Luft-Lloyd.
  On 4 May 1920, Fokker Dr.I, registration D-600, was taken over by the Dutch company Internationale Lucht Vervoer Onderneming (ILVO). Due to the lack of civil aircraft, the IAACC wrote to the German Foreign Office that DLR could keep 32 LVG C.V and C.VI, 13 AEG J.II, three Fokker D.VII biplanes, and three Friedrichshafen FF 45 and eleven FF49 floatplanes. The IAACC took over DLR’s Fokker Dr.I, D-39, in 1921 and destroyed it.
  Von Greim and Ernst Udet managed to obtain two unused Fokkers, D.VII 10415/18, converted to a two-seater, and a D.VIII, from storage at Bramberg, and were to use them at airshows they arranged in 1919. These proved popular, and they also obtained two Rumpler D.I fighters that they flew in their shows. After Ritter von Greim crashed at the Tegernsee show, the aircraft were confiscated and destroyed.
  Albatros at Johannisthal bought back aircraft from the German Government and they were stated to be privately owned. In August 1920. The IAACC allowed Albatros to keep 13 aircraft including two Fokker D.VII fighters, D.138 (ex-6533/18) and D-139 (ex-6540).
  An IAACC report of 28 August 1920, lists the Fokker aircraft locations shown above.
  Lloyd Ostflug had two D.VII biplanes, D-138 & D-139, together with four Albatros C-types in September 1921.
  A report by a French IAACC officer on Fokker, Schwerin, on 29 November 1920, noted that the company was building automobiles and sports boats. There was a Fokker C.I biplane, No. 3972 with BMW engine No. 1492, at the factory to be converted into a hydroplane. The floats were almost completed and the first flight was due to take place on 30 November. Engineless Fokker D.VII 3657 (7805/18) was present as well as a newly constructed Fokker Limousine monoplane.
  The first German civil register after the end of the war from March 1919 to May 1920, and included the following Fokker aircraft in the upper table on the facing page.
  A second German civil register was started with those aircraft that the IAACC approved. These were marked by a star on their fuselage near their registration. This numerical system continued until April 1934, when letters replaced numbers. See the lower table on the facing page.
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Fokker Aircraft in Service in April 1920
Fokker Type Air Force Air Police In Storage
D.II 2 - 5
D.III 2 12
D.V 2 8
D.VI 8
D.VII 61 47 470
E.V/D/VIII 6 5 153
Dr.I 22
Source: Andersson, L & Sanger, R. Retribution & Recovery - German Aircraft and Aviation 1919 to 1922, Air Britain, UK, 2014. P.135.

An IAACC Report of 28 August 1920, Lists the Following Fokker Aircraft Locations
Firm Address Fokker
Type Serial Motor Serial motor Decision Date 1920
Bavaria Film Munich D.VII 6821 Authorise 10 Aug
Deutsche Luft Lloyd A.G. Johannisthal
D.VII 7669 Benz 35742 Authorise 14 Aug
D.VII 10375 Benz 34144 Authorise 14th
Albatros Johannisthal Werke
D.VII 6540 Authorise 14 Aug
D.VII 6533 Authorise
Deutsche Seewarke Hamburg D.VII 6797 BMW 14 Aug
Deutsche Luft Reederei Johannisthal D.VII Not stated 5 July
Schweriner Industrue Werke Schwerin
Limousine Declare civil 1 June
C.I 3972 Authorise 13 Aug
   C.I 3974 Authorise 13 Aug
D.VIII (sic) 3568 BMW Authorise 13 Aug
Source: Liste Complete Des Avions Autorises Aux Firmes Allemandes en Date Du 28/8/20. Ferko Collection, University of Texas at Dallas, Box 8 Folder 1.

Fokker Aircraft on the First German Civil Register
Registration Type Air Police
D-179 D.VII Ex-7609/18. To DLR.
D-299 D.VII To Rumpler Luftverkehr
D-367 D.VII Ex-6531/18. Polizei-Fliegertruppe-Paderborn, handed over in July 1920, destroyed
D-368 D.VII Ex-7667/18. Polizei-Fliegertruppe-Paderborn, handed over in July 1920, destroyed
D-369 D.VII Ex-10087/18. Polizei-Fliegertruppe-Paderborn, handed over in July 1920, destroyed
D-600 Dr.I DLR. To Netherlands 5 May 1920, for exhibition.
Source: Andersson, L & Sanger, R. Retribution & Recovery - German Aircraft and Aviation 1919 to 1922, Air Britain, UK, 2014.

Fokker Aircraft on the Second German Civil Register
Registration Type Air Police
D-39 Dr.I DLR, June 1920. Destroyed 1921.
D-88 D.VII Bandische Luftverkehrs-Gesellschaft in 1919. Destroyed 4 October 1921.
D-138 D.VII Albatros Werke to Lloyd Ostflug. October 1922 ordered withdrawn from use.
D-139 D.VII Albatros Werke to Lloyd Ostflug. October 1922 ordered withdrawn from use.
D-159 D.VII Deutsche Luft-Lloyd. Destroyed 1921.
D-159 D.VII 2nd aircraft, same registration. Ex-8304/18. Deutsche Luft-Lloyd. Seized. To Poland 1923.
D-195 C.I Junkers Flugzeugwerk. Dutsche Lloyd Flugzeugwerke. Possibly exported from Amsterdam.
D-196 C.I Junkers Flugzeugwerk. Dutsche Lloyd Flugzeugwerke. Possibly exported from Amsterdam.
D-299 D.VII Rumpler. (1)
D-1123 D.VII (w/n 8510). BMW IIIa. As of February 1928. Exported May 1929.
D-1555 D.VII (w/n 6797). Was used for meteorological duties but only received its registration in January 1929. Registration to Deutsche Seewarte, Hamburg. Apparently destroyed, registration withdrawn March 1932.
Notes: (1) Ries shows D-299 as a Heinkel HE 3.


Hungary
  
  The Austro-Hungarian Empire broke up with the end of World War I with the independent Hungarian Republic established on 17 November 1918. The Allies gave an ultimatum to Hungary in January 1919, for Hungarian troops to withdraw from the cities of Arad, Debrecen and Szeged. The government resigned in protest and the Communists under Bela Kun set up a new government.
  Czechoslovakian and Rumanian forces invaded the country from the north and east respectively, while Serbian troops from Yugoslavia invaded from the north. In addition, French forces occupied several areas in Southern Hungary.
  The Hungarian Red Army was established in April 1919 and hastily organized the Voros Repuloesapat (Red Airborne Corps). Any and all aircraft that could be obtained were pressed into service. Some Fokker D.VII fighters were obtained from the airfield and ex-Ungarische Allgemeine Maschinenfabrik AG (MAG) factory at Matyasfold. A few of the MAG-built fighters were converted to two-seaters with the fuel tanks transferred to the upper wing. Why this was done when fighters were in short supply is unknown.
  The six D.VII fighters purchased from Fokker in 1918 were shipped to Matyasfold where the MAG factory installed their 225-hp Austro-Daimler engines with the Berg type radiator. These six fighters together with MAG-built 93.01, were assigned to the First Flying Group at Matyasfold by 12 March 1919. As the Schwerin-built D.VII fighters arrived too late to be taken into the Luftfahrtruppe they did not receive serials in the Austro-Hungarian system. From records it appears that they were operated with their werke nummers as serials. Thus w/n 3867 became 38.67 and this serial was kept after the machine came into Czechoslovakian hands.
  The 8th Voros Repuloszazad (8th Squadron) was the elite squadron of the new air arm and on 6 April 1919, this unit, based on the MAG airfield at Matyasfold, had two single seat (93.03 and 93.07) and two two-seater (93.02 and 93.08) MAG D.VII fighters. Two D.VI fighter trainers were also in service.
  Stefan Fejes’ D.VII was captured by the Czechoslovakians on 13 May 1919, a sad day for the 8th Voros Repuloszazad. On 1 June Frigyes Hefty was performing a low-level attack near Tizaluc when he was hit by anti-aircraft fire and forced to land near the river Tisza.
  Another incident involving the Fokker fighters on 21 June saw six Fokkers and Berg fighters escort a Brandenburg C.I two-seater to the airfield at Nemes-Ocsa occupied by the Czechoslovakians. The idea was that while the fighters occupied the defences by shooting up the field, the Brandenburg would land and the two Hungarian pilots who had squeezed themselves into the back cockpit of the Brandenburg would ‘liberate’ the two aircraft that had been reported at the field. Unfortunately, the machines were gone by the time the raid took place, but the Brandenburg landed anyway under enemy fire, and one of the crew, Gyula Ezer, took the canvas landing T as a trophy. He left a receipt where he wrote: Today we visited your airfield, as proved by this letter, and took everything we found. We leave a receipt for all items taken. For the carbon copy of the receipt we will go directly to Pozsony. Signed Hary Squadron.
  In July it is reported that a Fokker D.VI and three D.VII fighters of the 8th Voros Repuloszazad tried to intercept a Rumanian bomber, however, on catching sight of the Hungarian machines, the Rumanian escaped into clouds.
  According to P.M. Grosz, an unknown number of MAG-built fighters found their way into the Czech and Hungarian air services. At least nine, but probably more, were flown by 8th Voros Repuloszazad. These aircraft were flown with their original Austro-Hungarian series 93 serials, but later the designation H.01 to H.09 were applied - H for Hungary, thus 93.08 became H-08.
  After 133 days the Hungarian Soviet Republic of Bela Kun ceased to exist. The D.VII fighters had been used in the main for harassing ground troops. Despite the invading armies taking much material the Hungarians were able to save dozens of aircraft to western Hungary.
  The National Army of the counter-revolutionary Hungarians had three D.VII and a solitary D.VI in its small air arm. When they liberated Budapest, they found that the Rumanians had taken or destroyed all aircraft in the city.
  The provisions of the Peace Treaty led to the Hungarian government attempt to disguise its military aircraft by giving them civil registrations. Magyar Aeroforgalmi RT (MAEFORT - Hungarian Air Traffic Co) was set up. The Treaty of Trianon of 4 June 1920, banned all aviation in Hungary. When IAACC entered Hungary, it considered MAEFORT a military organization in disguise and had it dissolved.
  When civil aviation was again permitted in 1924, five Fokker D.VII aeroplanes that had been hidden from the IAACC, were refurbished in 1924-1925 by the Hungarian authority for civil aviation and given civil registrations H-MFOA to H-MFOE (later HA-FOA to HA-FOE). The national airline, Magyar Legiforgalmi Reszventarsasag or MALERT, was used as a cover for clandestine military aerial training, since 1921, while under the presence of the IAACC.
  The Central Repair Workshops are reported to have supplied some modified D.VII trainers in 1926, one of which was still in service in 1928. In 1920 the Hungarian government had ordered 36 Fokker D.VII aircraft from MAG, believed to be unarmed two-seaters, but the contract was cancelled.
  The four civil Fokker D.VII trainers had their registrations cancelled in 1934.7 One D.VII, H-MFOD (later HA-FOD) was on display in the Museum of Transportation but was destroyed during World War II.
  Little is known of the Fokker D.VI fighters in Hungarian service. According to some sources at least eight D.VI fighters had been completed by MAG when the Rumanian troops occupied Budapest.


Japan

  Amongst the assortment of aircraft ceded to Japan under the peace reparations were four D.VII fighters (230/18, 322/18, 8523/18 and 8587/18), four E.V fighters (172/18, 199/18, 220/18 and 221/18) and one D.VIII (507/18) fighter. One D.VII and one E.V were given to the Navy, one D.VII to the Army’s Aeronautical School.


Latvia
  
  The exact number of Fokker D.VII fighters that were used by Latvia is unknown. The aviation historian Paul Branke interviewed Latvian personnel who were survivors from the period and they thought that there were probably two. They do not seem to have been involved in the conflict with the Soviet Union before the armistice of 1 February 1920.
  D.VII (OAW) 8595/18) with 160-hp Mercedes engined was one of two Fokkers found amongst some ten aircraft abandoned by the Germans at Spilve in 1919. It entered service with the serial No. 4. In June 1920, No. 4 was flown to Rezekne to take part in the action against the Soviet Bolsheviks in Latgale, but the aircraft crashed about 10 miles from its intended destination on the 8th. On 20 July 1920, it was involved in a forced landing due the engine overheating and hit a tree causing the machine to swing around through 180°. It required repairing before being returned to service. It was finally written off after it was assigned to the flight school. It hit a Halberstadt C.V while taxying and not repaired.
  D.VII serial No. 16, was the other Fokker obtained at Spilve. It had major damage and originally had been deemed to be beyond repair. Alternatively, it may have been another airframe obtained from other sources. It appeared on the air service flying school roster in 1922. While being flown by Capt Edvins Bitte, No. 16 was written off after it crashed on the Riga airfield on 25 February 1924. Bitte was flying in fog and lost his sense of attitude. He thought he was straight and level at a safe altitude when his left wingtip hit the ground causing the machine to somersault. Bitte appeared to be fine and told WO Fricis Launics that he felt all right. He displayed no injuries from the crash except for a red dot on his forehead. Unfortunately, Bitte died three days later in hospital with a skull fracture, it had not been picked up in time to save him.


Lithuania

  Lithuania organized an air force in early 1919 and had four Fokker D.VII fighters in its inventory. The Fokkers were purchased in the autumn of 1919. It was not legal for Germany to sell military aircraft at this time and the actual date is unknown. It appears that two Albatros (OAW) machines were purchased, Nos. 8397/18 and 8497/18 with 160-hp Mercedes engines, along with 160-hp Mercedes powered 9397/18, and some with the 185-hp BMW engine; these latter included 6508/18. The fuselage of 6508/18 was also included in the purchase. The machines were all in a bad condition needing refurbishment, as were the spare parts available in depots in Lithuania. According to Andersson and Sanger, none of the three Fokkers (8397/18, 8497/18, and 6508/18) were airworthy. The Lithuanian workshops rebuilt four D.VII fighters using parts of the aircraft supplied and newly manufactured parts.
  Due to the combat conditions that involved Lithuanian forces the D.VII fighters were not required as there was little enemy aerial activity. The Lithuanians utilized German C-types and J-types to harass ground troops and enemy transportation.
  From 1920 the Military Aviation Workshop began to assemble and refurbish the D.VII machines. The machines that came away from the Workshop were made from parts cannibalised from other machines and newly made parts. They were given new serials that were also their construction numbers (c/n). Newly constructed fighters were Nos. 2, 3, 5, 6, 28, 38, and 39.
  The first D.VII, No. 2, flew on 20 September 1920. Four D.VII fighters were in service by September the following year. When Poland invaded Lithuania on the Vilnius front, the D.VII went into action. On 6 October 1920, No. 2 took off in defence of Kaunas airfield, but the Polish machines had completed their attack and were heading for home before Lt Jurgis Dobkevicius could catch them. One machine dropped its bombs with the safety pins still intact in its haste to get away.
  Due to the severe economic conditions, new aircraft were a luxury the new country could not afford. Ten Italian Ansaldo S.V.A.10 two-seaters were finally purchased in 1923, and eight Czechoslovakian Letov S20L fighters in 1925. From 1923 the Military Aviation Workshop had been building new D.VII airframes to utilize the ex-German engines that were available. These were built without plans using the machines already on hand.
  The decision to re-engine the S.V.A.10 biplanes with the 240-hp Siddeley Puma left one Puma available and this was installed in a Fokker D.VII. There was little difference in the weight of the 160-hp Mercedes, or the 185-hp BMW, and the Puma, but the latter had more power. The Puma was a straight six water-cooled upright engine and fitted the D.VII fuselage with only the height of the engine cowling being increased by 20 mm. Due to the fact that the standard D.VII radiator was of insufficient capacity for the Puma, a radiator was mounted under the fuselage.
  D.VII No. 27 was chosen for the conversion that was begun early in 1928, and completed by July. Tested on 27 July, the machine was accepted for service. The Puma D.VII achieved a speed of 200 km/hr at sea level compared with 180 for the Mercedes. Due to the larger fuselage side area with the engine and its accompanying radiator, manoeuvreability of the D.VII was reduced, and vision for landing was less than the standard D.VII. As it was slower than the fighters in service, No. 17 was relegated to a trainer but was not flown much. The D.VII was kept as an aerobatic trainer and two new airframes were constructed but reverted to the reliable old 160-hp Mercedes.
  The two new machines were ready in early 1930 but their testing had to wait for the airfield to dry out. No. 37 was tested on 7 May, and No. 38 on 5 June, both being accepted. These machines had the Lithuanian modifications of a head rest; the fuselage behind the cockpit being raised and ground-adjustable trim tabs added to the elevators. The undercarriage did not have the sub-wing of the original. It had the V-struts joined by a rigid tube and the axle was mounted with shock cord to this fixed tube. In 1928, while undergoing repairs, No. 3 and No. 5 were so modified to match Nos. 27, 37 and 38. The D.VII continued as trainer until 1937. The Lithuanian Fokkers were also operated on skis in winter.
  During their service three Lithuanian D.VII machines crashed, with only one fatality. In 1921, No. 2 was written off after it was seriously damaged in a forced landing. A D.VII, probably No. 3, was lost when the upper wing failed during aerobatics in 1932. The pilot, L Miliunas, escapade using his parachute. No. 5 fell into a spin on 13 July 1933, during a landing approach to Kaunas and the pilot, A Stukas, did not have enough height to regain control and he crashed with fatal results.

Lithuainian Fokker D.VII Fighters
W/N Serial No. First Flt
2 2 20 September 1920.
3 3 15 January 1921.
5 5 07 October 1921.
6 6 21 September 1921.
28 27 27 July 1927
38 37 07 May 1930
39 38 05 June 1930
Source: Production list of the Military Aviation Workshops, Plieno Sparnai No. 4, 1997. P.80.


The Netherlands

  Remaining neutral during the 1914-1918 war years, the Netherlands collected and interned a vast mixture of German and Allied types. As noted in the previous volumes of this series, a Fokker monoplane A20/16 was interned on 8 September 1916, commencing the Netherlands association with Fokker military aircraft.
  The first D.VII to be interned was Albatros manufactured 5584/18, flown by Alfred Baum of Marine Feld Jasta 4 from Koolkerke, a district of Bruges, Belgium. On 15 October 1918, he landed his D.VII, undamaged at 9:05 in the morning after suffering motor failure. Interned it was given the Netherlands serial F227. In 1919 it was stored in Hangar 20. Five more D.VII fighters landed near Stein on 13 November 1918. They were returning to Germany but became lost and landed too early in the Netherlands.
  The below table details the Fokker D.VII fighters interned in the Netherlands:
Interned Fokker D.VII Fighters
Interning Serial Mfr Date Interned Notes
5584/18 Albatros 15.10.1918 Flown by Alfred Baum of Marine Feld Jasta 4 from Koolkerke, a district of Bruges, Belgium. On 15 October 1918, he landed his D.VII, undamaged at 9:05 in the morning after suffering motor failure. Interned it was given the Netherlands serial F227. On 9 November 1918, it was test flown by Lt Versteegh and issued to the 2nd Escadrille. In 1919 it was stored in Hangar 20.
99 4001/18 O.A.W. 13.11.1918 Damaged. 160-hp Mercedes No. 34050.
100 4293/18 Fokker 13.11.1918 Slightly damaged. 160-hp Mercedes No. 40932. It had been delivered in July from Schwerin-Gorries with Mercedes No. 40752.
101 2176/18 O.A.W. 13.11.1918 Damaged. 160-hp Mercedes No. 41119.
102 4144/18 O.A.W. 13.11.1918 Slightly damaged. 160-hp Mercedes No. 41976. This D.VII is reported to have been rebuilt at Schiphol in 1919.
103 4000/18 O.A.W. 13.11.1918 Damaged. 160-hp Mercedes No. 37660.
Source: Gerdessen, F & Geldhof, N. De Internneringen van vliegtuigen tijdens De Groote Oorlog, Uitgeveri Geromy bv, Netherlands, 2018.

  The six D.VII biplanes that were interned in the Netherlands were not purchased. 5584/18 was stored at Soesterberg in Hangar 20, along with 23 other German aircraft. The other five were stored at Schiphol. This was a burden on the Netherlands authorities as they took up hangar space, though Germany had to pay for their storage. In the late 1920s they were sold as scrap, but it was not until the early 1930s that the costs were recovered from the German government.
  Anthony Fokker tells how at the Armistice he came in for the doubtful honour of being the sole manufacturer to have his airplane specifically mentioned. Article 14 that detailed the items of military equipment that had to be handed over to the Allies said: In erster Linie alle Apparate D.VII (All machine of the D.VII type). This was wonderful advertising of the worth of my plane, but the cost ran too high. It meant the entire liquidation of my companies. Resolving to save as many aircraft and engines as he could, Fokker organized to get the machines out of Germany. He called the chapter detailing his account of the move from Schwerin to the Netherlands as ‘The Great Smuggling Plot;’ however, the late P.M. Grosz established that Fokker had permission to move the aeronautical material. In obtaining the use of the railway and crossing the border, Fokker may have had to bribe personnel to grease the way, but the story in the book is full of fabrication. Fokker took 98 D.VII fighters and 118 C.I aircraft from Schwerin when he moved to the Netherlands.
  Fokker records that he could see that Many of the smaller countries had been starved for aircraft for so long a big market was ready to absorb anything offered it - one reason why it had been important to get my airplanes and motors out of Germany. The Netherlands government had contracted with the N.V. Nederlandsche Automobiel - en Vliegtuigfabriek Trompenburg (Netherlands Automobile and Aircraft Factory at Trompenburg) that built aircraft under the name Spyker, for 220 airplanes and 200 engines. Actually, in October 1918, two contracts were given to the firm for 118 V.4 reconnaissance aircraft and 98 V.3 fighters using the same engine. Given the problems with obtaining the necessary raw materials to build these aircraft - the prototypes V.3 and V.4 had not been built, it was realised that these designs were now out of date and in early 1919, Trompenburg got in touch with Fokker with the result that Fokker aircraft were offered instead.
  The orders were taken over by Fokker but the numbers were much reduced. Once Fokker obtained contracts to supply the Luchtvaartafdeling (LVA - Army Air Service); the Marineluchtvaartdienst (MLD - Naval Air Service) and the Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger (KNIL - Army Air Service of the Dutch East Indies), he was established as the prime manufacturer for the Netherlands armed services until World War II. Fokker Amsterdam was to supply 100 D.VII fighters: 43 in 1920; 7 in 1921; and 50 in 1922. 20 were for the LVA, 20 for the MLD and 6 for the KNIL, and 50 for Russia.

The LVA and the D.VII

  The first ten LVA D.VII fighters (serial Nos. 250 - 259) had the 160-hp Mercedes D III engine. Later ones (Nos. 160 - 269) had the 185-hp BMW IIIa. Early ones would be re-engined later with the BMW IV if they survived. Two additional D.VII fighters were built by the LVA from components of crashed aircraft. The Fighters served with the LVA’s Mitrailleur-en Bommen-Vliegtuig Afdeling (MBVA - Machine Gun and Bomber Unit). In 1930 the D.VII was replaced by the Fokker D.16 but was to serve as a trainer until phased out in 1938.
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  Meteorological flights by the D.VII aircraft of the LVA commenced in 1920. These daily flights for the KNMI (Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute) were carried out every day in the early morning regardless of the weather. The D.VII was equipped with self-recording instruments and a height of approximately 6000 metres was reached. The record for such flights was held by Adj J Bakkenes with 883 flights. The meteorological flights were nearly all made by the Fokker D.VII biplanes, with the C.I carrying out these flights some of the time.
  During the 2nd International Polar Year, Nos. 260 and 263 were based at an improvised airfield at Reykjavik, Iceland, in 1932-1933. The pilots were Lt J.H. van der Giessen and Sgt H Bosch with the assistance of Sgt C van der Leden. Together they made some 346 weather flights.
  By 1930 the Mercedes engines were worn out and were replaced by BMW engines. Of the Mercedes-equipped D.VII fighters, only five were left, Nos. 250, 256 to 259. Nos. 250, 256 and 257 had the legend ‘BMW 250’ stenciled on the fuselage under the horizontal stabilizer, indicating that a 250-hp BMW was installed, however, it is not certain if these engines were actually installed in these aircraft.
  In 1922 the armament was changed from the original German LMG 08/15 (Spandau machine gun) for the Vickers aircraft machine gun.
  There was only one fatality involving the D.VII in LVA service. Sergeant C.G. Th. Elout fell out of No. 271 on 25 July 1930, while performing loops.
  From 18 D.VII fighters in service in 1920, to a maximum of 19 in 1921, the numbers fell gradually to 1932 when 10 were in service. This number continued until 1935 when six were in service. The last four D.VII fighters along with the remaining C.I reconnaissance aircraft were written off on 29 March 1938.

The MLD and the D.VII

  In October 1918, the Marine Luchtvaart Dienst (MLD - Naval Aviation Service) had ordered twenty Spijker V.3 biplanes. This was changed to twenty D.VII fighters with new 185-hp BMW IIIa engines. They were therefore the model Fokker D.VIIF. They received serial Nos. D20 to D-39.
  The MLD received their D.VII fighters before the LVA; they were delivered from 16 October 1919 to 3 January 1920. They were delivered on barges to De Kooy airfield. They were intended to provide the defence of Fort Den Helder and the South Quarter (Naval base Vlissingen). In 1926-1927 they were combined into one fighter squadron. This group became known as the ‘Blue Band’ squadron due to the blue bands painted on the fuselage and wings of their Fokker D.VII aircraft. The D.VII also served with the MLD Fighter School and as a weather reconnaissance aircraft with daily flights to about 3500 metres.
  It is not clear if the MLD’s D.VII fighters were delivered with armament as it was not specified in the contract. They were fitted with LMG 08/15 machine guns, and in 1920 Madsen machine guns, and then in October 1921, Vickers machine guns were installed.
  The D.VII was withdrawn from fighter duties in 1927, but were retained as aerobatic trainers and finished up as ground-instructional airframes. Weather flights were continued during this time. Around 1930 the remaining MLD fighters were re-engined with the BMW IV, after D-28, serving as the prototype for the conversion, was tested successfully. The appearance of the aircraft was changed considerably. The nose radiator was dispensed with and a close cowl fitted around the engine. A retractable radiator was fitted underneath the fuselage and a headrest provided for the pilot. One test was carried out with the 160-hp Mercedes engine but it gave no improvement in performance.
  Eleven more were re-engined including D-40. The exact number of D.VII fighters used by the MLD cannot now be known as they used to rebuild crashed aircraft and would issue the new one with the same serial s the newly arrived crashed aircraft. Some parts of the crashed aircraft would be incorporated into the new machine in order not to infringe patent rights. As a rule, the Technische Dienst (Technical Service) at De Kooy had unregistered aircraft ‘in stock’ awaiting the arrival of a wrecked aircraft. An additional D.VII with a new serial, No. D-40, was built by the MLD in 1930. The last MLD D.VII fighters were phased out in 1937, but not all were scrapped at this time.
  D-28 was retained for a future aviation museum and was found by the Germans at Schiphol in 1940. It was taken to Germany. The aircraft was found in Bavaria in 1948 and placed in the Deutsches Museum in Munich where it resides today. What happened with the machine between 1940 and 1948 is unknown.
  There were three fatal crashes of MLD D.VII fighters:
- 2 May 1930: Bootsman H Klaver with D-21.
- 10 July 1935: OVl3 M Holewijn with D-29.
- 20 July 1936: O.O.11.vl K van Mulligen with D-24.
  The USN received the following appraisal of the D.VII in 1920 from their counterpart in the Netherlands.
  The battleplanes of the Fokker D.VII type are giving to the Marine Aviation Service every reason for satisfaction, and come up entirely to our expectations.
  The planes proved themselves of a very strong construction when the charging tests were executed, as they filled all our requirements. In regard to their daily use there never occurred any defect deserving of mention.

The KNIL and the D.VII

  The Ministerie van Kolonien (Ministry for Colonies) had ordered six fighters from Trompenburg in 1917, but the order was cancelled in 1919. In January 1920, Fokker fighters were considered and six D.VII fighters were ordered with 185-hp BMW engines. However, the KNIL’s D.H.9 bombers were fitted with the 230-hp Armstrong-Siddeley Puma engine, and this engine seemed a logical choice. It was decided to a D.VII with this engine and Fokker was advised to have a test machine with this engine ready by January 1921. Fokker was not happy with the choice, and the performance of the D.VII was not up to that of the Mercedes or BMW powered examples. An oval frontal radiator was fitted, presumably of greater area than the original to account for the climate of the Dutch East Indies.
  The prototype was ready in time but the test machine (w/n 46) crashed on 25 February 1921, killing the pilot Adolph Parge. A second D.VII was prepared and this ‘D.VII (Kolonien)’ was flown at Schiphol on 27 April. This led to an order for six unarmed D.VII aircraft for the Koninklijk Nederlandsch Indisch Leger - KNIL. These six airplanes were given serials F301 to F306 (w/n 41-44, 47, & 48).
  As far as is known, these Fokkers never were used to form a squadron by themselves alone, but they appeared with the emblem of the le Vliegtuigafdeling (1st Squadron), a cat with an arched back, and then the penguin emblem of the 3e Vliegtuigafdeling that was established in 1927. In 1928 two remained and were soon written off as obsolete.
  It is believed that the type was never armed in KNIL service. By the time the armament problems had been worked out, they were obsolete, and were retained as training machines. The last Fokker D.VII was demonstrated at an airshow on 3 July 1928. No fatal accidents were recorded with the KNIL Fokkers.

  First deliveries from the N.V. Nederlandsche Vliegtuigenfabriek were from May 1920 when 40 D.VII fighters were supplied to the LVA and MLD. For these ex-German aircraft Fokker introduced a new set of factory construction numbers. This implied that the aircraft were not machines paid for by the German government and being privately owned, could be sold without interference by the IAACC.

LVA Fokker D.VII Fighters
Serial Notes
F250 Accepted on 17 May 1920. On 10 August 1936, at Bennebroek reserve Sergeant pilot Da Waal Malefijt had to make an emergency landing due to engine failure and the aircraft was severely damaged on landing. Written off on 23 March 1938.
F251 Accepted on 22 May 1920. During a bad landing by 2nd Lt D.B. Brugma on 30 April 1926. It was deleted in 1929.
F252 Accepted on 21 May 1920. On 18 May 1924, Sgt J J. Buwalda made an emergency landing. The plane turned over and was wrecked and written off.
F253 Accepted on 25 May 1920. Test flown by Lt G Sandberg. Written off 1930, after repairs.
F254 Accepted on 4 May 1920. Crashed by Sgt Wiersma on 28 March 1924, and written off.
F255 Accepted on 4 May 1920. 1st Lt H van Weerden Poelman suffered a landing accident on 5 August 192O.Written off, but parts were used in the construction of F270.
F256 Accepted on 12 May 1920. On 8 August 1934 it was sent to Luchtvaart Bedrijf (LVB - Aviation Workshops) for overhaul with 1,459 hours flight time. Written off on 7 August 1935.
F257 Accepted on 21 May 1921. At LVB for repairs. Written off 29 March 1938.
F258 Accepted on 5 May 1920. Heavily damaged in a landing by reserve Sgt A.L. Clignett on 19 April 1934, and handed over to LVB. Written off 16 October 1935.
F259 Accepted on 20 May 1920. Written off on 29 March 1938.
F260 Accepted on 14 May 1920. In 1932-1933, with meteorological flight in Iceland. Lt P Noomen made a forced landing near Lekkerkerk on 10 April 1935, that badly damaged the aircraft. It was handed over to the LVB and written off on 12 December 1935.
F261 Accepted on 4 May 1920, 1st Lt J.J. Jongbloed was flying it at the ICAR international Aviation Exhibition in Rotterdam on 17 September 1922, when it was dragged over the field by gusty winds that destroyed the machine.
F262 Accepted on 14 May 1920. Very bad landing by reserve 2nd Lt F van Breemen on 23 January 1931, and written off on 11 February 1931.
F263 Accepted on 3 June 1920. Was the so-called Weather Report Fighter.’ On 15 December 1936, 2nd Lt F.A.M. Janssen slipped and crashed. Written off on 5 January 1937.
F264 Accepted on 14 June 1920. Landing crash on 16 November 1927 and written off.
F265 Accepted on 27 May 1920. On 21 July 1933, reserve 2nd Lt H.C.A. van Montfoort performed a landing off an Immelmann manoeuvre, but crashed completely destroying the machine. Written off 25 October 1933.
F266 Accepted on 5 May 1920. Bad landing by 2nd LtT.H. Leegstra on 13 February 1935, and aircraft handed over to LVB. Written off on 12 December 1933.
F267 Accepted on 5 May 1920. Kn W.H.F Giel of the KNIL, crashed on 8 November 1920 Written off in 1921, parts were used in the construction of F270.
F268 Accepted on 8 June 1920. Bottom wing replaced in April 1937. Written off on 29 March 1938.
F269 Accepted on 21 May 1920. On 9 December 1927, 1st Lt J Schott hit a high-voltage cable, the machine being destroyed and written off.
F270 Constructed with parts of F255 and F267 by the LVA; in service on 8 April 1921. On 7 February 1936, 2nd Lt H.C. Gautier suffered engine failure and had to make an emergency landing near Haastrecht. Written off on 5 March 1936.
F271 Built from spare parts, most likely in 1926. In use for meteorological flights from December 1927. On 15 July 1930, reserve Sgt C.F. Th. Elout fell from the plane when performing a looping over Soesterberg at 300 m and was killed. The plane was destroyed
F600 Two-seater. Flown by Capt Versteegh from 1920. Used as lead plane in his stunt team and to transport the team’s mechanic.
F800 Serial No. change after delivery of C.VI No. 600 late 1925. 26 May 1934 registered as PH-AJW to A.H.G. Fokker. 26 May 1937, CoA expired. 30 June 1937cancelled from Civil Register. Still stored at Schiphol in May 1940. Fate unknown.
Source: Luchtvaartarchief Herman Dekker.

Interned Fokker D.VII Fighters in Service
Year # in Svc Year # in Svc Year # in Svc Year # in Svc
1920 18 1925 16 1930 12 1935 6
1921 19 1926 17 1931 11 1936 5
1922 18 1927 15 1932 10 1937 4
1923 18 1928 15 1933 10 1938 0
1924 17 1929 14 1934 10
Source: Research by F Gerdessen.

MLD Fokker D.VII Fighters
Serial Notes
D-20 14 July 1927. Test with BMW engine. 15 October 1921. Hard landing. Equipped with camera gun. 10 march 1937. Written off.
D-21 30.12.1920. Caught by strong wind while landing, completely destroyed. 16 November 1921. Back in service. 2 May 1930, fatal flight accident, bootsman H Klaver killed.
D-22 15 November 1920. Heavily damaged at De Kooy. 14 March 1933. Used as a target aircraft for gunnery training. Written off on 20 April 1934.
D-23 29 December 1920. While on overland flight to Soesterberg, undercarriage damaged. Was not picked up by MLD until 14 February 1921. 1 March 1934. Test flight with new Sperry instruments. Further flying dates unknown. Written off on 18 October 1935.
D-24 1 March 1921. Armament test. 27 July 1936. Write off due to fatal accident on 20 July 1936; pupil pilot K van Mulligen killed. Written off on 4 August 1936.
D-25 13 January 1921. Armament test. 11 March 1937. Written off on 17 March 1937.
D-26 8 November 1922. Flight with BMW No. 1594. 4 November 1933. Last recorded flight.
D-27 February 1921. Armament practice. Written off 5 February 1934.
D-28 18 April 1921. Camera gun flight. 30 June 1937. Retained for museum. Confiscated by Germans in 1940 and moved to museum in Munich.
D-29 14 October 1921. Recorded in flight to 5000 m in 15 mins. 16 July 1935, crashed near De Kooy. OVLe M Holoewijn killed. Written off 31 July 1935.
D-30 11 February 1921. Engine trouble. 5 September 1935. Assigned to Flying School for aerobatic training. Written off 18 October 1935.
D-31 Damaged 14 December 1929, Sgt. J.A. Remmerswaal. Written off.
D-32 3 January 1921. Emergency landing at De Kooy due to engine failure. 7 July 1925. Last recorded flight.
D-33 12 October 1923, forced landing near De Kooij, badly damaged. No further flight data.
D-34 1 July 1921. In service, damage report. 19 March 1930. Severely damaged in flying accident. Written off on 14 April 1930.
D-35 8 November 1920. Damaged in emergency landing due to engine failure. 9 February 1934. Last recorded flight. Written off on 22 May 1934.
D-36 13 May 1921. Engaged in search for missing plane lost in sea. Nothing found. 21 April 1936, report of forced landing. No further data.
D-37 15.03.1921. Recorded in service. 17 May 1933. Last flight book entry. Written off on 8 February 1934.
D-38 26 March 1920, proposed for write off. Written off on 6 April 1920.
D-39 14 December 1923. Emergency landing at Heerhugowaard during search flight. 10 February 1934, test flight & later aerobatic trainer. Written off 24 October 1936.
D-40 8 August 1930, recorded in service. 10 March 1933, last recorded flight.

Fokker Netherlands Construction Numbers Applied to ex-German Airframes
C/N Type Date Notes
12-14 D.VII 1920 4432-4434. To USAAC
41-44 D.VII 1921 KNIL
46 D.VII 1921 KNIL but crashed before delivery
47-48 D.VII 1921 KNIL
49-98 D.VII 1922 To USSR.


Poland
  
  Polish airmen encountered Fokker’s planes during the Great War, while flying in the Central Powers aviation. The most famous were Lt. Sylwester Garsztka from the German Jasta 31 or Oblt. Marian Gawei, who tested the Fokker E.V (113/18) for Austro-Hungarian aviation.
  From mid-1915 Kapiton Wlodzimierz Zagdrski, the Chief of Staff of the Polish Legions Command established under the Austro-Hungarian crown, strove to create an autonomous Air Division of the Polish Legions. Money was collected and attempts were made to buy planes in Vienna. He also tried to place six selected NCOs in the Aviation School in Aspern and/or in Kampfeinsitzerschule Warschau-Mokotow. Unfortunately, the Austrians had problems providing airplanes, because production for the needs of their own front aviation was inadequate. These are also such ‘achievements’ as the Voisin plane (from the 3rd Air Division of the Sth Russian Army, Pilot Wlodzimierz Hellmann-SWIA and observer, Lieutenant pilot Konstanty Antonievich Czerniatynski, O.K.) shot down by soldiers from the staff company of the Legions Headquarters or Fokker D.V from Kampfeinsitzerschule Warschau-Mokotow, which had an accidental landing near the Legionnaires’ position, could have been a free gift.
  Unfortunately, due to strong protests by the German command, both planes were returned to the Germans.
  Ultimately, it was possible to train in various aviation schools belonging to the k.u.K. probably only four legionary non-commissioned officers: Lieutenant Janusz de Beaurain, platoon leader Antoni Poznahski, Corporal Grzybowski, and platoon leader Zawisza, who later became very useful in the newly created Polish Aviation.
  Until the peace treaty signed at Versailles came into force, the Germans had legally or semi-legally sold several hundred D.VII fighters abroad. Fokker D.VII fighters also found their way to Poland via such routes. Their exact number is difficult to determine.
  In Polish aviation there were four types of numbering: - the original German one from Lawica Aviation Station (Stacja Lotnicza Lawica) and two series from the Central Aviation Workshop in Warsaw (Centralne Warsztaty Lotnicze CWL): series 18 for D.VII F with BMW engines and series 22 for D.VII with Mercedes engines. Some planes had their airframe number changed three times. Therefore, it is impossible today to give the exact number of D.VII Fokkers. The table shows the list that was established for the Fokker D.VII aircraft in Poland.
  Poland received about 50 machines, of which: 25 were purchased in Germany, 20 in France; two were obtained in Wielkopolska reclaimed land; and three came from the assignment of the Entente War Reparations Commission. They included Fokker D.VII fighters were from all manufacturers of the type: Fokker, Albatros, O.A.W., powered by Mercedes D.III and D.IIIa, or BMW.IIIa.
  The examples completed in 1919, had Conrad engines from Niedersachsische Motoren-Werke: NMW C-III with 132 kW (180 HP) and Nationale Automobil Geselschaft NAG C-III.
  During the Polish-Bolshevik war of 1919-1920, D.VII fighters were the basic equipment of the following squadrons: 2nd Wielkopolska (Region) Aviation Squadron (2 Wielkopolska Eskadra Lotnicza), then 13th Fighter Squadron (13. Eskadra Mysliwska) and 4th Wielkopolska (Region) Aviation Squadron (4 Wielkopolska Eskadra Lotnicza),then 15th Fighter Squadron (15 Eskadra Mysliwska). In smaller numbers, the Fokkers D.VII were used in the 10th Reconnaissance Squadron (10 Eskadra Wywiadowcza) and the 19th Fighter Squadron (19 Eskadra Mysliwska). They took part in combat operations on the Wielkopolska region of Poland and Lithuanian-Belarusian Fronts, in the Battle of Warsaw, in the Battle of the Nemunas, on the Southern Front near Lviv and near Zamosc. They were used for offensive operations, the pursuit of Bolshevik planes, for bombing, for cavalry strafing operations and for liaison flights.
  An interesting technical episode was the equipment of the Fokkers with the 15th Fighter Squadron in April 1920 with under-fuselage bomb carriers for two 12.5-kg P.u.W. bombs and simple bomb rack, mounted at fuselage side, for fragmentation bombs (Wurfgranate 15’s - called in Poland Little Mouses). Probably the first bomb attack carried out in groups by five D.VII’s from the 15th Fighter Squadron was the spectacular 19 May 1920, air raid on the Rudnica railway station, to destroy the military transports there.
  After the war, Fokkers were the basic equipment of the 13th and 15th fighter squadrons in the 3rd Aviation Regiment (3rd PL).
  The intention of the command was to standardize the equipment in the units. It was therefore intended to equip the 13th Fighter Squadron with the Fokker D.VII with Mercedes D-III engines, and the 15th Fighter Squadron with the BMW-IIIa powered Fokker D.VIIF. This was partially successful.
Five Polish pilots died flying the D.VII during Polish-Russian War: two each from the 13th and 15th Fighter Squadrons and one in the 3rd Aviation Group. Two were in combat, two for unknown reasons and one credited to pilot error. The latter was the accident of Capt. pil. Stefan Bastyra on 6 August 1920, at the Lviv aerodrome. The new Fokker No. 501/18 crashed on take-off, probably caused by the pilot’s fainting. Fokker D.VIII fighters in Polish aviation were also used for pilot training. They found themselves in the equipment of the Higher School of Pilots in Lawica (Wyzsza Szkola Pilotow w Lawicy), and then in Grudziadz, in the Pilot’s School in Bydgoszcz (Szkola Pilotow Bydgoszcz) and in the training squadrons of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Air Regiment.
  In the second half of the 1920s, the Fokkers began to be withdrawn from use. In 3rd Air Regiment (3.PL) they were replaced with Ansaldo Balilla fighters. In the years 1925-1927 the CWL “18” series of D.VIIF planes with BMW. Ill engines were in the equipment of the newly created 11th Fighter Air Regiment (11 Mysliwski Pulk Lotnicz - 11.MPL), which in mid-1925, before being transferred to Lida, was formed at the Warsaw/Mokotow airfield. In 11th Fighter Air Regiment (11.MPL), from squadrons 113rd and 114th, they were withdrawn in the spring of 1926. At that time, several were assigned to the newly formed fighter squadrons 3rd Air Regiment (3PL): 117th and 118th, which however, were disbanded after a few months.
  In September 1926, there were six D.VII Fokkers in the Aviation Park of 11th Fighter Air Regiment warehouse, including four airframes without engines. These were planes with the following numbers: 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.6, 18.8 and 18.10. Half a year later, on 28 March 1927, they were practically withdrawn from service, orders were sent to the regiments to send their spare Fokker D.VII parts to the CSL in Deblin.
  In November 1927, the army had three Fokkers D.VII fighters for sale (one operational, two for renovation), which were not subject to the ban on flights.
  The longest surviving Fokker D.VII was No. 18.6, sent on 22 November 1928, from 11 FAR to Cassation at Zaklady Mechaniczne Plage & Laskiewicz ZMP&L in Lublin. The well-known instructor Pawel Zoltotow tried to acquire this aircraft for sports purposes, but in the meantime - on 27 November 1929, the last D.VIIF in Poland was dismantled and the transaction did not take place.
  The Fokker D.VII aircraft was well-liked by Polish pilots.


Romania

  Rumania received a large quantity of aeronautical material when they left Hungary. Some 150 aircraft of different types and in different conditions were obtained and included the following Fokker 25 Fokkers: 93.10 to 93.26. H.1, H-4 to H.10. Hungarian sources state that three Fokker D.VII biplanes were taken from the Magyar Repulogepgyar (Hungarian General Aircraft Factory), seven D.VII, two D.VI, one experimental D-type, and one original Fokker (V22?) from MAG. The entire surviving aircraft of the 8th Voros Repuloszazad were included in those taken back to Rumania.
  Rumania did use the Fokker D.VII in the war. A report of 26 May 1919, mentioned two Fokkers captured at Debrecen, and that one had had its markings changed and was pressed into service. In June D.VII 76.06 was recorded as serving with Grupul 5 aviatie.
  The collapse of the Hungarian Soviet regime led to 150 aircraft being captured by the Rumanians, and an infusion of 26 Fokker D.VII and 16 Aviatik Berg D.I fighters into the Rumanian air arm. However, little appears to have been recorded as to their use, the Fokkers virtually disappear from Rumanian records. In March 1920, a Lt Nicolac Cottache arrived in Vienna where he was to purchase tyres that were suitable for Fokker and Berg fighters. Photographs of Fokkers in Rumanian markings have yet to surface.


Russia

  Soviet Russia came out of the October Revolution and the Civil War, despite intervention by the Allied powers. By the end of the Civil War the Red Army’s air units were composed of a miscellaneous collection of aircraft. About 500 different Fokker aircraft were purchased from Fokker’s company in the Netherlands between 1922 and 1924. Included in these were a number of D.VII fighters. Fifty D.VII fighters are recorded by Fokker as having been sent to the Russia in 1922. They were powered by the 185-hp BMW engine.
  In the early spring of 1922, the Soviet trade mission reviewed the 50 fighters in Amsterdam, one machine was selected and test flown by the German pilot G Rother. The test was considered satisfactory and the fighters were purchased for the Soviet Government. Armament was two Vickers synchronized machine guns. These were later converted to take Russian 7.62 mm ammunition.
  The fighters were disassembled, and shipped to the Soviet Union port of Leningrad. Fokker sent a mechanic, G Schmidt, with the machines to assist in the reassembly of the fighters.
  From March 1922, the D.VII fighters were allotted to the 1st Fighter Squadron in Trotsk near Petrograd, and the 2nd Fighter Squadron in Kiev. The allocation for each squadron was to be 19 FD.VII fighters as the type was referred to in Soviet documents.
  The Soviet pilots and mechanics found the D.VII to be quite simple to fly, rugged, and reliable. It could take hard handling without stress failure. In September 1922, the 1st Squadron flew 17 of its FD.VII fighters to Moscow. In 1923, the 3rd Fighter Squadron (renamed 2nd Squadron) took part in the manoeuvres of the 1st and 2nd Cavalry Corps in the Ukraine. Three FD.VII fighters suffered accidents during this time.
  The 1st School for Military Pilots in Moscow utilized three FD.VII fighters. In September 1922, the head of the School, N.P. Ilzin, was killed in a mid-air collision with a Nieuport 17 flown by a cadet pilot.
  The FD.VII was replaced by the Fokker D.XI, the 3rd Fighter Squadron receiving the new machines in January 1925. The FD.VII fighters that were still serviceable were utilized to form the first naval fighter squadrons. In 1927 when the naval squadrons were absorbed into the air force, there was a total of 37 FD.VII fighters still serviceable in the air force, making up about a quarter of the air forces small force of fighters.
  By now the FD.VII fighters were showing their age. Many were deleted as ‘Service life expired,’ and ‘dilapidated’ appeared on maintenance reports. They were recovered and had their engines replaced. The importation of engines had stopped and they mechanics had to rely on those previously obtained. Accident due to engine failure increased. On 31 October 1927, two accidents occurred on the 50th Squadron, the pilot of one, Matveyev, being killed. In July-September 1928 there were eight accidents due to causes such as wheels blowing out on landing, cowling panels opening in flight and radiators leaking. Despite all this the 50th Detachment continued training with the FD.VII fighters. In 1929 the 50th Detachment was disbanded, and from this point on no Soviet unit was ever fully armed with the FD.VII.
  In 1931 there were only about a dozen of the fighters in use. By the end of 1932 there were only four, and by December the following year only one, that was soon written off.
  At the secret German flying school at Lipetsk since the summer of 1925, a couple of D.VII fighters were in use during the years 1926-1929, along with the majority Fokker D.XIII fighters of the school. The Germans left in 1933 after the Nazis came to power.


Sweden
  
  Sweden was offered 141 D.VII fighters in January 1920, if 26 others could be transported to Sweden. 13 were for South America and 13 were to be kept for later use by the Reichswehr. The latter were to be taken over by the Swedish Army if not taken up by Germany in five years. This offer was not taken up.
  In 1919 Herman Goering joined the Svenska Lufttrafik AB company as a pilot. He brought his Fokker D.VII F7716/18 with him. The F in the serial designation indicated that it was powered by a 185-hp BMW IIIa engine. This machine was purchased by the Swedish Army on 16 April 1920, and entered service with the Flygkompaniet (Army Aviation Service) with the serial No. 937. It appears that the machine was not armed and was used as an advanced trainer. No. 937 was recorded in April 1922, when it was withdrawn from service due to wear and tear. Its fate is unknown.


Switzerland
  
Switzerland's Fokker D.VII Fighters

  The Swiss Fliegertruppe obtained two Fokker manufactured D.VII fighters in 1920 from private hands. They were given serials Nos. 608 and 609. They performed well and more were acquired.
  In 1921, the Swiss authorities purchased ten used German D.VII fighters through the Allied Control Commission. Eight were powered by the Mercedes D.III and two were D.VII F with the B.M.W. engine.
  The Eidgenossische Konstruktions-Werkstatte (K+W) Thun, selected No. 615 selected to have its Mercedes engine replaced by a 300-hp Hispano-Suiza 8Fb engine. The installation on a test basis. Although the performance was slightly improved with the more powerful engine, the flight characteristics were not satisfactory. Also, the machine could not be armed as no synchronising gear was available.
  When No. 615 was refurbished in 1932, a Mercedes D.III engine was installed and provision was made for the pilot’s back-pack parachute. It continued to serve until 1938. It appears that no photographs of the D.VII with the Hispano-Suiza engine have survived.
  The other seven Albatros-built Mercedes engined fighters (Nos. 616 - 622) were also refurbished by K+W and emerged with the stringers on the fuselage sides, a recognition feature of Swiss D.VII fighters. The two D.VIIF fighters with the B.M.W. motor, Nos. 623 and 624, were prized by pilots due to their greater flight performance and quiet engine running. They were withdrawn from service in 1938 due to their age.
  Six Albatros-built Fokker fighters were purchased from the Allied Control Commission by Alfred Comte in 1925. After his company had refurbished these Mercedes D.III powered fighters, they were taken into the air force as Nos. 625 to 630.
  In November 1920, the Swiss military pilot Carl Hogger from Dubendorf, purchased an unarmed OAW-built Fokker D.VII for private use from war stocks in Berlin. He flew this in stages to Friedrichshafen, the then Allies customs airport, and from there flew to Dubendorf.
  Since the German custom officials had no instructions covering civil aircraft, Hogger, with the assistance of airport staff, was able to start his Fokker out of the empty Zeppelin shed and fly over the customs post at a height of about 100 m to Switzerland. Then, together with his friend, Alfred Comte, the pair advertised the air force on many flying days with the D.VII, now with the civil registration CH-46, until the end of 1925.
  In January 1926, this aircraft was taken over by the air force for training purposes with the serial No. 631.
  In 1928 the flying service were successful in obtaining ten brand new Mercedes D.III engines through a wholesale company in Zug. These were most probably the ten that Belgian sold to Comte. Alfred Comte’s company in Oberrieden had grown into an aircraft factory and he built eight D.VII fighters under license. The new engines were to go to these aircraft, Nos. 632 - 639.
  These were the last batch of D.VII fighters obtained by the Swiss Fliegertruppe. They served up to 1941, a then exceptional length of service for a 1918 design.
  Nos. 608 to 609 and 615 to 624 were acquired without armament. All Swiss D.VII fighters were fitted with two machine guns, and in 1932 with provision for a Salvator parachute. The D.VII had a flying time of 600 hour in the air. No. 631 had an extra tank that allowed for 4 hours instead of the three hours flight time and a range of 600 instead of 400 km.

Fokker D.VII
Serial Entered Service Notes
608 07.01.1920 10146/18, Albatros built. Destroyed in emergency landing 13 August 1929; pilot Oblt O Carmine.
609 20.03.1920 6050/18, built by OAW. Retired 21 February 1938.
615 13.03.1923 300-hp Hispano-Suiza 42 8 Fb engine. Retired 21 February 1938.
616 11.12.1922 Crashed at Kloten, 8 February 1929, pilot Oblt H Karnbach.
617 11.12.1922 Crashed at Hegnau, 9 August 1930. Lt E Pickel of Fl Kp 4, killed. Collision with Dewoitine No. 671.
618 11.12.1922 Retired 19 February 1938.
619 24.11.1922 Retired 21 February 1938.
620 11.12.1922 Crashed at Kloten, 7 July 1928; pilot Lt P Pieth.
621 24.11.1922 Retired 22 February 1938.
622 02.09.1922 Retired 18 February 1938.
623 24.11.1922 B.M.W. IIIa. Crash landing, 14 May 1923; pilot Oblt K Immenhauser
624 11.12.1922 B.M.W. IIIa. Retired 22 February 1938.
625 02.04.1925 Crash landing at Murten, 18 March 1932; pilot Lt H Honegger.
626 04.05.1925 Retired 21 February 1938.
627 01.05.1925 Crashed 7 August 1927. Oblt A Guex of Fl Kp 15 killed.
628 28.05.1925 Retired 19 February 1938.
629 30.03.1926 Retired 19 February 1938.
630 09.12.1926 Retired 16 February 1938.
631 06.11.1920 Previously CH-46. To Fliegertruppe in January 1926. Flown to Berlin, 31 December 1936, by Ernst Udet as D-EIRA.
632 02.12.1929 Retired 16 January 1941.
633 01.11.1929 Retired 10 January 1941.
634 01.11.1929 Retired 10 January 1941.
635 18.11.1929 Crashed and hit a tree at Montpreveyres 26 January 1932. Maj E Primault.
636 18.11.1929 Crashed at Lausanne, 7 March 1931, pilot Oblt. P. Robert.
637 27.12.1929 Crashed at Thun, 6 September 1935. Pilot Lt A Berger killed.
638 23.12.1929 Retired 21 November 1941.
639 30.12.1929 Retired 26 November 1941.
Note: All 160-hp Mercedes D.IIIa unless noted otherwise.
Source: ‘Fokker D.VII.’ Cockpit, Switzerland, February 1981. P.36. Additional notes by F Gerdessen.


Turkey

  Seven Fokker D.VII aircraft were received by the Ottoman army in October 1918, presumably at their main aviation centre at Yesilkoy (San Stefano), now a suburb of Istanbul and home to Istanbul Ataturk Airport. The Fokkers were given Ottoman serials FD9 to FD15.
  Three D.VII fighters (FD10, FD13 and FD14) were despatched to the squadron at the Dardanelles (6’nci Boluk or 6th Flying Company). They arrived on 13 October 1918, but were not flown. That same day, the German pilots, who comprised the majority of the squadron, ceased flying. The Macedonian front had collapsed and Allied forces were free to march on Istanbul (Constantinople). To avoid capture, German pilots and mechanics made for home via the Black Sea and Russia. (When the first RAF aeroplane landed on 2 November 1918, at the 6th Flying Company’s Galata aerodrome, no German officers were present.) With German personnel gone, no Turkish pilots and mechanics could operate the aircraft. Presumably the Fokker D.VII fighters of the Dardanelles squadron were then transported back to Yesilkoy by sea across the Marmara.
  (Note: Armistice of Mudros was concluded on 30 October 1918 and took effect at noon the next day, 31 October. Article 19 stated: All Germans and Austrians, naval, military, and civilian, to be evacuated within one month from the Turkish dominions: those in remote districts to be evacuated as soon after as may be possible.)
  The other four Fokker D.VII fighters (FD9, FD11, FD12 and FD15) had been retained by 9th Flying Company (9’uncu Boluk) at Yesilkoy. This squadron guarded the Ottoman capital against Allied aerial attack, a relatively frequent occurrence in 1918.
  Turkish sources state that the D.VII, the most modern aircraft in Ottoman air service, were conspicuous by their absence when the Royal Air Force bombed Istanbul in mid-October 1918. The Fokkers may not yet have been operational, or their German pilots unwilling to risk their lives in a battle that was clearly lost. There is a suggestion that the D.VII was assigned exclusively to German pilots.
  However, one action by Turkish D.VII fighters has been recorded. It took place on 25 October 1918, the day when the Allies last overflew Istanbul in anger. Five Ottoman aircraft ascended from Yesilkoy to intercept a flight of D.H.9 bombers that was reported to have crossed the Dardanelles. The defenders were a disparate group, comprising an Albatros D.III, Nieuport 17, Halberstadt D.V and two Fokker D.VII fighters. The Ottoman flight had perhaps little time or training to cooperate as a unit. Squadron commander Captain Fazil Bey in the Albatros D.III circled south-east over the Sea of Marmara. The Fokkers, piloted by newly-arrived German lieutenants Kretzner and Dickmann, headed north-east following the Bosphorus. The Halberstadt had a problem with its ailerons and had to return to Yesilkoy, the Nieuport following when it ran out of fuel. At 2.45 pm, Fazil Bey spotted five D.H.9s. At this time, he was over Uskudar, on the Asian shore of Istanbul. The Fokkers were now some nine kilometres north, over Stenia Bay. He fired a few rounds from his machine gun in warning but the German pilots seemed unaware of the signal. Fazil Bey took on the D.H.9s alone, watched by the whole city. Badly wounded in the brave attack, he managed to land at Yesilkoy just before passing out. The D.H.9s, flying in V formation according to Fazil Bey, were from No. 226 Squadron RAF, based at Marsh Aerodrome on the Aegean island of Lemnos. They were undertaking a photographic reconnaissance of the battlecruiser Goeben (flagship of the Ottoman Navy, Yavuz Sultan Selim) in Stenia Bay. The RAF pilots reported being attacked by three aircraft (an Albatros, a Fokker and an unknown type) before reaching Istanbul. The Albatros was, according to their report, shot down and crashed on landing, the ‘Fokker’ broke up in the air and the third machine did not come within fighting range. It seems likely that the D.H.9s, who successfully completed their reconnaissance, did not encounter the D.VII, whose pilots were disgraced in Turkish eyes.
  When the armistice was concluded with the Ottoman empire, Allied units took control of Yesilkoy air station. HMS Empress anchored off Yesilkoy on the evening of 11 November 1918. British and Greek aircraft landed at the aerodrome on 14 November, and overflew Istanbul during the taking of the city.
  For a short time, Yesilkoy air station was used by both Ottoman and Allied airmen, thanks to the intervention of Louis de Goys de Mezeyrac. The Frenchman, a distinguished pilot in the war, was part of the occupation forces, but had been a colonel in the Ottoman army commanding the Yesilkoy training school between 4 March and 5 August 1914 (when war broke out). The good agencies of de Goys de Mezeyrac did not spare the Ottoman airmen for long. A month or so later, the British demanded that the Turks abandon Yesilkoy within three days. Some equipment was saved and 45 aircraft were transferred by sea to Maltepe, on the Asian side of Istanbul. Among them were six Fokker D.VII fighters (FD10 to FD15). The remaining D.VII (FD9) was abandoned with 15 other old or unserviceable aircraft at Yesilkoy.
  Ottoman personnel attempted to circumvent Allied prohibition of military aviation by establishing the Turkish Air Transport Foundation under the Postal Ministry. Facilities at Maltepe were limited, with four hangars but no dedicated workshop. According to Turkish sources, a suitable airfield was denied to them as the British wanted it for polo. A landing field had to be improvised surreptitiously under cover of it being a football ground. Petrol was also scarce. By May 1920, four aircraft (a Fokker D.VII, two Albatros C.III and an Albatros D.III) had been readied for flight. A failed attempt was made to fly these aircraft from Maltepe to join Mustafa Kemal’s nationalist forces. In response, the British army of occupation seized the aircraft and equipment at Maltepe. On 12 July 1920, “Q" Force R.A.F., consisting of headquarters No. 55 Squadron (D.H.9s and 9As) and aircraft park arrived at Haidar Pasha, and took over the air station. On 17 July 1920, grenades were tossed at the parked and stored aircraft, although few details are available. Presumably the five remaining Turkish D.VIIs were destroyed on that day. On 25 June 1920, the Air Force Inspectorate of a reorganised Ottoman army had been formally abolished and all personnel transferred. These events mark the end of the Ottoman army air service.
  This section on the Turkish Fokkers was written by Bernard de Broglio.

Fokker D.VII in Ottoman/Turkish Service
Ottoman
Serial German Military Number Werke Nummer Unit Assigned Fate
FD9 5203/18 5749 9th Flying Company, Yesilkoy Abandoned at Yesilkoy
FD10 5291/18 5980 6th Flying Company, Dardanelles Transferred Maltepe
FD11 5297/18 5896 9th Flying Company, Yesilkoy Transferred Maltepe
FD12 5303/18 5902 9th Flying Company, Yesilkoy Transferred Maltepe
FD13 5331/18 5950 6th Flying Company, Dardanelles Transferred Maltepe
FD14 5332/18 5981 6th Flying Company, Dardanelles Transferred Maltepe
FD15 5336/18 5935 9th Flying Company, Yesilkoy Transferred Maltepe


Ukraine

  The Ukraine had at least one Fokker D.VII fighter in its short-lived independence after WWI.


United Kingdom

  The UK received many captured aircraft during the war years. They were tested where possible for information to be distributed to front line pilots as to their weaknesses, etc. More aircraft were received due to the Armistice provisions and many Fokkers were amongst them. Some were turned into British squadrons on occupation duty in Germany and did not make their way back to the UK.
  In June 1919, Halberstadt 8078/18, Fokker 4595/18 and Fokker 7618 were received by the National War Savings Committee in Trafalgar Square for the purpose of the Victory Loan Demonstration.
  It is understood that these machines will be broken up for the purposes of the Victory Loan Campaign, and the Department of Aircraft Production wanted to know the manner in which these machines should be written off charge of Martlesham Heath.
  A single Fokker D.VII came onto the British civil register. G-EANH was registered o 18 September 1919, to a J Forgan-Potts. It received no Certificate of Validation that was required for aircraft imported from abroad. Cancelled September 1920.
  An original Fokker D.VII is in the RAF Museum collection.This is O.A.W. 8417/18. It is said to have been one of the civil D.VII fighters from the film L'Equipage - OO-AMY. Reregistered as OO-UPP it suffered a forced landing near Paris on 6 July 1927. As was typical of these machines, it contained parts from a number of different D.VII fighters. Richard GJ. Nash found a D.VII, either OO-UPP or OO-AMH near Versailles. This machine he acquired and brought back to the UK for the Nash Collection in 1938.
  With the outbreak of WWII the machine was stored. In 1950 it went to No. 39 Maintenance Unit, RAF Colerne, Wiltshire, for restoration. It was displayed again for the first time since WWI in July 1950 at the RAF display at Farnborough. In December 1953, nine aircraft of the Nash Collection were purchased by the Royal Aeronautical Society, and the D.VII was included in this purchase.
  The D.VII was displayed through 1957 and then stored. In 1963 it was moved to the RAF Museum storage facility at RAF Henlow along with the former Nash Bleriot XXVII, S.E.5a and Sopwith Camel. It appears that during this time the civil modifications of tanks in the wing centre section were removed and an original Mercedes D.III engine was fitted. Displayed in 1966 it moved back into storage. In 1992 the Nash Collection was purchased from the Royal Aeronautical Society by the Ministry of Defence on behalf of the RAF Museum. Restored at the RAF Museum Restoration Centre at Cardington to be as close as possible to a 1918 D.VII in lozenge camouflage fabric. Now on display in the RAF Museum.


United States of America
  
  By December 1918, the US Air Service in France had taken over 30 new D.VII fighters, that had been completed just after the war ended. In January, 74 more were obtained. What is most remarkable about the Fokker fighters received in Europe was that the USAS took a number into service with the AEF squadrons posted to ensure the Armistice demands were met. These included: 4086/18, 4097/18. 4568/18, 6425/18, 6426/18, 6430/18, 6520/18, 6646/18, and 6722/18.
  USAS reports in January 1919, listed the Fokkers amongst the aircraft that were left behind by the Germans.
  Five of the serviceable D.VII fighters have been issued to the list (sic), 9th, 12th, and 91st Aero Squadrons, namely: - 5, 6,12, 20, 23... Some of these have already been crashed by the Squadrons.
  Those Fokkers that can easily be made serviceable by the replacement of damaged or missing parts are numbers 2, 4, 7, 8, 9,10,11,15,19, 24, 26, 27, 29. Considering the number of D.VII fighters brought back to the USA, it is interesting to note that the report lists the following types at Treves that should be sent to the United States for test and study: The Pfalz D.XII, D.F.W. C.V, Halberstadt CL.II, CL.IV, and C.V, A.E.G.J.II, G.IV, L.V.G. C.VI, Rumpler Rubild and C.IV, and Hannover CL.IIIa are listed, but no mention is made of the D.VII. It is therefore assumed that a decision had already been made to collect as many airworthy D.VII fighters as possible.
  A Memorandum of 1 January 1919, lists the aircraft loaded onto railway cars at Coblenz for the USA. It was recommended that the airplanes be accepted from the German Commission on the basis of previous inspection and flight tests made to day (sic). The list covers Fokker D.VII and Roland D.VIb fighters only.
  The adjacent table lists Fokker D.VII fighters that arrived by rail at Coblenz and were inspected on the RR Cars upon which they arrived.
  The 5th Shipment of rail cars containing aircraft to Coblenz contained Albatros D.III, D.V and D.Va, Pfalz D.III, D.IIIa, D.VIII and D.XII, Halberstadt D.III, Roland D. VIa, Fokker D. VI, D. VII and Dr.I fighters. The Fokkers are listed below:
  At Villers-le-Chevres, Cosnes, East and West Fields, and Tellancourt it was reported that It seems quite evident that when the Germans abandoned these airplanes they rendered them unserviceable by removing entirely some of the magnetos and the breaker points and distributers of others. Many new tires were deliberately slashed with a knife. It was noted that souvenir hunters had cut the insignia from the wings, tail and rudder of many of them, and removed or broke some of the instruments on some of them. The machines were now placed into hangars and boarded up and guarded.
  The US shipped 347 captured/surrendered enemy aircraft back to the USA in 1918-1919. The US was to receive more Fokker D.VII fighters than any of the Allies and to use them for military and civil service for many years; 142 were brought back to the USA. Unlike the British S.E.5a and French Spad S.13 fighters, they were not put into active squadron service. They were used as advanced trainers.
  The US House of Representatives passed Resolution No. 190 of 1 August 1919, calling for a report from the Air Service. This report listed every USAS depot and station with lists of the aircraft and engines that were on hand. A Report of Director of Air Service was completed by 4 December 1919, and printed in 1920. The report does not give all the information Congress asked for as some records were unavailable, contracts were still in place, and as far as the report covers material from overseas, had not been compiled owing to the fact that certain fields have been unable to inventory late shipments on account of the lack of personnel to handle the necessary uncrating and clerical work. The report does cover the
following Fokker aircraft:
  Five Fokker (type unknown) were at Ellington Station (Field).
  Three Fokker D.VII were at Hazlehurst Station (Field).
  An Inventory of Enemy Material in the U.S. 27 August 1919, listed the following Fokker aeroplanes out of a total of 176 enemy machines:
  One (1)Fok D.I.
  Two (2) Fok D.VI.
  Sixty-seven (67) Fok D.VII.
  One (1) Fok Dr.I.
  Two (2) Fok E.V.
  The Monthly Inventory of Aircraft’ for Fairfield Air Intermediate Depot (FAID) for 4 June 1921, listed a total of 672 aircraft and included the following Fokkers:
  Eleven (11) Fok. D.VII.
  Three (3) Fok D.6
  One (1) Fok E.V
  Two (2) Fok Triplane.
  Aircraft at McCook Field as of 31 May 1921, included eight Fokker D.VII and a single D.6 biplane, and two DV8. The latter are thought to be Fokker E.V/D.VIII monoplanes. There were 178 aeroplanes at McCook Field as of 31 May 1921. In the June 1921 report the number of D.VII fighters had increased to 11, the Fokker D.VI to three, one Fokker E.V was registered together with two triplanes.
  McCook had their own numbering system for aircraft that were used at the field. They were ‘P’ numbers and were carried on the rudder of the aircraft. The June reports included flying hours for Fokkers, identified by their ‘P’ numbers with their costs. The figures shown in the table are the same as in the report, why minutes were not converted to hours in not known.
  By the 1923 report, more modern Fokkers had been added to the inventory. The Fokker PW-5 had joined the CO-4 biplanes

The Fokker D.VII in the USAS

  As of 19 June 1920, there were 120 Fokker D.VII biplanes in the U.S., distributed as follows: 10 with 1st Pursuit Group at Kelly Field; 2 at Kelly Field; 26 at the A.S.M.S. at Kelly Field; 7 at McCook Field; 1 at Bolling Field; 18 at Americus Aviation General Supply Depot, GA; 21 at Fairfield Air Depot; 4 at Middleton Air Depot; 4 at Rockwell Air Depot; 3 at Dallas Repair Depot, TX; 2 at Montgomery Repair Depot, AL; 13 at Speedway Repair Depot, Indianapolis, IN; 5 at ‘Factories’; 1 Miscellaneous; 2 in transit.
  The following D.VII fighters were used by the Victory Loan Flying Circus that operated from March 1919, with Curtiss JN Jenny, Spad 7, S.E.5a and Fokker D.VII fighters, bringing to the American public the Air Service and show off the fruits of victory:
  The Fokkers would attack the Curtiss biplanes that were then rescued by the SE-5 and Spad fighters in a mock battle. The Victory Loan flights were used by the Air Service to collect information on landing fields the nature of the terrain flown over and for recruiting.
  The ‘First Transcontinental Reliability and Endurance Test’ was conducted by the Air Service from 8 to 31 October 1919. The Trial was to put Air Service personnel, equipment, and techniques to a most rigorous test and pave the way for future civil transcontinental routes. The Trial consisted of two flights, one from New York and the other from San Francisco; both running separately and independently on the same route. The aircraft that entered for the race comprised 46 US DH-4, six DH-4B, one DH-9 biplanes, two Martin Bombers, one Bristol Fighter (piloted by Brig Gen Lionel E.O. Charlton, British air attache), seven British SE-5a, three Le Pere LUSAC 11, one Italian Ansaldo SVA-5, one Thomas Morse MB-3, one French Spad and fine Fokker D.VII fighters.
  The Fokkers received the following race numbers: Nos. 2 (Col C.C. Culver); 3 (Maj Maxwell Kirby); 11 (Lt Col H.E. Hartney) on the New York to San Francisco section, and for the other section, Nos. 57 (2nd Lt F.W. Seifert) and No. 64 (Cdt J.A. Cardiff).
  Harold Evans Hartney made the East to West section in 48 hr 23 min 03 sec, and the round trip in 77 hr 17 min 20 sec. He was the winner of the Round Trip section of the test without changing his motor. Hartney’s achievement in crossing the continent both ways in his German Fokker D.VII was one of the highlights of the Test. He had been equipped with an auxiliary fuel tank and barely made it over the Rockies.
  Hartney wrote that I was fortunate or unfortunate enough to fly the German Fokker. It was one of their first type and had a 160 H.P. Mercedes low compression motor. Were I flying the race over again in a Fokker, I would insist on a high compression motion (sic) for the high altitude work and take one of the 180 Fokkers of which we have a number on hand. The performance of the latter is more than in direct proportion to the increased horse power.
  The German Mercedes 160-hp low-compression motors in the Fokkers gave a wonderful performance. No spares were needed and only a few minor adjustments to the magnetos, jets and plug points were made. ... The simple cheap construction of the Fokker and its peculiar wing section are both radical departures in airplane design, and designers will do well in the future to consider this machine and its very ingenious construction. For a long trip of this nature, necessitating quick refills, tanks must be made more accessible. The motor itself, is very accessible; any part can be reached and worked on with perfect ease.
  There were three accidents involving the Fokkers. No. 2 was damaged in a forced landing between Rochester and Buffalo, NY, due to heavy rain. This put him out of the test. No. 64 was damaged when landing at Salduro in a cross wind, and nosed over.
  The D.VII had the advantage that its engine was designed to run on low-grade fuel, so that the machines could land at any farmer’s field and get refueled with tractor fuel. Also, the engine was easily accessible, having being so designed, more so than any other competitors.

McCook Field

  McCook Field was obtained by the US government when they temporarily leased what was then known as North Field, some 254 acres, about one and a half miles from Dayton, Ohio, for the purpose of an experimental station for engineering purposes only. Opened on 1 October 1917, the facility was names McCook Field after a Civil War commander, General Alexander McDowell McCook who died at Dayton in 1903. On 5 December 1917, the Airplane Engineering Department moved from its Dayton offices to the McCook Field and the Airplane Experimental Station of the Signal Corps was in operation.
  When the field proved too small, the nearby Wilbur Wright Field was obtained for the testing of larger aircraft.
  The Engineering Division at McCook undertook the evaluation of the US Army Air Service, as the Signal Corps Aviation Section had become in May 1918, of US prototypes, foreign aircraft and post-war, ex-enemy aircraft. Some of the latter were given USAS serials, others used their old serial number, but McCook assigned P-numbers to all the aircraft that were used in the Engineering Division.

McCook Field Fokker D.VII P-Numbers

  The Engineering Division of McCook Field tested a D.VII to destruction. The Division then presented reports on the results of the static testing. The wing structure was tested on 3 December 1919. The wing cell tested was part of a German Fokker of the D. VII type turned over to this Government under the terms of the Armistice. It bore the identification No. 7774/18. This airplane is a single-seater pursuit biplane equipped with a 160-180 h.p., 6-cyl Mercedes engine.
  After a description of the unique wing cell, the report noted that When the load representing a factor of safety of 6.0 was applied, sharp cracking noises were heard in the upper wing near the inner strut point. This was apparently a slight giving of glue in the plywood leading edge reinforcement, for no further failure developed as the test progressed. The lower wing spars, front and rear, failed in bending at a factor of 10.7. No apparent damage was caused to the upper wing, the struts and fittings being all in good shape. The report concluded that the strength of the wing structure developed in this test, is highly satisfactory, and the wings represented an unusually efficient design.
  Other reports were given on the Chassis, Tail Surfaces, and fuselage.
  The D.VII was used to test US engines. What qualities the D.VII had over other available airframes for this purpose is not recorded, however, its rugged construction and easy adaptability to take larger engines made it the right aircraft at the right place at the right time. Pilot’s reports show that its qualities were well regarded by USAS pilots.

McCook P-127

  D.VII P-127 was selected to be tested with a 215-hp Liberty-6 Model A engine (Factory No. Thomas-Morse No. 3 A.S. No. 47841). It was Equipped as single-seater, pursuit. Night attack. The observations of the test pilot, Louis P Moriatry, for this report give an appraisal of the D.VII as a fighting machine as well as for this combination of engine and airframe.
  The flying qualities of this airplane are exceptionally good. In maneuvering it responds easily and rapidly, all the control surfaces being balanced and very effective. It is tail heavy on climb or in level flight with full engine, and nose heavy in a glide; at certain throttle positions it balances longitudinally. The lateral balance is normal. Very little effort is required in flying at normal speeds.
  The main advantage of this airplane in combat are its maneuver ability, which is very good; its visibility, which is much better than that of the average biplane, and its high stalling angle, which permits shooting almost vertically upward.
  The radiator has not sufficient surface to care of moderate air temperatures. On the other hand, the shutter arrangement does not give sufficient blanketing to prevent overcooling in colder air. Thus on a day when the temperature on the ground is in the neighborhood of 50° F., the engine will overheat at low altitudes and overcool at 15,000 feet.
  The oiling system has given considerable trouble, owing to the fact that the pump is above the level of the oil tank.
  The maintenance of this airplane is, on the whole, very simple, especially as regards the engine. The mounting gives easy access to spark plugs, distributors, carburetors, etc.
  The standard engine control which is installed in this airplane had certain disadvantages. The altitude control at times, jars open from vibration, and, if tightened so that this can not occur, is very stiff and difficult to operate. Another difficulty is the fact that there is no handle on the altitude control, making it impossible to determine how much is being used. This condition could be remedied by interchanging the altitude and spark controls.
  The Altitude control is closed by closing the throttle. This arrangement, thought very convenient for landing, is inconvenient in maneuvering and would be dangerous in combat, as it necessitates readjusting the altitude control each time the throttle is closed. It is believed that the disadvantage of a possible landing with the altitude open is more than the offset by the advantage gained in combat by making the altitude and throttle controls independent of each other.

McCook P-195

  P-195 had a Packard 1237 V-12 high compression engine, Factory No. 2; A.S. No. 94602, installed. A report was presented on this engine in 1922. The flying qualities of the D.VII with this engine were similar in most respects to airplanes of this type equipped with the standard B.M. W. or Mercedes engines, the most noticeable points of difference being in landing and maneuvering ability.
  Due to the increase in weight this airplane lands with considerably more speed than the standard Fokker, and rolls much further after being on the ground. It is not, however, a difficult airplane to land.
  The airplane is sensitive on the controls, but it stiffer laterally than the standard Fokker. On the whole it does not maneuver as nicely as the B.M.W. engined airplane, due presumably to the distribution of a greater amount of weight over a longer portion of the fuselage, which appears to hold the airplane in its given course, and to resist any turning moment. The airplane can, however, be maneuvered very quickly and nicely by the application of a greater amount of force on the controls than is required on the standard Fokker.
  The airplane is quite tail heavy in level flight wide open near the ground. This tendency disappears rapidly above 10,000 feet, and the airplane is perfectly balanced at an altitude of from 18,000 to 20,000 feet.
  The nose radiator cools the engine perfectly. It never overheated on the hottest days, and the shutters were generally required above 10,000 to 12,000 feet in the climb, being fully closed above 17,000 feet in both climb and speed courses.
  The general arrangement of the cockpit is good, as far as location of instruments, etc., is concerned. The throttle mixture control, shutters, and gas shut-off valve are all operated by levers and rods giving a very smooth, positive action, and delicate adjustment. They are the most satisfactory set of controls for these devices of any airplane I have ever flown. The placing of the seat and ruder bad is bad, however, making a most uncomfortable seating arrangement which practically paralyzes the pilot’s legs and body in a flight of two hours. Also the seat is so constructed that it is impossible to use a parachute with it.
  During the entire test the Packard engine ran perfectly, giving no trouble whatever, and requiring no adjustments of any kind. This engine runs with almost entire absence of vibration at any speed up to 2,000 revolutions per minute. It throttles perfectly and runs smoothly, without any roughness or difficulty in carburation, back-fire, or splitting at any desired speed. It had a remarkably quick and smooth acceleration and appears never to 'load up'. It is a very easy engine to start, generally starting the first time over.
  On the whole from the pilot’s standpoint it is a delightful engine to fly and maintain.
  The Report was signed by 1st Lt Muir S Fairchild, A.S., Test Pilot.

Performance of USAS Fokker D.VII Test Airplanes

Comparative Performance Data - Fokker D.VII

  The Aviation and Aircraft Journal reported that there were 44 entries for the 1920 Pulitzer air race. Civilian entries were three Ansaldo types, civilianised A.l Balilla fighters and SVA 9 biplanes, entered by the Eagle Flying Corp and Aero Import Co; and the Morane-Saulnier Company entered their A.l monoplane. The USN entered two Curtiss 18T Triplanes; two Loening; one Loening Special monoplanes; and six Vought VE-7 biplanes. The US Army entered 17 US DH-4; four S.E.5a; two each of Ordnance D and Thomas-Morse MB-3 fighters; one Verville-Packard racer; two Spads, one Sopwith Dolphin, and a Fokker D.VII with a 300-hp Packard engine. The pilot was Maj C.H. Walsh.17 The winner was the Verville-Packard closely followed by the Thomas-Morse MB-3 that had half the horsepower of the winner. Unfortunately, the Fokker did not enter the race as it turned over in snow at Buffalo en-route to the race and was withdrawn.

D.VII Biplanes Loaned to Industry

  The Hall-Scott Motor Car Company was loaned a D.VII for experimental research work with their L-6 aviation power plant. In an attempt to interest the Air Service in purchasing a similar machine, the Hall-Scott Company wrote to Brig Gen William Mitchell in May 1920, stating that This particular Fokker has been flown by the following distinguished pilots, the plane being equipped with our L-6, 200 HP power plant.
  Capt Eddie Rickenbacker.
  Capt E.M. Deckert - French Ace.
  Maj Reed Chambers.
  Maj Hallett Pilots D Davidson, Frank Clark and H.L. Burkhardt, three of the best civilian pilots upon the Pacific Coast.
  Notwithstanding the fact that the Company was trying to sell their engine, they say that the combination of the engine with the exceptional maneuver ability of this type plane, which is up to the present writing, according to their ideas, second to none.
  After considerable flying with our stock 200 HP engine installed, it was replaced by a special high compression L-6 engine. We also removed the gasoline tank and replaced same with a special seat gas tank, which gave ample room for a passenger so that a two-place job was made of this machine. We further developed a special release compression device that can be operated from the pilot’s seat enabling the engine to be stopped and started in the air without trouble. It has been found that Liberty equipment will stop in the air if throttled exceedingly low and stunted, when once stopped, it is impossible to get the propeller revolving due to the compression. With this new device, which is very simple and light, the motor can be restarted without trouble.
  The first flights with this plane made over into a two-place job were conducted by Captain Deckert. He stated that with full gas capacity and a passenger, the machine flew level at 1350 R.P.M. and that he could not notice any appreciable difference in the handling of same when equipped as a single seater. At 9000 feet the pin was pulled out of the throttle control, which we have set so that the engine will develop slightly in excess of 200 HP. up to this height, and pulled wide open; This allows the engine to turn up fully 150 R.P.M. more with a 7’pitch propeller and according to Capt. Deckert, was just like beginning a new flight, in that it seemed to double the power. This additional power at 10,000 feet or over will not cause any ill effects upon the engine and will allow throttling and yet maintain a speed well over 100 M. PH. with an approximate consumption of Gasoline from 8 to 9 gallons per hour.
  It was stated that the aircraft handled the same as the single-seat D.VII except when landing as the tail went down slightly faster with the passenger. The handling qualities are already known as not being surpassed by any similar type airplane of the present day. A photograph of a two-seater D.VII with the ‘Hall’ engine shows that the nose entry was cowled over and the radiator was let into the upper wing centre section. The article states that With this engine "Jimmy”Angel has flown the special Fokker over a measured course near Fresno, at a speed approximately 200 m.p.h. This was accomplished after the Fokker wing had been rebuilt at a slightly different curve. The plane so powered has a cruising speed of 150 m.p.h.
  Fokker D.VII A.S.94034 was fitted with a Packard 1A825 V-8 engine when, on 18 August 1923, it suffered a forced landing 30 miles S.W. of Cincinnati. The pilot stated that while flying cross country to Louisville, Kentucky, with engine functioning perfectly, same suddenly missed several explosions and immediately he heard a terrific noise and saw oil fumes coming out of engine section. The engine stopped suddenly and caused quite a jar to the airplane.
  The pilot reported that While flying at an Altitude of three thousand feet a slight knock and uneven firing of the motor was noticed. As there was no suitable landing field in sight the airplane was turned to the left towards the Ohio River, where afield could be found. Before the turn was completed the motor broke up with a terrific noise and jar. During the descent the propeller continued to turn and set up sufficient vibration to cause danger of the motor being torn from the plane.
  A landing was made in a small lot on the top of a hill and it was necessary to swing the ship into a fence to avoid tumbling down the hill slope which was very steep, and about 150 ft. to the bottom. The airplane struck the fence broadside and nosed over.
  A brief inspection of the motor showed a large hole in the crankcase where a connecting rod broke through. Pieces of bearings and pistons were found on the ground under the motor, and it is thought that the crankshaft had broken. The motor had flown 26 hours 6 mins since its lasts overhaul.
  The aircraft was to be salvaged. The motor was to be taken for inspection. The accident was found to be unavoidable and not due to the fault or neglect of anyone. This report does not include the pilot’s name, however, the Aircraft Accident Report does. It was 1st Lt J.H. Doolittle.
  At this time Doolittle had approximately 1,610 hours flying time, had been involves in three previous accidents, was considered an excellent pilot and had averaged 40 hours per month for the previous three months. At the time of the incident, Doolittle was flying with a civilian passenger, O.H. Snyder. The place where they came down was identified as Rising Sun, Indiana.
  Doolittle wrote in his autobiography that he wanted to combine flying and engineering as it would be good to have pilots and engineers understand each other, so he went to the McCook Engineering School. If I saw a new plane, particularly it was sleek and looked like it might have a fine performance, I wanted to fly it right then. At McCook he flew the Bristol XB-1A, Lawrence-Sperry M-1 Messenger, Fokker TW-8, French Morane-Saulnier 30 EP-1 Pursuit trainer, Fokker D.VIII, French Nieuport 27, Fokker CP4A observation plane, Junkers-Larsen JL-6 all-metal ground attack plane, and Lewis-Vought VE-t tandem trainer. There is no mention of the Fokker D.VII, so it appears that he did not consider it as sleek with a good performance!
  In his autobiography Anthony Fokker wrote that Some forty D-7s and a few D-8s, either captured or delivered after the Armistice, were brought back to McCook Field, at Dayton, by the United States Army Air Corps. They were flown for experimental purposes there, and gained a solid reputation for me amongst army aeronautical engineers. Fokker visited McCook in 1920 in order to find out the requirements of the Army’s air corps. He had a warm welcome and he soon returned to the USA with some of his latest products. The Chief of the Engineering Division, Maj Thurman H Bane, wrote that Frankly, we gave Fokker a lot of attention here. We even assembled the whole field and allowed him to show us some pictures taken during the war of German equipment and some moving films of his own types. We hailed him as a great man on all occasions and tried to make him think that he was being shown everything we had, but he did not see the things mentioned above. - the variable pitch propeller or any new engine development except the Packard 300 in his D.VII - He can build airplanes much cheaper than American designers and a whole lot simpler reference maintenance and probably almost as good in the long run. I should like to see him settle in this country. If he doesn't, he may join our friends the Japs which we might lead to regret at a later date. Bane thought highly of Fokker and noted that a Curtiss welded steel tube fuselage had been received and was undergoing sand testing at the present time. It is entirely possible that it may be all right, but it doesn’t look very good to me.
  The USAS did buy and try out various Fokker fighters and transports over the 1920s. Fokker was so successful that he established his own factory in the USA. The Atlantic Aircraft Corporation in 1922. One of its first major jobs was to provide 100 US Liberty DH-4 biplanes with steel tube fuselages.
  In addition to the D.VII loaned to the Hall Scott company, three were at the Boeing’s Settle plant. One of these was converted to a two-seater and used by the attached Air Service personnel, while the others were apparently torn to pieces to evaluate their design. One other was given to NACA at Langley Field. Through such direct inspection, as well as favorable Air Service and NACA technical reports, the D.VII had a very significant effect on subsequent U.S. aircraft design.

Fokker D.VII & the USN/USMC

  Perhaps the most unusual type to be considered for shipboard use as a shipplane by the USN was the Fokker D.VII. Shipplanes were fighter and reconnaissance aircraft flown from platforms mounted on capital ship turrets. The British pioneered this system in WWI and the USN was anxious to try it using Sopwith Camel and Nieuport 28 fighters, Hanriot HD-2 seaplanes concerted into landplanes, and Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutter reconnaissance biplanes.
  The US received a large number of the Fokker fighters as part of German war reparations and the Army operated a substantial number as described above. The Navy was interested in aircraft designed for the Army and vice versa. In October 1919, Commander J.C. Hunsaker noted items of interest at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio. With regard to the Fokker D.VII he wrote that the Fokker Showed the remarkable characteristic of hanging dead in the air at an angle of about 45 degrees, being suspended by the propeller thrust only. The plane appeared able to stand in this position for an almost indefinite length of time without falling over laterally.
  In February, 1920, the Navy expressed the desire to obtain two Fokker D.VII fighters for experimental shipboard use. This was probably the reason for the Bureau of C&R request that the distance for a D.VII be measured from start to take-off. With the high compression Mercedes motor' it was stated to be 179 feet in a 10 mph breeze, and 240 feet with the low compression motor and no wind.
  A Memo of April 9, ‘Plans for Atlantic Fleet’, noted that permission had been granted for 12 D.VII biplanes to be transferred from the Army without charge as excess war material. They were to arrange for them to be flown to Langley Field where Navy could take charge.
  The Secretary of War approved the transfer, without compensation, of 12 Fokker D-7 biplanes with 100% spare engines but no other spare parts, from the Army to the Navy. Six (6) of these aeroplanes will be shipped to the Marine Flying Field, Reid, Virginia and the other six (6) will be held in reserve for the Atlantic Fleet Air Detachment. The 12 aircraft were to be taken from Fairfield, Ohio, where they have been stored, to the Fleet Supply Base, Hampton Roads. They were expected to arrive there about May 24th. The condition of these planes is unknown to the Army and is, therefore, assumed to be doubtful. An effort is being made to have an inspection made. On 29 May it was proposed to ship the machines to the Marine Flying Field, Reid, Va.
  Only six Fokkers are mentioned in documents and it is thought that only these six were received from the Army and Nos. A-5849 to A-5854 were cancelled, and their Bureau Nos. were not reused. It appears that the USMC obtained all the Fokkers. According to F Gemeinhardt, only two Fokkers were put into flying condition. Only A-5845 can be confirmed from photographs. 2nd Lt Sanderson and Tex Rogers, at this time a 1st Lt, assembled a D.VII each as their personal aircraft. Rogers called his D.VII a dream machine.
  The two Fokkers were named ‘Hans’ and ‘Fritz’ (A-5845 and A-5848) after the characters in the popular 1920’s comic strip The Katzenjammer Kids. Gemeinhardt records that after Sanderson and Rogers left for the Caribbean, ‘Han’s (A-5845) was flown by an inexperienced pilot and suffered an engine failure over the Chompowampsig Swamp. The machine made a good pancake landing and was salvaged, but stricken as a result of its dunking.
  A-5848 was lost in 1922 when two airplanes collided above Quantico, Va., on April 17, while engaged in battle practice. The dead are 1st Leiut. Earl M. Randall, who was alone in a Fokker; 2nd Lieut. Duncan W Lewis, who was piloting a Vought VE7 (A-5964) and Private Joseph J. Dhooghe, who was acting as observer.
  The two planes which had been flying around each other, seeking to get above and behind each other, simulating a “dog fight," collided at an altitude of about 4000ft., as they came side by side. Their wings interlocked and then broke off entirely, and the two planes were said by witnesses to have fallen sideways to the ground.
  The Marine Corps was not to receive a modern fighter until the Being FB-1 arrived at Quantico in 1926.

Civil USA Fokkers

  Many D.VII biplanes entered the US civil market. The May 22, 1922, issue Aviation magazine published a list of aircraft and engines sold by the Government and listed 12 Fokkers and 10 Rumpler C.IV biplanes, amongst the 25 types of aircraft listed. Some went to Hollywood. For the 1927 film Wings, directed by William Wellman, a Fokker D.VII was crashed by ace stunt man Dick Grace. One of the heroes of the story, played by Dick Arlen, steals a German fighter from an airfield and while a D.VII takes-off in pursuit, he turns back and shoots it down on the airfield. Grace had to start and be at about 75 feet in the air when the other machine, a Curtiss P.I USAS fighter, painted up in German markings, flown by Thad Johnson, would simulate an attack that would bring the D.VII down.
  In preparation for the stunt, Grace drained all the gas out of the Fokker and poured just two gallons back as a precaution against fire. The undercarriage and struts were sawn partly through.
  At the red flag to indicate all was ready with the camera crew, Johnson gave the P.I the gun and was off in a cloud of dust. He made a beautiful climbing turn and verticled back in my direction. The blocks were from under my wheels now, too. I was also ready to take to the air, I glanced once more out the side of the cockpit to see if the field was clear and also to locate the spot where I was to kill the Fokker.
  When he reached the allocated spot, Grace shoved the stick forward. With a crash the wingtip went into the ground. The ailerons and the lower panel crumpled. The propeller split and shattered in a thousand different directions. I was satisfied. Everything was as I had figured. I was distributing my forces and my speed nicely.
  Then happened one of those little things of such inconsequence. The landing gear, which was of steel, withstood the first terrific jolt, and the solid beams of the wings did not break. With little of my speed slackened the injured wing lifted from the ground. The cross wind caught me, and I was in the air.
  My ailerons were useless, broken. I could not dig in a wing. If I travelled farther the shot would be entirely useless. My motor was already out. I had “cut it” when the propeller had first hit the ground.
  Now there remained but one course. I would have to nose the thing in, and a ‘nose in' is bad at any time. It meant that the full force of the crash would be transferred from the motor to the fuselage and to me.
  I pushed my chest against the belt so that there would be no snap as I hit, then I shoved the stick forward.
  Those that saw the crash said that Grace got out of the cockpit by himself. He crawled three feet away before he collapsed unconscious. What he did not realise was the he had broken his neck. He refused to go to hospital, posing for photographs with William Wellman, the director, and it was not until the following day, when he realized that something was seriously wrong with his neck, did he go to hospital to be told he had dislocated his sixth cervical vertebra and broke four others.
  Frank Tomick was another pilot who flew for Wings. He was nearly killed when a series of aerial bombs that exploded to simulate anti-aircraft fire came too close to his Fokker D.VII and he had to land with a badly damaged wing and one aileron missing. There appears to be no record as to the number of real Fokkers that flew for Wings. Film historian, James Farmer records that two D.VII fighters were crashed for Wings. If so, only one made it to the screen, and that is Grace’s crash.
  1927 saw the release of what film historians consider the second of the really great WWI aviation films, Howard Hughes’s Hell’s Angels. The aerial scenes have rarely, if ever been equaled and make up for the ridiculous plot. Hughes assembled as many genuine aircraft from the period as he could find. The British were represented by four S.E.5a ex-skywriters and Thomas-Morse S-4C fighters as Sopwith Camels, and the Germans by five original D.VII fighters. Travel Air 2000 biplanes, converted to Wichita Fokkers, were used to make up the numbers.
  One surviving Hell’s Angels D.VII was crashed for the 1935 Wallace Beery movie West Point of the Air. Paul Mantz refurbished the D.VII for the film. Although he was in charge of the aerial portions of the film, Mantz performed only a few of the aerial sequences, Fred Clarke doing the majority of the flying. Sadly, only four D.VII fighters survived their film careers.
  One of the Hell’s Angels survivors had been refurbished by Air Services in 1925/26, before it was sold to Dewey Ward in 1927. Ward owned a California winery and the aeroplane was a two-seat conversion with a Hall-Scott motor. Ward flew his D.VII for Hell's Angels. This D.VII now resides in the Canadian National Aeronautical Collection travelling there via Jim Mathiesen in 1971. Mathiesen’s D.VII was registered 1178. The machine has been restored to its WWI configuration with the University of Manitoba providing a Mercedes D.IIIa engine. The changes made to install the Hall-Scott engine were restored, including a new radiator that was made and installed as was the new oil/fuel tank. Work on the restoration was halted in 1975 when work was transferred to the Curtiss H-2L La Vigilance, but the correct serial of the machine had been discovered. It was 10347/18. In January 2019, the fully restored machine was received from The Vintage Aviator in New Zealand, in full lozenge fabric and its correct serial number.
  Paul Mantz’s D.VII would have the longest movie career of any D.VII. It was flown until at least 1963 within the Tallmantz Collection. The D.VII, identified as 3764, was fitted with a 200-hp Hall Scott L-6 engine and operated by Beacon Airways before being obtained by Howard Hughes for Hell’s Angels. The front cockpit was covered over for the film and when it was acquired by Paul Mantz, he fitted a Hisso engine behind a flat radiator. It was refurbished for Men with Wings, and now had an experimental license but kept the same number: NX3764. The aircraft was stored for a long time and the license lapsed and a new one was obtained by Mantz as N4729V.
  Sold in 1966 this D.VII went through a couple of owners before the Fokker Company purchased it in 1981 for $US 49,500 from the Wings & Wheels Museum at Orlando, Florida. It was moved to the Netherlands where it was completely rebuilt as a post-WWI LVA machine. The upper wing had been altered for the various roles the machine had played over the years. It had been strengthened and had two fuel tanks installed. It was decided to restore the aircraft to the configuration that the LVA would have received in the 1920s. The work was carried out by the Military Aviation Museum with Fokker building any missing or non-authentic parts that were necessary. The Navy was interested and carried out work on the fuselage and tail structure. The air force restored the Mercedes engine that came with the aircraft.
  Restored with the serial No. 266 and orange national markings, the aircraft was loaned to the Nationaal Militair Museum. When Fokker went bankrupt, the D.VII was again to be put up for sale. The Fokker Heritage Trust was formed to save the aircraft and the Museum joined with a substantial donation to help with the acquisition of the machine. After its acquisition it went on display at the Aviodome before to returned to Soesterberg where it remains today.
  Ever Sloniger, according to his son, won a D.VII in a poker game. A Hispano-Suiza replaced the worn-out Mercedes engine and the Nebraska Aircraft Corp (later the Lincoln Aircraft Corp) rebuilt the aircraft as a two-seater and Sloniger used it for transport for ‘Page’s Aerial Pageant.” In 1922, Sloniger was described as a stunt pilot whose antics with an airplane are simply astounding. He has never performed but to excite his audience to the highest pitch of excited enthusiasm. He does everything that a creative mind can think ofX The ultimate fate of this D.VII is unknown.

The Jarrett Fokker D.VII

  Col G.B. Jarrett established his Museum of World War History on the Steel Pier in Atlantic City in 1930 and it remained there for ten years. In early 1936, while in Hollywood, Garland Lincoln, my friend and a pilot of longtime movie association found a Fokker D. VII. Since the boys out there knew I wanted one badly they had kept their “eyes peeled. ” Garland told me he knew of a D.VII, where is, as is, and how is for a mere few dollars. We went in a car to find it out in a field. There on its nose and looking like a pile of rubbish in need of burning was a D.VII. The identification was by the tail standing in the air with its characteristic design. I took it. It had been flown in “Hell’s Angels”. Later its owner had swapped the Mercedes engine for an OX5, modifying the frame accordingly. Then he further embarrassed the poor D.VII by making it a two-seater. His faulty design had cost him his life some days prior to my purchase of it....
  It took me a year to rebuild the D. VII. I managed to get permission to buy original factory drawings from my friends at Wright Field. While not complete they did give me the necessary and critical dimensions. Rebuilding it was one of my most fascinating museum jobs.
  Jarrett found the lozenge fabric was a stickler. He dyed fabric by hand and considered the effect was near perfect.
  When the war broke out in Europe, he stored his collection of guns, aircraft and miscellaneous WWI items for the duration. It was not until 1946 that he saw his collection again. The Fokker, a Spad S.VII, Nieuport 28, Sopwith Camel and Pfalz D.XII went with him to Maryland, unfortunately the Fokker had to be junked. In a later article, Jarrett wrote that he covered the frame of the Fokker with Muslin and laid out the lozenge pattern, carefully painting he sections to dye”properly. The effect after doping, was satisfactory, but it took a lot of time.
  According to a letter from John Garwood published in Air Pictorial, the D.VII had been modified into a high-wing monoplane and that it crashed in 1929. Jarrett bought the fuselage from Balboni’s Hollywood junk yard in 1935. Jarrett had to build new wings for the machine.
  At least 13 Fokker D.VII biplanes received civil registrations when the US civil register was started in 1927.
Fokker D.VII 38.67, Czech Air Service, September 1921, Racing '16' applied for the First Air Meeting.
Belgian D.VII bearing the thistle insignia of the 9th Escadrille.
Belgian D.VII bearing the penguin insignia of the Wevelgem pilot's school.
Belgian D.VII bearing the Comet insignia of the 10th Escadrille.
Fokker D.VIIF 937 (ex-7716/18) after being flown to Sweden by ex-JG I leader Herman Goring. It was purchased and repainted in Swedish Air Service markings and used as a trainer. 1920.
Fokker D.VIIF 7716/18 Flown to Sweden by Hermann Goring
Fokker D.VII (OAW) sent to Canada postwar and flown by Major William G. Barker VC in the Toronto to New York air race of 1919. 50 was the roughly painted number he was assigned for the race.
Danish D.VII
Finnish D.VII (OAW) 8545/18 '1C357'
Latvian D.VII (OAW) '4' (ex-8595/18)
French D.VII (OAW) 6557/18
Netherlands D.VII LVA No. 251 with early form of national insignia.
Fokker D.VII 265 of Netherlands LVA
Fokker D.VII F-302 of Netherlands KNIL.
Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 22.04 (ex-8588/18), 2/Lt. Antoni Bartkowiak, 15 Eskadra Mysliwska, Lewandowka Aerodrome, Autumn 1920
Fokker D.VII (OAW) CWL No. 22.05 “Memento Mori" belonging to the 13th Fighter Squadron (13.EM). At that time, the planes of this squadron had personal emblems painted on the aircraft sides. The aeroplane was in original finish from the OAW factory.
Fokker D.VII 502/18 flown by Lt Wojciech Bialy, 15 Eskadra Mysliwska, Lewandowka Aerodrome, August 1920
Fokker D.VII (SLL No. 503/18) "Bi-Ba-Bo", belonged to pilot Lt. Jozef Hendricks, 15. Fighter Squadron (15.EM), August 1920. The “Bi-Ba-Bo" cupie doll was designed specifically by Mundek Dumnicki student and graduate of the Krakow Academy of Fine Arts for instructor Adam Haber-Wtyhski pilot of the school in Lawica before the plane was sent to 15.EM at the front.
Fokker D.VIIF 5768/18 Polish Air Service
Fokker D.VII 93.08, 8th Squadron, Red Hungarian Air Service Matyasfold aerodrome, April 1919
Fokker D.VII Nr.5, Lithuanian Air Service, 1927
Soviet D.VII
Fokker D.VII(OAW) 2113/18 USAS, Post Field, Oklahoma, circa 1920
Modified Fokker D.VII used for testing by the Packard Motor Company to test performance of the Packard V-12 Aero engines.
Fokker D.VII AS94034, USAS, McCook Field, 1923
The fully restored D.VII in the RAF Museum's facility at Hendon in 2012.
The "Knowlton Fokker" D.VII in its museum in Canada. This is one of the most authentic original Fokker D.VII fighters in existence and shows one variation of the original printed camouflage fabric applied to the D.VII (with some patches).
Fokker D.VII(Alb) 6810/18 preserved in its original finish at Knowlton.
Fokker D.VII(Alb) 6810/18 preserved in its original finish at Knowlton.
Top: Completed aircraft on display. Bottom: Aircraft during restoration.
The Museum's facility at Flugwerft Schleissheim in Oberschleissheim, now houses the D.VII. It is seen on display in 2016 with a reproduction Otto pusher.
Replica Fokker D.VII in the colors of one of Ernst Udet's aircraft.
The restored ex-Mantz Fokker D.VII that is now displayed at the Nationale Militaire Museum in the Netherlands.
The restoration of LVA Fokker D.VII No. 266: This Fokker D.VII has been variously known as (Alb) 2528/18 (w/n 504); '7745/18'; N4729V and N6268. It is now resplendent in the colours of the LVA D.VII No. 266 The history of this particular machine is covered in the USA section, however, as it now resides in the Nationaal Militair Museum as a LVA machine, the restoration photographs are presented here.
A Fokker D.VII tubular steel fuselage and tailplane survived for many years suspended in the vaulted hall at the Dubendorf military airfield. This was one of the D.VII fighters constructed by Alfred Comte. Reconstructed with new wings, etc., the restored aircraft is displayed in the Flieger Flab Museum, Dubendorf, bearing the false serial No. 640.
Mantz's original D.VII (NX-3764) with 220-hp Hispano-Suiza engine bore this colour scheme for a number of years.
This was the last scheme that the aircraft wore before going to the Netherlands - a tribute to Ernst Udet.
[7630/18 ?]
William Barker, with his left arm in a sling, besides Fokker D.VII F 7728/18 on Hounslow airfield on 20 April 1919. The fighter retains its twin Maxim 08/15 machine guns.
7729/18 photographed at Coblenz post-Armistice
Fokker D.VII F 7744/18 with the 25th Aero Squadron, Toul, post-Armistice. The Squadron's S.E.5a fighters are in the background.
Fokker D.VII F 7744/18 with the 25th Aero Squadron, Toul, post-Armistice. The Squadron's S.E.5a fighters are in the background.
D.VII F 7772/18 has a new windscreen arrangement and no armament. The D.VII fighters were flown in their German colours as trainers in the USAS. (AHT AL0385-12)
D.VII 7774/18 being sand loaded. This D.VII fighter was used for a variety of tests to prove its wing and fuselage structure that were tested to destruction. It was instrumental in the US moving away from wooden to steel tube fuselages.
Fokker D.VII F 7788/18 (w/n 3460) with BMW IIIA No. 1674, was accepted on 29 November 1918, after the Armistice. It was a new aircraft when it came into US hands. (via M O'Neal)
D.VIIF 7796/18 bears the insignia of the Air Service Mechanics School, Kelly Field, placed over the fuselage cross. The tail has been overpainted, but German insignia is left on the wings. Also, the machine is fully armed. The school moved to Chanute Field in 1922.
Fokker D.VII (Alb) 5324/18 photographed after the Armistice. This machine was examined by the British and was destroyed in October 1920, under orders from the victorious Allies.
D.VII (Alb) 5349/18 has the German insignia crudely overpainted. It appears to have full armament.
Fokker D.VII (Alb) 5353/18 in British hands post-Armistice. The area for the British cockade has been outlined on the German cross.
Fokker D.VII (Alb) 5477/18 was delivered to Sarreguemines post-Armistice.
This photo of 6810/18 is thought to have been taken soon after the war, and this time a Fokker-built rudder is installed, while the tail fin appears to be an Albatros-built component. This particular aircraft survives to this day, and is exhibited as the only unrestored surviving Fokker D.VII at the Lac-Brome Museum in Knowlton, Canada.
Note the Imperial Gift De Havilland D.H.9a in the background. Canada received 12 D.H.9a bombers to form an airforce.
Fokker D.VIII(ALB) 6810/18 in Canada postwar.
Another Albatros built D.VII in French hands.
There are three D.VII in this photograph. D.VII (O.A.W.) 6318/18 is the only one that can be identified.
OAW built 6344/18 in full Jasta colours and individual fuselage marking, in British hands post-Armistice, at Bavay on 11 March 1919. Possibly a Jasta 58 machine.
Someone had the foresight to mark the serial 6557 on the top of the rudder of this O.A.W. D.VII.
Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 6587/18 at Trier. 1st Lt Ralph E Spake in the cockpit. The machine is unarmed and a new windscreen fitted. The squadron insignia was later applied to this machine and it was eventually shipped to the US facility at Romorantin.
This is thought to be a photograph taken in the USA when the Fokkers were erected and flown in their original German makings and armament. O.A.W. 8331/18 leads the line-up of six D.VII fighters. The distinctive 'star' on the rudder of the second machine identifies it as 7756/18. Another O.A.W. built D.VII, 8392/18 is third in line.
A post-war lineup shot of six D.VIIs after being handed over to the Entente forces in accordance with the armistice agreement. The first and the third plane in this shot are examples from the final OAW.-batch, the other four are Fokker-built. Closest to the camera is 8331/18, the third plane in the lineup being 8392/18. Both are covered in four-color fabric, while the second-to-last plane seen (Fokker-built) has a five-color fabric fuselage.
Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 8371/18 with typical O.A.W. painted engine panels
D.VII (O.A.W.) 8371/18 in the Exhibition Building, Melbourne. It appears to be when the display was being set up. Note the Australian Air Corps Sopwith Pup in the background.
The semi-permanent display at the Exhibition Building in Melbourne. The Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 8371/18 is surrounded by aerial bombs with the Vickers Vimy and a Junkers monoplane wing in the background. (AWM photo)
OAW built 8487/18 in British hands post-Armistice.
S.F. Vincent is standing by Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 8488/18. Martingall in cockpit. (via S.F. Vincent)
Maj E.L. Foot poses with O.A.W. built Fokker D.VII (8492/18). Note writing on cowl includes the date "1/3/19". (via S.F. Vincent)
This appears to be the setting up the motion picture camera in the railway car in order to record the transportation of war planes surrendered under the Armistice. The fuselage of Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 8503/18 is being prepared to be moved. This fighter was returned to the USA and served at Ellington Field at one time. (via R Gentilli)
Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 8507/18 photographed at Coblenz. Returned to the USA this aircraft participated in the Victory Loan Flying Circus.
O.A.W. D.VII 8508/18 in a Victory Parade in Los Angeles which, according to the attached poster to the interplane struts, was flown by Capt von Richthofen who shot down '80 ALLY Planes.' The legend of the Red Baron already had a hold on popular imagination. The float is to advertise the Far West Flight air show at De Mille Field in April 1919.
8520/18, one of the four D.VII fighters that were flown by the Victory Loan Eastern Flights in the USA, with another D.VII behind.
Fokker D.VII (OAW) 8532/18 in its original German markings.
Fokker 1st Lt George H. Belser in the cockit of (O.A.W.) 8538/18. The location was Camp Pike, North Little Rock, Arkansas on 13 April 1919, as part of a Victory Loan Flying Circus air show. Belser was then based at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas as a flight instructor. On the April-May 1919 Victory Loan Flying Circus tour he was assigned as a Fokker pilot. All the pilots on the tour were initially assigned to fly an airplane type, e.g., Fokker, Spad VII, SE-5a, or Curtiss JN-4H/6H, even though they ended up switching types. Belser flew this Fokker regularly and oftentimes against the British 'ace' Anthony Beauchamp-Proctor, who mostly flew an SE-5a during the air shows. Belser was a good pilot, but he later was involved in an accident in St. Louis on 14 April 1919, when his Fokker ran through a cable barrier on landing, killed one boy, and injured several others. That was a crowd control issue and not Belser's fault. The serial of that Fokker D.VII is unknown. (via R Gentilli)
8539/18 leads the line-up of the three Fokker D.VII fighters at Rockwell Field before leaving on their Victory Loan Flying Circus tour of the far west, April-May 1919. An SE-5a and Curtiss Jenny are at the end of the line-up.
Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) in French hands with US onlookers.
Again a D.VII handed over at the Armistice makes a backdrop for the unit photo. This O.A.W. built machine is identified by the serial stenciled on the bottom of the fin: - x476/18.
This O.A.W. D.VII is unarmed with a new windscreen. The rudder markings appear to be non-standard.
This brand-new Fokker D.VII at Coblenz, only had its national insignias added to the wings before it was handed over to the US. (via M O'Neal)
Among the planes handed over after the armistice were many factory-fresh. In this O.A.W.-built D.VII, no military numbers or crosses were applied to the fuselage, rudder, or wheel hub, although a white military number is faintly visible on the port aileron. The fuselage is covered in five-color aircraft fabric, and the overdyed edges of the polygons are worth noting. (Peter M. Grosz Collection/STDB)
Another (O.A.W.) D.VII in the USA, the original caption states it is at Langley Field in 1921. This machine has had its armament removed. (AHT AL0385-07 & AL0385-10)
This OAW. D.VII at Mitchell Field has been given a new finish; fabric surfaces are an overall light colour with an interesting cross applied to the rudder. The wing crosses have not been extended over the ailerons. Although the ammunition chutes are still attached, the machine guns have been removed. (AHT 0385-09)
The Fokker D.VII obtained by German forces after the invasion of the Netherlands, eventually ended up after WWII on display in the Deutsches Museum, Munich.
A post-war post-card of Strasbourg, Alsace. Alsace was ceded to Prussia in 1870 after the Franco-Prussian War. A statue of Kaiser Wilhelm I was mounted on the stone plinth, but after WWI, France regained the province and the Kaiser was removed and a Fokker DVII mounted on the plinth. Its serial and fate are not known.
Scenes from DIII 88 with the Fokker D.VII and Dr.I. The WWI scenes were only a short part of this film which praised the new Luftwaffe.
This brand-new Fokker D.VII at Coblenz, only had its national insignias added to the wings before it was handed over to the US. (via M O'Neal)
The hidden Fokker D.VII from Pour le Merite is taken out of the barn. When the hero flies again the machine (a mock up) is destroyed by fire under the hands of Government agents.
These two photographs show a D.VII of Truppenfliegerstaffel 27, which later became Fliegerabt. 418, in German service post-Armistice. The machine bears the pilot's trident insignia and 'H' on the wing centre section. Note the numeral '5' under the tailplane.
Another D.VII in French hands. The artwork is hidden by the crew.
This photograph of a D.VII looping was published in the between the wars pulp magazines with the caption of a D.VII over the Western Front. This D.VII is in US service and was over Mineola, Long Island on 28 October 1920. The pilot was Lt Eugene Barksdale and the D.VII was from the 1 st Observation Squadron, whose insignia is carried on the fuselage.
In this photograph the D.VII appears to have a large windscreen and no national markings.
D-EIRA was a Swiss D.VII that Ernst Udet brought to Germany in 1936 for installation in the Deutsche Luftfahrt Sammlung in Berlin. It also appeared in the film Pour Le Merite. It was apparently destroyed when the museum was bombed in WWII.
After the Tallmantz Collection was broken up the D.VII went through a number of hands and ended up in the Wings and Wheel Collection in Orlando, Florida. Sold to the Fokker Company when the museum closed, it was moved to the Netherlands where Fokker employees and enthusiasts in the Netherlands who restored it to its original configuration. The machine is shown after it arrived in the Netherlands. A Mercedes engine is in place but the rest of he airframe shows the many modifications made in its long career. Non-standard items include: - the upper wing leading edge is not sawtooth. Seat is incorrect. Diagonal bracing tubes in last fuselage bay. Fuel tank in centre section of upper wing. Large than normal upper wing trailing edge cut-out.
Fokker D.VII F 7703/18 was photographed by British and Australian servicemen at Bickendorf aerodrome, just outside Cologne, when on occupation duty post-Armistice.
D.VII F No. 7703/18 on a snow-covered Bickendorf aerodrome.
Fokker D.VII in British markings, Hangelar, Germany, January 1919. The fuselage was over-painted with coloured band behind cockpit. The dark marks are the shadow of the N interplane struts.
Fokker D.VII 6539/18 in British markings.
Another view of 6539/18, resplendent in British markings.
This D.VII, in British markings, has been previously captioned as No. 6539/18. Painted in British colours by No. 208 Squadron, RAF, it was written off at Donstiennes, Belgium, on 30 April 1919, when Maj C.E. Bryant, DSO, hit telephone wires.
Another Albatros-built D.VII, No. 6792/18 in British hands, post-Armistice.
D.VII (O.A.W.) 8482/18 has the guns removed and faired over. This machine has been marked by the British with a cross unlike any the D.VII carried in combat. This D.VII crashed at Shoreham on 30 April 1919, killing Major Albert Desbrisay Carter, DSO and bar, MC and Belgium Croix de Guerre, who was credited with destroying 31 enemy aircraft. The aircraft suffered structural failure just after take-off.
British and German staff with Fokker D.VII post-Armistice. Appears to be an Albatros built machine. De Havilland D.H.9 in background.
WRAF member poses in front of a Fokker D.VII Note "76" on cowl panel - part of serial number? The pilot in the background is examining another D.VII. (Location suggested as Lympne).
The ex-Nash Fokker D.VII as displayed in 1957 by the Royal Aeronautical Society. The fuselage is white with skull and crossed bones insignia, and vermilion and white wings, said to have been the scheme when with Jasta 71. The scheme was supplied by Mr Nash and has proved to be inauthentic. Restored in authentic colours the D.VIII now resides in the RAF Museum, Hendon.
With the Swedish Army serial No. 937, Goring's D.VII was used as an unarmed trainer by the Flygkompaniet.
Remarkably, the high performance Fokker D.VII was rarely flown by AFK pilots. Via Colin Owers
Fokker D.VII in Sweden postwar. It was flown there by Hermann Goring. The axle airfoil has been removed, showing the structure.
Fokker D.VII with Finnish markings replacing the German national markings. The machine is in lozenge pattern fabric with typical OAW painted cowlings.
Fokker D.VII serial 1C.357 in hangar at Utti, 1920. It was serving in Ilmailuosasto (Aviation Detachment) 2 at the time.
Fokker D.VII (OAW) 8545/18, Finnish 1C.357 at Utti, 1920. No armament appears to be present.
D.VII 1.D.357 in experimental 'splinter' camouflage scheme. The hard line defining the wing leading edge is noteworthy.
With new serial 1.D.357 this D.VII has been fitted with skis. It is in the 'splinter' camouflage that was experimentally tried on the D.VII and some IVL A.22 floatplanes.
1.D.357 in flight shows off the 'splinter' camouflage scheme.
Fokker-built D.VII work number, 3867, in Czech service after capture in 1919. Its radiator is more angular than the German original, and it has a Heiduk propeller. (Peter M. Grosz collection/STDB)
As first received in lozenge camouflage fabric finish, the Czech D.VII displays the radiator that is a hallmark of the Austro-Daimler engine. The armament is twin Schwarzlose machine guns. The early Czech roundel was applied and no fuselage serial is applied at this time.
D.VII 38.67 at Olomouc airfield, 1923. The machine had been repaired after a heavy landing in October 1921, and emerged again in a four colour camouflage scheme with the new Czechoslovakian markings.
Personnel posing with 38.67.
A pilot posing in front of 38.67. The airscrew is now a four-bladed Knoller-Jarray type and a white rectangle has been added to the fuselage side - this being the marking of the Vzduchoplavecke uciliste (Aeronautical Training Centre).
Two Swiss Fokker D.VII trainers in two different colour schemes.
Swiss D.VII No. 609 with the engine panels removed. The turtle decking around the cockpit appears to have been removed as well. A venturi is fixed to the upper wing. The white crosses are on a small red field.
No. 621 displays the two additional stringers added to the fuselage. The insignia on the rudder is on a white square field.
No. 621 on a snow-covered field. The rudder is red with the white cross while the insignia on the wings is full chord.
Unarmed No. 631 in the light colour scheme. The rudder is red and a weights legend is carried forward of the cockpit.
Unarmed No. 631 in the light colour scheme. The rudder is red and a weights legend is carried forward of the cockpit.
A D VII of Fliegerkompagnie 10 of the Swiss Fliegertruppe in the mid ’twenties, with 'Fokker' on radiator and bird insignia.
This Swiss Fokker D.VII has individual exhaust pipes to the engine.
A Swiss D.VII.
A poor photograph showing an early D.VII in Netherland's service. The machine is armed and has the orange circle insignia on a white field to the fuselage and under both wings. The fuselage was probably in lozenge fabric as was the tailplane.
Two civil Fokker D.VII F fighters in the Netherlands. Fokker marked the aircraft with orange circles such as were applied to the Netherlands military aircraft. These fighters do not have serials stenciled on them. While no armament is installed, the mountings may be seen.
Sgt Bakkenes with a D.VII that is in lozenge fabric and has the orange circle insignia.
Sgt Need with a D.VII with the early orange circle insignia without the white surround. The machine has been doped green overall. Armament is not fitted but the gun chutes are intact.
Serial No. 250 have the 250-hp BMW installed. This D.VII fighters are armed and bear a longitudinal stringer along the centre of the fuselage. The same stringer has been noted on No. 271.
An unarmed serial No. 250 still has the ammunition feeds on the starboard side of the top cowling.
Overhauling serial No. 250.
Serial No. 251 win the early scheme of green overall with orange circle insignia. The serial was repeated along the rear fuselage with the engine installed - F 251 Mc 160.
Serial No. 256 have the 250-hp BMW installed. This D.VII fighters are armed and bear a longitudinal stringer along the centre of the fuselage. The same stringer has been noted on No. 271.
A pristine LVA Fokker D.VII No. 256 with navigation lights on the upper wing tips, underwing racks and no armament.
D.VII No. 256 after hitting a trainer on 27 August 1924.
An unarmed serial No. 256 in an embarrassing position!
The underwing racks were handy for fitting meteorological instruments. Serial No. 257 does not have the logo showing the engine on its rear fuselage.
Line up of LVA Fokker D.VII fighters with the first national insignia. Nos. 254, 256, 250 and 258 identified.
No. 258 looks to have suffered little damage when the pilot, Brinkuis, performed this landing near Diemen on 8 October 1926. The hand hold markings at the wing tips are well shown.
No. 259 as a backdrop to this pilot's portrait. The guns have been removed but the ammunition feeds are still in place.
No. 259 is the centre of attention after making a successful forced landing due to engine trouble in 1931.
Serial No. 260 carries an unusual application of the serial number with the Fokker added before the serial.
LVA unarmed D.VII fighters, serial Nos. 260, 266 and 265 identified in this photograph. The serial on the light coloured D.VII cannot be read. It appears to have a fuel tank in the axle fairing.
Serial No. 263 also carries the Fokker aft its serial.
D.VII Nos 260 and 263 in storage with Fokker C.I No. 499 behind. It is thought that the Fokker stencil to the fuselage was applied when the two machines went to Iceland in 1932.
A line-up of unarmed D.VII fighters. Nos. 265 and 262 identified. The engine panels are natural metal; the lower surfaces are in light blue. At the International Aero Exhibition Gothenburg (ILUG), Sweden, in 1923.
In this view it can be clearly seen that the armament is missing from No. 265. At the International Aero Exhibition Gothenburg (ILUG), Sweden, in 1923.
Serial No. 267 warming up on a winter's airfield.
A Ford tanker refuels No. 267.
Serial No. 269 with the instrument rack on its port interplane strut. Note the light coloured undersurfaces.
Sgt Beekman with his D.VII. This aircraft was one delivered with the 180-hp BMW engine.
The details behind this incident would be most welcome.
The remains of serial No. 271. The serial can just be made out on the rear fuselage. The force of the impact must have been tremendous to cause the machine to end up like this.
MLD Fokker D.VII fighters on the barge to De Kooy. D.VII Serial Nos. D-20, D-21. D-22, D-24 and D-25 identified. These fighters all have the early orange disk national insignia.
MLD fighters with the headrest and fuel tank in the upper wing. D-20 has a coloured band around the fuselage, however, the wing bands appear white. The additional longitudinal stringer to the fuselage shows up well in this photograph.
Serial No. D-21 with fully equipped pilot.
MLD D-24 showing the tightly cowled BMW engine and the underslung radiator. White bands are carried around the fuselage and wings.
Fok. D.VII in Dutch service. This aircraft has a belly radiator and much-modified engine cowling, steel airscrew, enlarged windscreen, and metal cowling panels as far aft as the cockpit.
D-28 showing the modification to the MLD Fokker D.VII fighters with the 230-hp BMW IV motor.
D-28 showing the modification to the MLD Fokker D.VII fighters with the 230-hp BMW IV motor.
D-29 is another MLD D.VII with a headrest and the serial omitting the dash.
The unarmed D-30 has the additional fuselage stringer but no headrest. The serial omits the dash.
Serial D-35 is unarmed.
Serial No. D-36 is unarmed.
Serial No. D-37 in flight. The upper motor cowling is missing.
Possibly the prototype Puma engined D.VII for the KNIL.
Two unmarked Puma-powered KNIL Fokker D.VII fighters, not D.VIII as written on the photograph. The ammunition feed is visible on the nearest D.VII.
An unmarked KNIL D.VII in Fokker's hangar.
The Puma installation in the KNIL Fokker D.VII.
Five unmarked Puma D.VII trainers for the KNIL.
F-301 in full national markings.
Carrying a cat insignia on its rudder, F-302 in flight.
KNIL Fokker D.VII trainers F-301 to F-305 in flight. Each has an insignia on the top rudder stripe.
KNIL Fokker D.VII trainers F-301 to F-305 in flight. Each has an insignia on the top rudder stripe.
The five KNIL Fokker D.VII trainers over Batavia. No. F-303 has no upper wing national markings.
Kalidjati airport, Netherlands Easts Indies (now Indonesia). KNIL Avros 504 trainers, de Havilland D.H.9 bombers and Fokker D.VII trainers on the field. The cat emblem appears on the rudder of at least two of the D.H.9 bombers.
The civil D.VII in Dansk Luft Rederi markings. Unfortunately, the serial number has been painted over. The machine was covered in lozenge fabric overall but without German national markings.
Taken in to Danish service the aircraft was doped a dark colour overall with Danish roundels. The serial 'F Nr.1' was placed in the centre of the rudder roundel.
D.VII 7684/18 with the German insignia over-painted with Belgian markings; otherwise this fully armed machine is in full German camouflage, (via D Brackx)
View of Moeres airfield post-war. D.VII 6693/18 bears the Thistle emblem of the 9th Escadrille as does the Hanriot H.D.1 parked next to it. The serial 'F 2' is presented on the middle rudder stripe. The Escadrille was equipped with the Hanriot H.D.1 and the Fokkers were used as trainers - given that they had a stationary engine and were more powerful than the Hanriots, this seems a strange combination of types. A late-war Gotha bomber can be seen in the background. Belgium's air arm used some of these bombers along with other German types in the years following WWL (via D Brackx)
Fokker D.VII 6689/18 flown by the Belgian Air Service in German camouflage.
D.VII No 13 leads this line-up. An Avro 504K is at the far end of the line.
Fokker D.VII fighters flown by the Belgian Air Service as trainers at the pilot school at Wevelgem airbase in khaki overall. (Daniel Brackx)
D.VII No. 34 had stars applied to the wheel covers. The cockpit modification into an unarmed trainer has a small headrest.
Pitchou Lang poses in front of an unarmed Fokker D.VII with the red comet of the 10th Escadrille. The fuselage has been overpainted but the mainplanes and horizontal tail surfaces are still lozenge fabric, (via D Brackx)
Belgian pilot Hugon Sylvain in his Fokker D.VII at Evere. The lozenge fabric has been overpainted and the machine is without armament, (via D Brackx)
D.VII in markings for the film L'Yser.
A D.VII from the film L'Equipage painted up in a diamond pattern, presumably to represent the losenge fabric. The single machine gun mounted on these machines is clearly seen.
A L'Equipage D.VII set up for ground filming.
Two almost identical photograph that are thought to show the result of the collision of one of the L'Equipage D.VII biplanes and an Avro 504K that was approaching to land.
O-BABY still carries the Belgian rudder stripes and the roundels on the wings are faintly visible.
O-BEBE about to start in an air race. The machine is still in lozenge fabric.
Ploughshares - Civilian Fokker D.VII biplanes O-BILL and O-BEBE with Belgian Rumpler C types on a civil airfield. The Fokkers and at least one Rumpler are still in lozenge fabric. (via D Brackx)
An unarmed D.VII in French hands post-Armistice. The German national markings have been crudely painted over on the fuselage but the personal marking appears to have been partially destroyed, however, it may just have deteriorated due to its age and use. (AHT AL0385-08)
The pilot in Fokker D.VII (OAW) 8493/18 has been identified as Andrew McKeever. The aircraft bears the Maple leaf emblem of No. 1 Squadron, CAF, Shoreham, 30 April 1919.
The two Williams, Bishop and Barker, pose with an OAW built D.VII. Barker's uniform sleeve has three wound stripes.
Barker and a female friend pose with one of the armed D.VII F fighters in Canada.
A black and white finished Air Service LUSAC 11 is lined-up behind the D.VII.
William Barker in the Fokker D.VII that he flew in the Toronto to New York race. The machine guns are missing and the cowling faired in. There is no windscreen and the upper engine cowl panels are missing. The race No. 50 was applied to the fuselage and under the wings. Another D.VII is visible in the hangar in the background. These photographs were taken at Armour Heights in 1919.
This Fokker D.VII (Albatros built) has been repainted and bears the insignia of the 9th Aero Squadron but retains the German crosses on the wings. The photograph was taken at Trier, Germany, in January 1919. The 9th Aero Squadron had at least two Fokkers that were flown by members of the squadron. These Fokkers were stated to be used to check that the Germans were abiding by the terms of the Armistice, however it seems more likely that they were placed into flying order in order to let the pilots obtain experience of the D.VII that was then the prime German fighter. Due to the unsettled state of affairs following the Armistice, it would have been advantageous for the Allied airmen to try the D.VII in flight.
Fokker D.VII that bears the insignia of the 9th Aero Squadron. The photograph was taken at Trier, Germany, in January 1919.
This is possibly No.2, the Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) that was flown in the 'First Transcontinental Reliability and Endurance Test' by Col C.C. Culver.
Lt Col Harold Evans Hartney with Fokker D.VII 7766/18 with the large racing number '11' on the fuselage - his entry in the 'First Transcontinental Reliability and Endurance Test'
McCook P-108 (7776/18). It still has the gun mounts and ammunition chutes installed. An 'X' is painted on the upper wing centre section.
This D.VII with Liberty 6 motor, McCook P-127, sports a long pitot on the port interplane strut. The stencil on the central rudder stripe reads 'Fokker D.VII 8323 P 127.' This machine received the Air Service serial No. 94040.
This is one of the D.VII fighters modified to carry an experimental engine. The under cowl bulge suggests the Liberty V-8 engine.
An additional radiator experiment using a Fokker D.VII.
Single-seat D.VII serial No. A.S.64346 bearing McCook No. P-195 on its rudder. According to the late R Casari's U.S. Army Aviation Serial Numbers & Orders 1908-1923 Reconstructed, (Military Aircraft Publications, USA. 1995), this D.VII was given this serial to replace its German serial 8403. It appears to have a V-12 engine installed. As far as is known, McCook P numbers were not reused.
This D.VII in full USAS markings bears the serial A.S.7729 indicating it was 7729/18. The machine is unarmed with the large faired windscreen. US DH-4 bomber in the background.
This unarmed D.VII, A.S..8530, has a slightly different serial application and an individual number that will stand out in flight. The engine cowling appears to be modified.
Unarmed A-5845 used by the Marine Corps in full colour scheme. The lettering on the fuselage can not be determined but may be 'Hans'.
A.S.2113 bears the same style of serial application with 'Fok D VII' stenciled under the serial. It also bears the plane number '3'. Curtiss Jennys in the background. Photographed at Post Field, Oklahoma.
The D.VII in plain finish has been identified as a USN/USMC machine.
Only the '5845' Bureau No. on the central rudder stripe identifies this D.VII as a USMC aircraft.
A D.VII in flight.
A D.VII fitted with skis for operating off snow covered fields.
O.A.W. built 8403/18 was loaned to Packard to test their 1A-1116 motor. In these photographs, with it carrying a Packard engine, there is no P number on the rudder.
Packard engined D.VII showing the location of the underwing national markings.
Details of the Packard installation.
McCook Front view of a Fokker D.VII with the 12-cylinder Packard 1A-144 motor installed. At least four were so modified at McCook Field.
Front view of a McCook D.VII with what appears to be a V-eight motor. Note the subtle difference in the curvature of the radiator. The extra bracing to the centre section struts is noteworthy. There is no inlet in the under cowling panel. This machine's serial has not been determined.
Mantz poses with his Fokker D.VII. At this time it has no machine guns mounted and a large windscreen. The exhaust outlets of the V-8 Hispano-Suiza engine are noteworthy.
Mantz poses with his Fokker D.VII. At this time it has no machine guns mounted and a large windscreen. The exhaust outlets of the V-8 Hispano-Suiza engine are noteworthy.
After the film was completed, the Paul Mantz Hispano-Suiza powered Fokker D.VII was painted with the movie's title and flown around the USA to promote William Wellman's colour motion picture Men with Wings.
D.VII with Hall-Scott L-6 engine installed. Note the large hump in front of the cockpit. This is a single-seat D.VII.
Eddie Rickenbacker posing with the same Hall Scott L-6 powered D.VII. The company logo is painted under the cockpit and under the lower wings
A Hall Scott D.VII in flight: There is no mistaking the engine in this D.VII; the twin carburettor intakes on the port side are well shown in this view.
Oft reproduced photograph showing the closeness of the aircraft in Hells Angels. The straps around the fuselage that hold the camera are visible on each side of the fuselage cross. Hall-Scott powered example. (via late H Woodman)
Two of the D.VII biplanes that were gathered by Howard Hughes for Hell's Angels. The nearest has von Richthofen painted under the cockpit. (via late H Woodman)
A D.VII and a S.E.5a line-up before shooting a scene. The camera mounted on the back of the D.VII was one of the ways that the aerial sequences in Hell's Angels have seldom been equaled. (via late H Woodman)
Original Fokker D.VII fighters on location for Hells Angels. The early curved national insignia was used and continues to be used in films as it is more cinematic than the straight late crosses.The closest D.VII has a Hispano-Suiza engine installed, while the other has a Hall-Scott with a flat radiator. (via late H Woodman)
A D.VII in a strange colour scheme was exhibited outside Gruman's Chinese at the Hollywood premier of Hell's Angels. The two carburettor intakes of the Hall-Scott L-6 are well shown in this view. (AHT AL0385-11)
Graces' crashed Fokker D.VII on the set of Wings. The landing gear did not give way as planned and the'crash' was harder than allowed for. Grace broke his neck but did not realise it until the following day. Grace also spectacularly crashed a Spad 7 for this movie.
Cole Palen's Fokker D.VII reproduction at the Old Reinbeck Aerodrome was constructed using Fokker C.II parts.
Jarrett's 'restored' Fokker D.VII.
The Jarrett D.VII reconstruction. The wings did not follow the original construction.
A Rockerville modification of the Fokker D.VII into a monoplane, (via P.M. Bowers)
The pilot ended up in an embarrassing position when he force landed his D.VII in this river, downstream of the weir where the water was shallower and salvage was easier. Note the long pitot on the port interplane strut. Possibly P-127 that crashed in a river on 4 May 1920.
The remains of D.VIII McCook P-169, A.S.94112, probably in a McCook
A Latvian D.VII that appears to be unarmed. The lozenge pattern can be distinguished through the over-painting on the original photograph.
A Latvian pilot poses with his D.VIL The ugunskrusts (fire cross) national insignia has the arms rotating anticlockwise indicating an early application of the insignia.
Latvian personnel pose with an armed Fokker D.VII. Part of the serial may be made out on the rear fuselage.
Latvian Fokker D.VII No. 16 crashed on 27 February 1924 resulting in the death of the pilot, Kpt Edwins Bite. The aircraft appears to have been given a winter finish.
Serial No.37 was constructed by the Lithuanian Army Aviation Workshop in 1930. The cockpit featured a headrest and revised rear fuselage. The lifting surface of the Fokker undercarriage has been eliminated.
Lithuanian pilot A Gustaitis poses with D.VII serial No. 6, circa 1924.
A Lithuanian pilot poses with a D.VII
Personnel pose with D.VII Serial No.3 in aluminium finish. Circa 1925.
Serial No.2 displays the second type of Lithuanian insignia. Kaunas airfield, circa 1921.
Latvian Fokker D.VII No. 16 crashed on 27 February 1924 resulting in the death of the pilot, Kpt Edwins Bite. The aircraft appears to have been given a winter finish.
Serial No.2 displays the second type of Lithuanian insignia. Kaunas airfield, circa 1921.
Lithuanian airfield with a lone Fokker D.VII amongst Ansaldo biplanes obtained from Italy.
D.VII serial No. 5 with personnel relaxing in summer, 1924. The machine has the top engine cowling panels removed and is armed.
A Lithuanian aluminiun-doped D.VII serial No. 3 after its reconstruction in flight over Kaunas, circa 1926.
The remains of serial No.5 after its fatal crash in 1933. The Fokker spun in and fell near Kaunas aerodrome while on its landing approach, killing the pilot-instructor A Stukas.
Lakunas J Garolis in Puma engined D.VII No. 27, circa 1928. The installation of the Puma engine required an unslung radiator. The Netherlands KNIL modification to take the Puma was a much neater looking affair than this Lithuanian one.
Lewandowka airfield, Lviv, in the early autumn of 1920. In the foreground, is Fokker D.VII CWL No. 22.04 (D.VII (OAW) 8588/18). Seated in the cockpit is 2nd Lt. pilot Antoni Bartkowiak, a pilot of the 15.EM (15th Fighter Squadron). The plane in the original finish, bearing all the characteristics for this series of OAW-built D.VII fighters. In the background is D.VII SLL No. 513/18, completely painted in dark green colour, also an aircraft from the 15.EM.
Fokker D.VII (OAW) CWL No. 22.05 "Memento Mori," belonging to the 13th Fighter Squadron (13.EM). At that time, the planes of this squadron had personal emblems painted on the aircraft sides. Aeroplane in original finish from OAW factory.
Fokker D.VII No. 502/18, of Lt Pilot Wojciech Bialy of the 15th Fighter Squadron, Lewandowka airfield, August 1920. The plane in the original German finish characteristic for late production series from the Schneidemuhl plant. Visible under the fuselage is the carrier for two 12.5 kg P.u.W. bombs. According to the memoirs of the pilots, it was a rearmament of the aircraft to fight against Budyonny's cavalry. The synchronised machine guns are also unique. It was the only aircraft in the 15th EM to carry twin Vickers machine guns.
Another photo showing Fokker D.VII No. 502/18. The white, black and white chevron is the personal emblem of the pilot of the 15th Fighter Squadron (15.EM) Lt pil. Wojciech Bialy, (during the WWI a pilot of Jasta 47) who flew this machine most often. Photographed at Lewandowka airfield, Lviv, August 1920.
Fokker SLL 511/18 (D.VII 4199/18 (OAW)) with of 2nd Lt. pilot Antoni Bartkowiak in the cockpit. Silesia, Sosnowiec, May 1921. At that time, the 15th EM was assigned to support the recent 3rd Silesian Uprising. Unfortunately, the squadron failed to achieve combat readiness and A Batrkowiak's plane was the only one to support the insurgents. For the occasion, the chessboards under the wings and on the side of the fuselage were painted over, leaving only the nationality markings on the upper wings.
Fokker D.VII SLL no 519/18 photographed at the Lawica airport in the summer of 1920. In front of the plane "Directors" at the Higher School of Pilots (WSL): Pilot Second Lieutenant Antoni Wroniecki, Lieutenant Observer Szymyslik, Pilot Lieutenant Wawrzyn, Observer Second Lieutenant Korcz. The plane is in typical Albatross finish.
Fokker D.VII SLL 530/18 (ex-D.VII(OAW) 6687/18). The picture taken during flight over Poznan at 11 May 1921.
Fokker Landing mishap at Wyzsza Szkola Pilotow (WSP - Advanced Pilots School) in Grudziadz, June 1922, is D.VII SLL.530/18 (ex-D.VII (OAW) 6687/18). The fuselage is in one-color overall, Polish dark green, with a light olivegray rudder. The wings were probably painted in two shades of Olive Green and Dark Green in a camouflage reminiscent of the streaked pattern painted in the Fokker factory during the WWI. The paint abrasions reveal the original OAW factory painting. Stencils on the rear part of the fuselage gave Polish informational and operational instructions: ‘St. Lotn. Lawica' and ‘Tu podpierac' (Support here). Under the cockpit was a weight table in black paint.
Crashed Fokker SLL No. D.VII 546/18 on November 21, 1923 by the platoon pilot (Plutonowy) Gesek at the Lawica airfield. The accident did not look serious, but the aircraft was not repaired anymore. The plane is interwoven with the remains of post-renovation painting.
Fokker D.VII no. 6697/18(Alb) crashed. Sergent, pil. Edmund Holodynski in May, 4th 1924. Aircraft in original factory camouflage, typical for this production batch from Albatros.
Fokker D. VII nr 7658/18 (Fok) from 3dr Division Aviation Park. Aircraft in new camouflage, olivegreen-light ocher from the top and light blue from the bottom.
Fokker D.VII nr 7658/18 (Fok) from 3dr Division Aviation Park. Aircraft in new camouflage, olivegreen-light ocher from the top and light blue from the bottom.
Wrecked on March 6, 1923 by Lieutenant Karol Bieda Fokker D.VII 8422/18. As a result of the accident, the aviator was seriously injured, taken to a military hospital and died on the same day. The plane is in the original German camouflage, the repainting of hexagons, often visible on Polish Fokkers, is interesting.
A commemorative photo taken in September 1920 at the Lewandowka airfield, showing the personnel and planes of the 15th Fighter Squadron. Aircraft from left: Fokker D.VIII 506/18; Fokker D.VII SLL 513/18; Fokker D.VII SLL 502/18; Fokker D.VII SLL 504/18; Fokker D.VII SLL 508/18; Fokker D.VII CWL 22.04 and Fokker D.VII SLL 511/18
Fokker planes from the 15th EM at the Lewandowka airport in September 1920. The first from the left, the only one in Polish aviation, was Fokker D.VIII. 516/18. The shape and colour of the engine cover as well as the lozenge fabric covering seem to confirm this fact. An interesting fact is that all sources say that this plane was not armed. As can be seen in the photo, during the hottest battles with the Bolsheviks, the aircraft had two Spandau machine guns mounted. Further, one by one, Fokker D.VII (SLt No. 502/18), then in the center visible Fokker D.VII 10358/18 (Alb.) (SLL 504/18) with a personal emblem, initials "JH" inscribed in himself, belonging to the pilot Jozef Hendricks. Hereinafter Fokker D.VIIs: SLL 508/18; SLL 513/18; CWL 22.04; and SLL 511/18.
Fokker D.VIIF CWL No.18.7 converted to courier version. This plane was assigned to Col. pilot Jerzy Kossowski (standing in front of the plane), commander of the 5th and then 3rd Fighter Squadron. The plane is unarmed, with an enlarged fuel tank and a spare trunk, which allows the passenger to be taken in an emergency. The entire plane (except the engine cowling) was painted a dark green.
The Fokker D.VII (MAG) 93.02 of the Hungarian Red Airborne Corps not only provides shade but also exhibits an extraordinarily long blast tube for the Schwarzlose M 16 machine gun.
Revolutionary D.VII 93.03. A MAG assembled machine fitted with a 225-hp Austro-Daimler engine and twin Schwarzlose MGs. Note blast tubes.
These two D.VII fighters are in lozenge fabric. The red stars on the wheel covers (inner and outer) are noteworthy.
Hungarian Soviet Republic of Bela Kun organized an air arm that utilized a red star as the national insignia. They carried their Austro-Hungarian serial at first. No. 38.69 on its back.
An open day at a Soviet airfield, probably at the Khodynka aerodrome in Moscow. The top surface of the upper wings of the aircraft appear to have been crudely censored. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
This line-up of Russian Fokker FD.VII fighters of the 1 st Separate Air Squadron at Gatchina aerodrome, have a variety of rudder markings, while the first in the line-up has an Egyptian head as an emblem. The ground crew relaxing between Fighters Nos. 1 and 2, show that people are the same everywhere, (via Gennady Petrov archive)
Line-up of FD.VII at Gatchina airfield in 1923. The first aircraft has been stated to be a two-seat FD.VII, however it is more probably a Fokker C.I. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
Since there is no one in the cockpit, this may be a demonstration on how to prime and start the motor. The end aircraft appears to be an Ansaldo. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
At least nine FD.VII fighters can be made out in this photograph of an Aviation parade of the 1st Fighter Unit, Petrograd, 1923. The variety of uniforms amongst the airmen is noteworthy. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
Soviet Fokker D.VII fighters being assembled in the field. Note the rudder insignia on No.5.
On a snow covered field, refueling a FD.VII of the same unit by hand. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
An unknown Russian poses in front of a FD.VII that has a light coloured rudder. The ammunition feed to the machine gun may be seen indicating that it may be in a fighter unit. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
This FD.VII has light (blue) undersurfaces and a star on the fuselage. There is a stringer to the fuselage, and what appears to be a camera gun in front of the cockpit. Probably taken at a fighter school. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
Members of the 38th Course at the School of Aerial Combat, Sepukhov, 1927, pose with their armed FD.VII. This machine has the light-coloured undersurfaces. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
Bearing the tail markings of the other FD.VII Fokkers of this unit, the crew members pose with this armed aircraft. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
Members of a Soviet unit pose in front of a FD.VII. The variations in flight gear are noteworthy. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
This armed FD.VII has interesting markings. A light (white) stripe across the lower surface of the bottom wing and vertical stripes to the rudder light coloured rudder. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
Fokker FD.VII No. 6 taking off. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
Canadian NASM D.VII. The cockpit views show how the printed camouflage fabric shows through it into the interior of the aircraft.
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  On 4 May 1920, Fokker Dr.I, registration D-600, was taken over by the Dutch company Internationale Lucht Vervoer Onderneming (ILVO). Due to the lack of civil aircraft, the IAACC wrote to the German Foreign Office that DLR could keep 32 LVG C.V and C.VI, 13 AEG J.II, three Fokker D.VII biplanes, and three Friedrichshafen FF 45 and eleven FF49 floatplanes. The IAACC took over DLR’s Fokker Dr.I, D-39, in 1921 and destroyed it.
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  In April 1934, all German civil registrations were changed from four numbers to four letters, but no list of the change-over appears to have survived.
  The Berlin Zeughaus was opened in 1706 by Friedrich I of Prussia as a repository for all types of German arms. It later became a military museum and Oswald Boelcke’s Fokker D.III, 352/16, was placed on display shortly after his death. Similarly, one of Richthofen’s Dr.I triplanes (152/17) was also selected for preservation. They did not survive the war. It was said that Russian troops made cooking fires from material from the Zeughaus and this included the two badly damaged aircraft.
  Dr.I 528/17 also survived. This was in the final batch of ten triplanes and was fitted with 100-hp Goebel Goe II seven-cylinder rotary for training purposed. It was at the Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fur Luftfahrt (DVL - German Aviation Test Institute) where it was apparently undergoing experimentation. This machine was given to the Deutsche Luftfahrt Museum (German Aviation Museum) at Stuttgart in 1931. Georg Krupp had long been trying ot get an aviation museum established in Berlin and he organized a small museum at Tempelhof aerodrome in 1925. Obtaining the use of two old hangars at Johannisthal and by 1932 had some 40 aircraft to display. In 1932 he asked Fokker for a triplane and Fokker provided on loan, at his own expense, a Dr.I fitted with Oberursel No. 3223 and a model of the Fokker interrupter gear. The serial of this Dr.I is unknown. Alex Imrie concluded that it was an assembly of a number of Dr.I components.
  The establishment of the Deutsch Luftfahrt Sammlung (German Aviation Collection) in Berlin, saw the Stuttgart machines transferred to Berlin and when the Museum was opened by the Nazis in June 1936. A number of WWI types that had survived the Allies hunt and destroy missions post-Armistice, were displayed with the immense Dornier Do.X taking pride of place. Three Fokkers, a Dr.I, D.VII, and a D. VIII were displayed along with a Fokker Spinne. To these were added captured aircraft from the German victories early in WWII. The Fokker Dr.I was not the original from Stuttgart, but the Fokker-Ioan machine.
  The rise of the Nazi party and the reconstruction of the Luftwaffe saw WWI ace Willi Gabriel called up and trained on the Heinkel He 51. When Ernst Udet could not carry out his ‘The Flying Professor’ aerial act due to his Luftwaffe commitments, Gabriel was given the opportunity to replace him. He flew these displays regularly up to the beginning of WWII. In early 1938, the film Pour le Merite was being developed.
  The loan-Fokker Dr.I from the Luftfahrt Museum in Berlin, and 528/17 were overhauled to airworthiness by a small aircraft maintenance firm at Strausberg near Berlin. This firm was run by Alfred Friedrich, a well-known pre-War pilot. 528/17 was registered as D-EFOK while the loan aircraft must also have been registered. The aircraft were to be flown from Rechlin aerodrome where the film was to be shot.
  However, the machine’s Clerget rotary engine had not been run for 20 odd years and had not been inhibited, and so gave a lot of trouble. After overhaul, Gabriel did the initial test flights and one hour endurance flight for the machine to be accepted. He then flew to Rechlin passing over Berlin in the triplane. When over the Olympic Stadium a cylinder blew off taking the cowling with it. Although he had a parachute, Gabriel decided to land the machine and disrupted the traffic pattern at Staaken aerodrome by landing straight in against the landing pattern. After repairs he flew the triplane in all scenes for Pour le Merite. The Fokker D.VII (D-EIRA) that Udet obtained from Switzerland took pride of place in this film, appearing in two colour schemes to give the appearance of more than one aircraft. The D.VII was flown exclusively by Alfred Niemz, while Gabriel flew the Dr.I 528/17. The pilot of the other Dr.I is not known. Apparently this most original Dr.I was badly damaged when flown by a Rechlin test pilot and scrapped. After this only Gabriel was allowed to fly the Dr.I.
  In 1938, Gabriel was given temporary leave in order to fly the triplane for the film DIII 88. The French adversaries were played by Bucker Bii 131 Jungmann trainers with the front cockpit faired over, and painted in bizarre colour schemes. This time he had to fly the remaining triplane over the Baltic Sea and almost had to ditch when the ignition cut out. He made it to the beach. Gabriel considered that flying for films was more dangerous than flying in WWI. The film people complained that they flew too high - he flew three feet above the water but it was too high for the camera people.
  The Fokkers and many other aircraft in the Luftfahrt Museum are believed to have been destroyed in WWII. Some aircraft did survive and were sent to Poland where they were recovered after the war and are now on display in the Muzeum Lotnictwa Polskiego at Cracow.
  The Sarotti chocolate company is reputed to have hired Max Schuler to fly a Dr.I around Germany advertising their wares. It was crashed and written off in 1926 but parts were apparently used to build the Vagel-Grip SP-5.This had modified wings, a revised fin, rudder and tail. The 80-hp Thulin rotary that had to be positioned ahead of the original engines location to restore the centre of gravity. It was flying in 1925. Registered D-664 it was destroyed in November 1931.

Fokker Aircraft in Service in April 1920
Fokker Type Air Force Air Police
Dr.I 22
Source: Andersson, L & Sanger, R. Retribution & Recovery - German Aircraft and Aviation 1919 to 1922, Air Britain, UK, 2014. P.135.

Fokker Aircraft on the First German Civil Register
Registration Type Air Police
D-600 Dr.I DLR. To Netherlands 5 May 1920, for exhibition.
Source: Andersson, L & Sanger, R. Retribution & Recovery - German Aircraft and Aviation 1919 to 1922, Air Britain, UK, 2014.

Fokker Aircraft on the Second German Civil Register
Registration Type Air Police
D-39 Dr.I DLR, June 1920. Destroyed 1921.


United States of America
  
The Fokker Dr.I

  Six Fokker Dr.l triplanes were obtained by the US at Koblenz in January 1919, including 141/17 (shipped to USA on 12 March 1919); and two recorded as 1778/17 and 1877/17. Dr.l No. 165/17 was also shipped to the USA on 12 March 1919.
Fokker Dr.I 528/17 acting in the film Pour le Merite.
Fokker Dr.I 528/17 acting in the film Pour le Merite.
Scenes from DIII 88 with the Fokker D.VII and Dr.I. The WWI scenes were only a short part of this film which praised the new Luftwaffe.
Willi Gabriel poses in the genuine Fokker Dr.I for a promotional photograph for DIII 88.
Canada

Civil Canadian Fokkers

  There is confusion with the Canadian Fokker C.II transports. C.II G-CAEV was registered on 1 March 1925. It was equipped with skis for winter work, and was mainly used for aerial photography, particularly by the Canadian National Railways to help with proposed new train routes. Cancelled in 1928. Became N3190 on the US civil register. US sources show G-CAEV as being sent to Canada from the USA. The real history still needs further research to undo the confusion.


Denmark

The Fokker C.I in Denmark

  On 26 May 1923, Denmark placed an order for two C.l biplanes with spare BMW engines and various spare parts. These were quickly completed and the two aircraft (w/n 225 - 226) were flown to Denmark from Fokker in the Netherlands with the first landing at Klovermarken on 30 September 1923. The other had to make an emergency landing near the small town of Meppel and was sent back to Fokker for repairs, and did not arrive until 13 October.
  These first two received the serial numbers 2 and 3, probably due to the Fokker D.VII having the number ‘1’. Haerens Flyvertropper (Army Air Force) did not have a number series for each type. On 6 June 1923, the Army sent instructions on how to paint them. They were to be khaki with Danish red/white cockades on wings and body. In the case of the former, they were to be about 30 cm from the wing leading edge, while on the fuselage they were to be located just behind the observer’s seat and have the same diameter as the fuselage height.
  On 30 October 1923, the Flyvertropper requested that three more C.l machines be obtained, but there was no provision for this in the budget. On 1 April 1924, the new budget came into force and the received permission to order three more C.l aircraft, but they were not available by the time funds were available. Fokker must have used up the stock of C.l biplanes that he had brought back with him from Germany.
  The result was that the Haerens Flyvertropper Vaerksteder (Army Air Corps Workshops) workshops at Klovermarken built three C.l biplanes from measurements of the originals but with certain changes such as modifications to the rudder and moving the fuel tank from the landing gear axle fairing to the upper wing, and oil brakes.
  On 28 February 1925, the Air Force announced that the new aircraft would be completed in the spring, however the exact date is unknown. The following year, on 8 November, it was announced that “All machines of the C.I type will be marked on the rudder with ‘O’ and consecutive numbering starting at No. 51." Thus No. 2 became O-51, etc.
  The only fatal crash with the C.I occurred on 12 January 1928, when O-55 crashed on the ice at Christianshavn’s canal shortly after take-off from Klovermarken. Sergeants Ole Christian Lundholm-Petersen and Hans Christian. Jensen were killed. This crash led to the Flyvertropper moving to Kastrup where the so-called Rohrbach hangar was available. The two original C.I biplanes were scrapped in 1932, their parts used as spares. The following year the last C.I was retired but not officially deleted until the following year.

Denmark's O-Maskinen

  When more trainers were required, the C.I was used as the basis for the O-machines. Fifteen two-seater transitional trainers, the I O, were built from 1926 with a 220-hp BMW engine. Serials Nos. O-56 to O-70. An additional seven single-seat version, the II O, were also constructed from 1932. Serials O-71 to O-78. They had no value as combat aircraft but had some value as reconnaissance and observation aircraft. They were mostly used in the training school. From 1935, no aerobatics were allowed for these aircraft. They served up until 1940.
  The prototype, O-56, first flew on 22 November 1926 (O-56), piloted by Lt. Carl Erlind. Fourteen were built in 1928-29, (O-57 to O-70). The type was used for light reconnaissance and observer training
  As the Flyvertropperne had seventeen 160-hp Mercedes in store, it was decided to use these for a single-seater version, the II O. The prototype (O-71) was test-flown by Rapt. C.C. Larsen in December 1932. Next year seven were built: O-72 to O-78.
  When Denmark was occupied in 1940, nine I O and five II O biplanes remained in service, and were scrapped.


Netherlands

The LVA and the D.VII

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  One special D.VII requires mention here. This two-seater was owned by Fokker and had flown at the ELTA. It was made available by Fokker to Lt Willem Versteegh in 1920 or 1921. He used it as the lead plane for the aerobatic team Vijf vingers aan een hand (Five fingers from one hand). The machine had Netherlands national markings applied and had long exhaust pipes. It carried the unofficial serial number F600. The ‘Five Fingers’ were set up in 1922 and performed at the ICAR exhibition in Rotterdam. They were led by Lt Versteegh and proved successful. And continued to perform for many years. In August 1923, the team performed at the ILUG (International Air Exhibition) at Goteborg, Sweden. On their way to the exhibition, the team gave a demonstration in Copenhagen, and a journalist was so impressed that he called the team ‘Five Fingers From One Hand' and they adopted this name thereafter.
  F600 had larger wings than the normal D.VII, a BMW engine, and a second seat for the team’s mechanic. The aircraft was maintained by the LVA and reserialled F800 after the Fokker C.VI No. 600 was delivered in later 1925. When Versteegh left the LVA in 1935 to work with KNIML, the aircraft was returned to Fokker. On 26 May 19334, it was registered PH-AJW to A.H.G. Fokker, Schiphol, Amsterdam.
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The Fokker C.l in the Netherlands

The Fokker C.l in the LVA

  The LVA ordered 60 C.l biplanes, serial Nos. 485 to 544, and they were all delivered in 1920. In 1922, the LVA workshops manufactured another five (Nos. 545 to 549) using parts supplied by Fokker.
  At the end of the 1920s and early 1930s, a number of the LVA’s C.l biplanes were rebuilt using Armstrong-Siddeley 218-hp Lynx radial engines. The fuselage structure had to be modified and the opportunity was taken to use a new undercarriage. The work was carried out in the LVA workshops. This version was known as the C.lA, but colloquially as the ‘C.l Lynx’. The flight performance of the C.IA was slightly better than the BMW powered C.I, but the flight characteristics were less. The following machines were fitted with the Lynx engine: Nos. 485, 489,490, 492, 495 to 497, 503, 514, 516, 521, 524, 526 529, 530, 533, 534, 538, 545 and 549. No. 529 was also re-engined with a 140-hp Armstrong-Siddeley Mongoose for a time. On 29 March 1938 the remaining obsolete aircraft were retired: - four VII, four C.I BMW, ten C.I Lynx, and one C.IV.
  The Fokker C.IV, introduced in 1923, followed by the C.V, replaced the C.IA in service.

The Fokker C.I in the MLD

  The MLD ordered five C.I biplanes on 7 August 1920 (serial Nos. F1 to F5), and three more on 28 December 1922 (serial Nos. F7 to F9). F3 was written off early in a crash in 1922. The MLD built F10-F16 in 1925. Up to 1930 F7, F11 and F12 were also written off. The type was retired in 1936.

Netherlands Civil Fokkers

  In addition to the military aircraft, Fokker brought back to the Netherlands prototypes of the V 33, V 39, V 42 and V 43. The V.33 and V.39 flew at the ELTA and at Soesterberg. The V.42 was later tested in the Noordzeekanaal.
  The year 1919 saw the Eerste Luchtverkeer Tentoonstelling Amsterdam (E.L.T.A. - First Aviation Exhibition Amsterdam) exhibition open at Amsterdam. The future for aviation was seen a broad and manufacturers came to the ELTA to highlight their wares. The realization that the financial constraints from the war and the numbers of aircraft left over from that conflict was to negate any prospects of a boom in aircraft manufacturing. One of those that exhibited at the ELTA was Fokker.
  Fokker recorded that German products were banned from the ELTA after English firms refused to attend unless this restriction was put in place. On the opening day, I attracted a disproportionate share of attention by flying my latest fighting plane, the D-8, several exhibitors did object. As a compromise, each nation was to have a separate day to demonstrate their wares.
  The Fokker concern was known as the N.V. Nederlandsche Vliegtuigenfabriek and Fokker’s Luchttoerisme (Fokker’s Air Tourism) gave joy-rides in LVG B.III and two Fokker C.I two-seater biplanes, and demonstrations in D.VII (w/n 3621), and D.VIII (w/n 3264). In addition, there were the following aircraft on the static display: a V 36, V 29, V 42 and an M.17E. Aircraft flying for Fokker’s Luchttoerisme had no civil registrations, they had not been introduced in the Netherlands at this time, and they carried an orange roundel with a white outline in the usual positions on the fuselage and wings. On one flying day, Fokker gave a breathtaking display of aerobatics in his red V 33. Fokker’s Luchttoerisme operated German aircraft with Dutch pilots. Its last registered flights were in March 1921. There are no known photographs for the V 29 and V36.
  Internationale Lucht Vervoer Onderneming (ILVO - International Air Transport Co) was founded in Autumn 1919. For the 1920 flying season, ILVO charted Fokker Dr.I D-600 from Deutsche Luftreederi GmbH (DLR). The company also used one Fokker D.VIII amongst its mixture of German, British and Netherlands aircraft.
  The Netherlands East Indies saw a civil Fokker D.VII in addition to the KNIL D.VII trainers. Eerste Nederlandsche Luchtvaart Onderneming (ENLO) was a barnstorming company that took a single red painted D.VII, piloted by Fritz Hettling, and two Albatros B.II biplanes there in April 1921. This could have been the D.VII imported by Hettling.
  When No. 509 was written off in 1935, it was bought by res.Sgt Jac Th Rijntjes and received the civil registration PH-JAC on 19 June 1935. He used his C.I for advertising and taxi flights. He sold the aircraft on 14 February 1937, to Ch J Jacobs. The registration was cancelled on 18 May 1937. The fuselage survived until late 1940.
  No. 527 was written off on 28 March 1936, and purchased by the N.V. Stoomlijn (N.V. Steam Line) and rebuilt to accommodate contra-rotating propellers invented by Adrian Dekker. The machine was then registered as PH-APL. The C.I with this installation was unpredictable. The machine managed to make a small jump at Ypenburg for its only flight. At the end of May 1940, PH-APL fell into German hands and taken back to Germany where it may have been tested at Adlershof.
  The Fokker C.II was the C.I converted to carry two passengers in a cabin behind the pilot. At least twelve C.I biplanes were converted for civil use. All except one for KLM (H-NABX/PH-ABX) had the cabin. One was shipped to Canada, two to Colombia and four to the USA. The Colombian C.II biplanes arrived in 1928, where the Colombian airline LIACA were to operate the aircraft on domestic air services, however they were both destroyed in accidents in a short time. The KLM machine was used as for aerial photographic work and retired in 1936. A limousine C.II in KLM colours was photographed, but may have been one of the ones sent to the USA.
  The Fokker C.III was a trainer version of the C.I with dual controls. Some were sold to Soviet Russia and ten to Spain where they were used by the air force but registered M-MOAA to M-MOAJ. They were powered by a 220-hp Hispano-Suiza V-8 water-cooled engine. A reproduction of M-MOAB is preserved in the Spanish Museo del Aire, Madrid. These machines were built from the C.I aircraft that had been manufactured in Germany in 1918.
  One C.I was fitted with floats and flown in Germany as the C.IW. It is uncertain if this machine was tested in Germany before or after Fokker returned to the Netherlands. It is thought to have been the V.38 prototype.

LVA Fokker D.VII Fighters
F600 Two-seater. Flown by Capt Versteegh from 1920. Used as lead plane in his stunt team and to transport the team’s mechanic.

Fokker Netherlands Construction Numbers Applied to ex-German Airframes
C/N Type Date Notes
100-115 C.I 1920 LVA
116 C.II Open cabin.
119 C.I Demonstration aircraft.
120-135 C.I LVA.
136 C.III Spanish air force.
137 C.I Oberursel.
140 C.I MLD.
141-142 C.III Spanish air force.
143-146 C.I MLD.
151 C.II
152-155 C.I LVA.
156 C.III Spanish air force.
157 C.II
158 C.III Spanish air force.
159 C.I LVA.
160 C.III Spanish air force.
161 C.I LVA.
162 C.II
163-164 C.I LVA.
165 C.I Civil, USA N7752.
166 C.III Spanish air force.
167 C.II
168 C.I LVA.
169 C.II
170-173 C.I LVA.
174 C.II Canada, G-CAEV. Later USA N3190.
175 C.I LVA.
176 C.III Spanish air force.
177-178 C.I LVA.
179 C.III Spanish air force.
180-185 C.I LVA.
186 C.III Spanish air force.
187 C.I LVA.
188 C.II
189-191 C.I LVA.
202 C.II USA N262. Crashed 27 July 1931. Ex-H-NAHX?
207 C.I MLD.
214 C.II USA N11532. BMW III engine.
225-226 C.I Danish Haerens Flyvertropper, serial Nos. 2 & 3.
Source: Casius, GJ. &Geldhof, N. Fokker constructienummers 1919-1940. Copy in RAF Museum J.M. Bruce Collection Box 78.


Russia

  Three Fokker C.I reconnaissance biplanes were apparently purchased by Soviet Russia through the Berlin Handelsgesellschaft Berlin on 31 December 1922.


United States of America
  
The Fokker C.l & the USMC/USN

  The USN ordered three Fokker C.l reconnaissance biplanes under Contract O-A-33. Reqn CR18; E108; Bu-21. Strangely, the Aircraft Record Cards for these machines gives the contract as Contract O-ZA-33 with the Austrian Government. Two of these machines were trialled by the USMC and one by the Navy.
  Cdr D.W. Bagley, Naval Attache, at the US Legation to the Netherlands, issued the following contract document on 8 September 1920, to N.V. Nederlandsche Vliegtuigenfabrick of Amsterdam for the purchase of two Fokker C.I biplanes:
  The machine was to be packed for shipment to the USA and to be inspected beforehand. It is agreed that no flying tests of these aeroplanes are to he made before delivery. This would have been for the two C.I machines ordered for the USMC.
  The first two, Bureau Nos. A-5887 and A-5888 were set up at Mitchell Field, LI. The object of obtaining these machines was to find out if they would be suitable for Marine Corps expeditionary work.
  On 4 November 1920, Capt Arthur H Page Jr, USMC, made a familiarization flight in one of them. Although initially all acceptance flights were to be carried out at Mitchell Field, they were transferred to Anacostia because the Mitchell Field Navy Air Detachment was scheduled for early dissolution. The Trial Board tests were made from 4 January to 7 February 1921, on A-5887. During the tests no weakness or defect appeared in the fuselage, wing or control surfaces or fittings or appurtances.
  The ordnance included a forward-firing Spandau machine gun mounted over the engine, and a Lewis gun mounted on a Hussman type Scarff ring.
  The Trial results gave a top speed of 100 mph and a low speed of 58/59 mph. In climbing tests, it reached 4,850 ft in 7 mins; 9,730 ft in 15 mins and 17,920 ft in 60 minutes. It was described as a maneuverable and easy flying machine, however, it was not considered a suitable machine for Navy and Marine Corps use. The main objection to USMC use was the large field required for take-off and landing. It was recommended that the remaining two planes of this type owned by the Navy, be put in service by the Marine Corps and that no more planes of this type be obtained. Despite this recommendation a third C.I was obtained by the Navy. The order was apparently changed to three in July 1920. This caused confusion in the order as to the number of spare engines, spare radiators, airscrews and landing gear required.
  Page wrote that erection of A-5888 was very simple. The plane handled very well and very fast. The speed is estimated at 80 miles; the landing speed 45 and taking-off at about 45.
  A-5889 arrived at New York on 16 November 1920 and was shipped by rail to the Naval Aircraft Factory (NAF) the following month. It was to be erected at the NAF and studied carefully and held at the NAF. After inspection it could be broken down and stored.
  Cdr D.W. Bagley, wrote to Hunsaker in March 1921 asking about the position of the Fokker C.I biplanes purchased by the USN as he had to do with their purchase and inspection. He noted that Anthony Fokker would be glad to furnish more without engines in case it was desired to use an American engine. He would want one sent over if this is done.
  Hunsaker noted in reply that the Fokkers were tried out by our people and proved to be excellent flying machines and performed as per Fokker’s claims. There was a great deal of trouble at first in getting the engines to perform properly, hut eventually our people learned the trick and got very good results with them. It is my idea that the Marines might like this type of plane for expeditionary work, but there’s no telling how a Marine will take things, as now the Marines say they do not want this sort of plane at all but want a bigger and heavier one which will carry more load. I suppose eventually they will want to carry a motorcycle along with them as well as bombs to drop on Goo-Goo’s. However, the Marines did not want any more of the C.I type and Fokker was to be told accordingly.

USA Civil Fokker C.l/C.ll Biplanes

  Several civil Fokker C.II biplanes came to the USA.
  As one C.II was shipped to Canada, and four to the USA, it appears that there has been confusion around these aircraft with one source saying that the Canadian one was sent to the USA while the US sources say it was the other way around. Since the machine was written off in an accident in Canada, the latter is thought to be the correct history.
  In The 1922 Aircraft-Year Book, ‘The Netherlands Aircraft Mfg Co (Fokker)’ is recorded with the Nebraska Aircraft Corp, and active at Mineola Field, LI, NY, and had two F-3 Monoplanes and one C.-2 Biplane (BMW, 185 h.p.)
  Cole Palen acquired the remains of one in the late 1950s and used the wings and tail surfaces in his reproduction Fokker D.VII.
Danish C.I F.Nr.2
Netherlands C.I in early finish.
Fokker C.I 510 of Netherlands LVA
Soviet C.I without gun ring.
Stripped C.I fuselage.
Stripped C.I fuselage, that of No. 519, shows the relationship to the Fokker D.VII.
Ernst Udet in his two-seat Fokker built D.VII 10415/18 at Prague's Kelby airfield in April 1919. Even with the enlarged centre-section cut-out, the passenger had a difficult time entering the forward cockpit.
Fokker C.I; these photographs were used in Fokker advertisements for the C.I.
Fokker operated this modified D.VII for passenger flights.
After the two-seat D.VII was handed back to Fokker he had it registered as PH-AJW.
The experimental contra-rotating propellers fitted to a C.I. It apparently made a single hop, however, the arrangement caught the German's attention after the invasion of the Netherlands, and it was taken to Germany. Further details are unknown.
The experimental contra-rotating propellers fitted to a C.I. It apparently made a single hop.
An early LVA C.I as denoted by the orange circle national insignia. Metal footsteps are placed over the wing spars at the fuselage.
An early LVA Fokker C.I with the orange circle insignia.
LVA Fokker C.I No. 485 with the first Netherlands national insignia. Note the bombs carried under the fuselage.
No. 485 with another C.I bearing the RADIO legend on its fuselage in front of the hangar.
Fokker C.I No. 486 in late national markings with the serial repeated on the rear fuselage and informing that the machine has a 180-hp BMW installed. Note the under-surface of the wings is light blue.
The end of No. 486.
Left to right: Lts van Dorst, Sissingh and van Gemeren with No. 491. The fuel lines from the undercarriage tank and the fuselage bomb rack are well shown - probably 25-kg bombs. Note the '27' stenciled on the fuel tank.
No. 491 after a harsh landing in snow.
No. 491 after a harsh landing in snow.
D.VII Nos 260 and 263 in storage with Fokker C.I No. 499 behind. It is thought that the Fokker stencil to the fuselage was applied when the two machines went to Iceland in 1932.
View of No. 500
No. 507 has RADIO stenciled on the fuselage sides.
This snapshot of personnel at a picnic displays the Fokker C.I with the RADIO logo. The orange circle national insignia can be made out on the original.
The observer/gunner in the rear cockpit of No. 524 show how far he can stand in the air stream. As far as is known, the C.I never had to show its mettle in combat.
Fokker C.I 533 and 535 in flight.
No. 548 in flight.
The Five Fingers From One Hand aerobatic team in flight. The two-seat F.600 is in the lead position.
The two-seat D.VII that was assigned the spurious serial F600 when adopted by the aerobatic team 'Five Fingers from one Hand.' It is seen here before Netherlands national insignia was applied.
MLD Fokker C.I Serial No. F4 without gun ring on the rear cockpit.
MLD serial No. F-6 in a line up of unarmed Fokker C.I biplanes.
The remains of MLD No. F-3 that crashed on 21 September 1922, at De Kooy, killing the pilot 1st Lt J Goedhart. His observer, Off Mach2 De Jong died the following day.
LVA No. 529 Lynx C.I. Points to note are the serial to the rear of the fuselage, the engine, the starting handle on the starboard side of the engine cowling, and the wings are green overall. In the bottom photo the engine is closely cowled.
LVA No. 492 shows a different engine installation with metal airscrew, low pressure tyres and different shaped fin with a navigation light on top of the rudder.
The end of No. 492.
Fokker photographs of the C.I used in Fokker advertising material. Fokker promoted his aircraft widely and he supplied many countries as well as the Netherlands military. This Fokker C.II bears the KLM emblem.
These photographs show the seating arrangements for the two passengers in the C.II limousine.
The oval radiator on this version of the C.II is noteworthy.
Fokker C.II limousine. The logo on the cabin door reads 'Fokker Express'. Probably located in the USA. Four or six C.I biplanes are reported to have gone to Canada and the USA.
Canadian cabin Fokker C.II with registration G-CAEV.
Lt Erlind with one of the Fokker built C.I reconnaissance biplanes. 1 October 1923.
Oberst Koch and Lt Erlind in C.I No. 2, presumably at the beach at Klovermarken.
Fokkers Nos. 4, 5 and 6, ready to start from Klovermarken in 1925. The serials are carried on the rudder and at the rear of the fuselage is stenciled in white - Understotning (For support) Loft her (Lift here).
The I O prototype, No. O-56. First flown on 22 November 1926 it was in service until it had a mid-air collision with R-8 over Vaerlose, on 12 May 1936. TFT 821:30
The final Danish derivative of the Fokker C.I, a single-seat I O, No. O-72, over the Great Belt. No. O-72, the second I O, first flew on 6 June 1933, and crashed at Farum on 13 August 1938.
The Bureau No. A5887 can just be discerned on this otherwise unmarked Fokker C.I of the USMC.
More views of Bureau No. A5887 can just be discerned on this otherwise unmarked Fokker C.I of the USMC.
Two-seat D.VII with Hall-Scott painted under the lower wings. The legend on the fuselage side proclaims it has a Hall-Scott L 6 200 H.P. Power Plant installed. Note the Curtiss Jenny in the background.
Fokker C.II over New York City.
Two photographs of flat radiator version: This installation of a Hall-Scott motor in a two-seat D.VII has multi-louvered engine panels that change the clean lines of the D.VII.
Two-seat Fokker D.VII serial No. A.S.94034, McCook P-290, with a V-8 motor installed.
A Soviet Fokker C.I.
Line-up of FD.VII at Gatchina airfield in 1923. The first aircraft has been stated to be a two-seat FD.VII, however it is more probably a Fokker C.I. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
The Fokker C.IIIs were assigned lo the 1st Higher School of Military Pilots in Moscow. This example has an interesting motif on the fuselage.
(КПР 45а)
A Fokker C.I in Soviet service. This machine has often been misidentified as a two-seat D.VII.
Crowds of civilians and Soviet officials in leather caps and jackets surround a Fokker C.I. The fuel tank between the wheels can be clearly seen.
Two-seat D.VII H.02 with Brandenburg C.I in the background.
A two-seat D.VII with a Brandenburg C.I.
Australia

  Being a young country, Federation only occurring in 1901, Australia was anxious to prove its worth to Great Britain and followed Britain into WWI. Australia fielded a Flying Corps with one squadron in Palestine, and three on the Western Front as well as training squadrons in the UK.
  The Australian War Records Section (AWRS) was established to collect material and trophies for a Museum that was to be built after the war. Aircraft were particularly wanted. With the end of the war the Australian Government wanted their share of the aircraft that the Germans had to turn over to the Allies under the Armistice conditions. The aircraft obtained were stored at No.2 Aircraft Salvage Depot (ASD), Fienvillens, France. Seven Fokker D.VII were recorded as ‘New, complete.’ During the week ending 23 August 1919, a Fokker D.VII (no serial listed) and an E.V monoplane serial 140/18, were amongst the aircraft sent across the Channel to the UK. Eventually 16 German aircraft were shipped to Australia. They included Fokker D.VII (O.A.W.) 8371/18 and Fokker E.V 140/18. Both were recorded as ‘Complete.’
  The two Fokkers were exhibited at the Exhibition Building in Nicholson St, Melbourne, to raise funds for the proposed war museum. The Fokkers then traveled by train to the Motor Trader’s Association of South Australia’s show in 1920 in Adelaide. Here they were displayed with the local boys, the Smith brother’s, Vickers Vimy bomber that had flown out from the UK to Australia.
  The Australian magazine Aircraft, for 1 October 1920, records that when Parer and McIntosh arrived in Melbourne after their epic flight from England to Australia in a single engine Airco de Havilland D.H.9 biplane, they were greeted by an aerial escort of a DH9a, DH6, Fokker Biplane, Sopwith “Pups”, “Doves” and “Gnu”; Bristol scouts, Se5 (sic),Avro, Boulton and Paul and an old Maurice Farman. The Melbourne Herald newspaper for 31 August devoted much space to the “Airman’s Odyssey” and noted that amongst the machines was a Fokker from Point Cook - a captured German machine still bearing the signs of war service. This Fokker was the D.VII and was stunted over the city as part of the aerial welcome. Parer and McIntosh’s D.H.9 was later purchased by the Australian Government and ended up in the Australian War Museum (AWM)’s collection.
  Each state was offered one aeroplane but the two Fokkers were not allocated. In 1936 the AWM needed space in the part of the Exhibition Building it occupied in Melbourne. It was suggested that the aircraft stored here could be sold to raise funds for the Memorial. The aircraft were described as being in a very bad condition after being stored for a long time in cases which were not waterproof and had been raided once or twice by local ‘hobos’.
  The two Fokkers were included in the aircraft still in store. The RAAF inspected the aircraft and reported that the civil aviation authorities would never allow the aircraft to fly in Australia. The engines were said to be too expensive to consider selling them to operate from motor boats.
  There was a fire in the Exhibition Building in February 1925. The nightwatchman, J Kirby, reported that he came on duty around 10.30 pm and did his regular rounds. At 6 am he checked that the aeroplanes had not been interfered with overnight... At 12.20p. m. I was in the curators office when A. Horneman ran in through the engine room shouting to me to call the Fire Brigade. It was reported that five cases and their contents had been destroyed. Three cases were untouched. There was apparently no report on what was burned and what survived in the three untouched cases.
  Newspaper reports stated that six aircraft had been lost. Kevin Murray recalled seeing the Fokker D.VII still in the tin storage shed in the early 1940s. Mr Murray’s research showed that an aircraft, type unknown, was still stored in the iron shed in June 1948 when the Exhibition Trust notified the AWM that the shed was to be demolished. The aircraft had been disposed of by 16 September.


Belgium

  One Fokker E. V was flown in Belgium colours. This was Werke Nummer 2842, Serial No. 201/18. This was one of the E.V monoplanes that were brought up to D.VIII standard after the wing failures on the early E.V type. As far as is known this machine was never taken onto the Aeronautique Militaire register. It served a short time at the Flying School at Asch, apparently by Lt van Cotthem as his personal aircraft. Its eventual fate is unknown but it is assumed to have been scrapped.


Canada

  Canada received a single Fokker E.V, No. 132/18, that was received in the UK soon after the Armistice. It arrived at Toronto in the summer of 1919 shipped via SS War Peridat. Aside from the shipping records there is little information on this machine in Canada.


Italy


For its share of the aircraft from defeated Germany, Italy received from 127 to 131 aircraft. Amongst these were three Fokker D.VII and eleven Fokker D.VIII fighters delivered between June-July 1920.
- D.VII: 4192/18; 5210/18 and 7655/18.
- D.VIII: 177/18; 226/18; 241/18; 249/18; 302/18; 321/18; 501/18; 550/18; 679/18; 692/18; 693/18.
  One E.V/D.VIII was photographed at Furbara where the fighter gunnery school was located. An additional two D.VIII monoplanes (275/18 and 593/18) were also received as war reparations. These latter arrivals were based on Montecelio (Guidonia) airport, near Rome and were used only used for test purposes. Three Fokkers received Italian serials: - MM 192 to 194 in 1932. Why they received these at such a late date is unknown., but it was probably a means of ‘clearing the books’ of unwanted airframes.
  In the summer of 1921, the press reported that a squadron might be formed from the Four E.V monoplanes present at the time at the experimental station at Montecelio. After 1930 they were sold to the civilian market and entered on the Italian civil register. Three appeared on the Italian civil register as:
  I-BEAM (as c/n 3305 - 550/18), registration cancelled July 1926;
  I-ELIA (as c/n 3348 - 249/18). Cancelled as unusable November 1926. Restored 14 July 1927 (as c/n 3048). Registered to CNAI, Rome. I-ELIA was shown at the 1931 Giornata dell’ Aria at Littorio airport (Rome).
  I-FRAK (as c/n 2916 - 275/18). Dismantled October 1926.
  One D.VIII was displayed in a small museum in Monterotondo dedicated to the memory of Fausto Cecconi. Its fate is unknown but may have been the source of the fuselage that survives in the Caproni museum. The survivors were apparently destroyed during 1940, however, I-FRAK survived, the fuselage being displayed in the Museo Caproni, at Mattareloo airport in Trento; the only original Fokker E.V/D.VIII in the world.


Japan

  Amongst the assortment of aircraft ceded to Japan under the peace reparations were four D.VII fighters (230/18, 322/18, 8523/18 and 8587/18), four E.V fighters (172/18, 199/18, 220/18 and 221/18) and one D.VIII (507/18) fighter. One D.VII and one E.V were given to the Navy, one D.VII to the Army’s Aeronautical School.


Lithuania

  Photographs show a Fokker E.V/D.VIII on the Lithuanian airfield at Kaunas in 1919. Nothing further is known about this aircraft. The aircraft was still in German colours but in Lithuanian service. A Fokker D.VIII is recorded as operating with the German FA 25 in Lithuania in May 1919. There is no documentation available on the use of a D.VIII by Lithuanian forces.


Poland

  There were sixteen Fokker E.V and one D.VIII aircraft in Poland. They all came from abandoned aircraft left by the retreating Germans. Most of them were taken over in Wielkopolska (Region) of Poland, from Lawica at the ex German Die Fliegerstation Posen-Lawitz air base for Flieger Ersatz Abteilung Nr 4. Within a week after the capture of Lawica by the Polish Insurgents from Wielkopolska, seven operational Fokker E.V planes were sent to Warsaw. Assembled at Central Aviation Workshops (Centralne Warsztaty Lonicze, CWL), they received a new numbering with the type number: 00.
  At that time, the lack of fighter planes was most noticeable in the newly formed air squadrons. All of the airframes (except for one D.VIII) had the markings: Fok. E.V, applied to both the rating inscriptions on the fuselage, as well as the nomenclature in reports, combat reports, orders, etc. It is not known whether the E.V in Poland had new wings, built after October 1918, bringing them to D.VIII standard. The report on the accident of Fokker E.V No. 193/18 (00.2) crashed by Lt. pil. Ludwik Idzikowski at Lviv aerodrome was caused by wing failure, which was characteristic of a series of accidents in the German air force. It was known that in 1919, during repairs at CWL, modernization and conversion works were carried out for the wings for the Fokkers E.V.
  These modifications included the use of additional tendons from the lower flange of the front spar at the tenth rib to the clamp on the front landing gear leg. Such external stiffeners were made, among others, on planes Nos. 175/18, 191/18 (00.8) and 194/18. In addition, the struts were modified, e.g. on airframe No. 193/18 (00.2).
  Despite the infamy surrounding the E.V plane, Polish pilots did not have any resistance to flying these purebred fighters. They were equipped by the squadrons: 1st Wielkopolska Aviation Squadron (1.EW) (12 EW), 4.EW. (15 EM), 7 EL, 9 EW and 19 EM. The number of Fokker E.V fighters in any one squadron did not exceed three machines. They were also used for training at the Pilots School in Lawica and in the Air Handling School at SL Lawica. The participation of the E.V planes in the battles with the Ukrainians for Lviv and on the Southern Front was particularly noticeable.
  On the E.V 180/18 (00.1) aeroplane Lieutenant pilot Stefan Stec on 29 May 1919, fought an air fight with two Ukrainian planes, a Brandenburg and a Nieuport, which was shot down.
  The E.V planes also escorted reconnaissance aircraft, made assault attacks, ground strafing, reconnaissance and propaganda flights. As they were used up, they were withdrawn from frontline service, and after the renovation in CWL ‘for rear service and communication,’ a few survived until the end of 1920.
  By order of 210/lot/TJ of 18 January 1921, of the General Staff of the High Command of the Polish Army (Naczelne Dowodctwo Wojska Polskiego, NDWP), it was decided to withdraw the Fokkers E.V from the front-line squadrons to the storage in Lawica. After the war, a few were assigned to the Aviation Service School in Lawica. Fokker E.V No. 175/18 survived there the longest. Beautifully renovated, it was exhibited in April 1924, at the National Fair in Poznan on the roof of the LOPP pavilion in front of the Upper Silesian Tower. In January 1926 it was shown next to the rebuilt Friedrichshafen G.III bomber to compare the sizes of small and large aircraft. This machine did not fly anymore and was stored at the Air Service School at 3 PL.


Russia

At least one Fokker E.V/D.VIII flew in Soviet markings.


United Kingdom

The Fokker Monoplane

  The British Air Ministry reported on the Fokker E.V/D. VIII in June 1919. The machine was examined at Fienvillers on January 23, 1919
  Fokker Monoplane. This is a new design which should yield interesting results, when its performance can be investigated. In general it follows very closely the lines of the D.7 biplane, from which it differs in having a single main lane in the parasol fashion.
  No external wiring of any kind is used and the spars of the planes are supported by two pairs of V struts on each side, which spring from the tubular longerons of the fuselage.
  When examined the machine was not assembled and the pilot’s eyes are apparently on a level with the trailing edge.
  An auxiliary plane surrounds the undercarriage axle and is of the usual Fokker construction; it is covered with 3-ply wood and is deep enough to allow the axle to move up and down.
  The construction of the fuselage is identical in principle with the biplane except that in order to fair off the circular engine cowling light wooden framework are fixed at each side and also on top to support he fabric.
  The engine is the standard Oberursel Le Rhone, and the cowling covers about two-thirds of its disc.
  The date on this machine is 7/9/18.
  Source: Report by Technical Commission on German Aeroplanes and Engines. TNA AIR1/2094/207/12/8.


United States of America
  
  Fokker E.V monoplanes 106/18,108/18 and 166/18 were collected in Europe and were to be shipped to the USA.
  A Quantity Report on Overseas' Airplanes as of October 31st, 1919, listed the following Fokkers:
  Two (2) D.VI; Forty-two (42) D.VII, two (2) D.VIII and two (2) E.V fighters, out of a grand total of 943 foreign aircraft in the USA. Two E.V monoplanes were recorded at Americus, Georgia in July 1920. What became of these monoplanes is unclear. McCook Field used two Fokker D.VIII monoplanes with the Field Nos. P-165 and P-169. P-165 was referred to a Type III, while P-169 was a Type I, the same as other single-seat fighters. These two monoplanes were purchased off Fokker in the Netherlands, probably in early 1921, for they were at McCook Field in June 1921. It is possible that the monoplanes handed over in Europe were unserviceable by the time they reached the USA, and the US wanted airworthy examples for testing. An E.V was subject of a McCook Field report but it did not record the aircraft’s serial and appears to have been a description of the monoplane without any reference to actual flying the machine.
  McCook Field Report No. 1676 was issued to cover the ‘Official Performance Tests of Fokker Monoplane Type D.VIII Equipped with 110 H.P Oberursel Rot.’ The D.VIII was identified as P-165.
  The pilot’s observations were as follows:
  The airplane has a tendency to turn right in taxying, takes of very quickly, climbs rapidly, and is very maneuverable.
  It is easy to fly, and the controls are very sensitive. It is tail heavy, but so light on the controls, that it is not tiresome to fly.
  The visibility is quite good.
  The machine guns are so placed that, in the event of a crash, the pilot must undoubtably be injured by being thrown against same.
  The airplane lands very slowly with a slight tendency to drop the right wing, and to turn right on the ground.
  The controls for the engine are very inconveniently located, inasmuch as the throttle for the gas is on the left side of the fuselage, and the throttle for the air is on the left side of the control stick.
  Signed: Lieut Wade
  First Lieut. Air Service
  Test Pilot.

  After a distinguished career in aviation, Wade retired from the USAF as a Major General in 1955. Writing in 1973, he wrote that he remembered the Fokker D.VIII. The taxiing and flying characteristics as mentioned in the report are correct. One outstanding part of one flight test to altitude I long remember is that the machine gun mounts were used for the mounting of some of the instruments for the flight tests. The gun placement on the right gun was used for one instrument which required attention during the altitude climb. We did not have good face masks and as I thought the airplane would not go very high, I went with my face open to the wind coming in over the gun emplacement. Upon returning and landing I found that I had frozen the right part of my face and some of the left cheek. I went to the hospital immediately for treatment. No further trouble and no effect in my later life.
  However, Thomas G Foxworth records that other pilots experienced occasional viscous wing flutter, and quotes Fred Verville who witnessed how the D.VIII wing would ‘wave and shake.’
  P-165 was recorded a serial No. A.S.64345. It went to Salvage on 6 October 1926. It was recorded as having Le Rhone No. 94770 that was removed and sent to Stores on 13 February 1925. The air speed indicator was removed on 30 April 1925, and it was placed in the McCook Field Museum.
  P-169, serial A.S.94112, reportedly had Oberursel No. 94998 installed. It went to salvage 5 November 1923.
Fokker E.V no 001 (187/18) belonged to Lt. Pilot Stefan Stec. Lwow/Lewandowka 1919.
Fokker E.V no. 002 (193/18) 7 Eskadra Lotnicza / III. Grupa Lotnicza (3rd Aviation Group) Lwow/Lewandowka airfield, May 1919. Aircraft with ppor. pil. Ludwik Idzikowski.
Belgian E.V '17'
Civil Netherlands D.VIII.
Fokker E.V P.165 tested postwar at McCook Field, Ohio
The restoration of the fuselage of D.VIII MM.194 was started in 1988 by the Master Fly Company at Roverto, for display in the new Caproni Museum that opened in 1992. In 1999 the fuselage was again restored to its present display condition.
Fokker E.V 139/18 is thought to be one that was handed over to the British after the Armistice. The fuselage appears to have been completely over painted.
Fokker E.V 140/18 being assembled in the Exhibition Building in Melbourne. The streaking pattern on the ply covered wing is well shown.
The Fokker E.V 140/18
Given the number of people who saw the display of the German aircraft brought back to Australia in the displays in Melbourne. Victoria, and Adelaide, South Australia, the paucity of photographs of these aircraft is hard to understand. This page from The Australasian of 26 June 1920, shows the Fokker E.V 140/18 that has had its fuselage cross souvenired.
Fokker D.VIII 249/18 (w/n 3048) with its civil registration I-ELIA to the fuselage and under the wing.
Fokker D.VIII 692/18 in Italy. The bulged engine cowling covers the 11-cylinder Oberursel Ur.III rotary.
A Ur.III-powered Fokker D.VIII at Fubara airfield still wears the German national markings on its wings.
Personnel posing with a Fokker D.VIII with 11-cylinder Ur.III at Fubara airfield; the cowling was bulged to clear the engine. On the original the German crosses on the wings may be discerned.
Personnel posing with a Fokker D.VIII with 9-cylinder Ur.II at Fubara airfield; the standard cowling shows this. On the original the German crosses on the wings may be discerned.
A Hanriot H.D.1, Fokker D.VIII and a Spad at Fubara airfield.
A Fokker E.V or D.VIII in British hands for testing post-Armistice. Note the pitot in the wing. Some panel work has been done to the fuselage and armament has been removed.
The same machine as the previous page.
A civil Fokker D.VIII (w/n 3264) in full lozenge fabric and Dutch markings. The LVA never used the D.VIII. This is most probably the machine Fokker had at the ELTA in 1919. Some twenty D.VIII came to the Netherlands from Germany after the war.
A civil Fokker D.VIII (w/n 3264) in full lozenge fabric and Dutch markings. The LVA never used the D.VIII. This is most probably the machine Fokker had at the ELTA in 1919. Some twenty D.VIII came to the Netherlands from Germany after the war.
Fokker E.V 201/18 in Belgian hands. The monoplane is identified in some Belgian publications as a D.VIII, however the Fokker stencil identifies it as an E.V. This was one of the early E.V monoplanes that was rebuilt to D.VIII specifications after the failure of the wings on the original E.V. (via D Brackx)
This is assumed to be the same E.V after being repainted khaki with Belgian black, yellow, red rudder stripes. The pilot in the E.V is Lt Albert van Cotthem. The No. 17 has been described as a race number as the photographs were taken during an air race at Even in 1920/1921. The No. 17 was also carried under the wings. The event may have been part of the 1920 Olympic Games celebrations. (via D Brackx)
This is assumed to be the same E.V after being repainted khaki with Belgian black, yellow, red rudder stripes. The pilot in the E.V is Lt Albert van Cotthem. The No. 17 has been described as a race number as the photographs were taken during an air race at Even in 1920/1921. The No. 17 was also carried under the wings. The event may have been part of the 1920 Olympic Games celebrations. (via D Brackx)
Unarmed Fokker D.VIII McCook P-165, A.S.64345.
Unarmed Fokker D.VIII McCook P-165, A.S.64345.
Fokker planes from the 15th EM at the Lewandowka airport in September 1920. The first from the left, the only one in Polish aviation, was Fokker D.VIII. 516/18. The shape and colour of the engine cover as well as the lozenge fabric covering seem to confirm this fact. An interesting fact is that all sources say that this plane was not armed. As can be seen in the photo, during the hottest battles with the Bolsheviks, the aircraft had two Spandau machine guns mounted. Further, one by one, Fokker D.VII (SLt No. 502/18), then in the center visible Fokker D.VII 10358/18 (Alb.) (SLL 504/18) with a personal emblem, initials "JH" inscribed in himself, belonging to the pilot Jozef Hendricks. Hereinafter Fokker D.VIIs: SLL 508/18; SLL 513/18; CWL 22.04; and SLL 511/18.
A commemorative photo taken in September 1920 at the Lewandowka airfield, showing the personnel and planes of the 15th Fighter Squadron. Aircraft from left: Fokker D.VIII 506/18; Fokker D.VII SLL 513/18; Fokker D.VII SLL 502/18; Fokker D.VII SLL 504/18; Fokker D.VII SLL 508/18; Fokker D.VII CWL 22.04 and Fokker D.VII SLL 511/18
The three Fokker E.V monoplanes Nos. 001 (Lt. Stefan Stec), 002 (Lt. Idzikowski) and 003 (Lt. Stefan Bastyr). All three aircraft have red-white 'wind of rose' badge compose with different white personal emblem such as letter 'S' located for left and right or chevron. The 'S' located for right was later changed for sign of infinity. All three machines had red-white-red painted from bottom elevator and red-white rudder, markings of the all machines in III.Grupa Lotnicza (3rd Aviation Group) which took active part in frontline combat, fighting with enemy planes and carrying out strafing on ground targets during April and May 1919.
Fokker E.V 187/18 (CWL no. 001) freshly delivered to the Lewandowka airport directly from the CWL workshops in Warsaw. Airframe in original German camouflage, without white and red markings fram III.Aviation Park in Lviv. Next to the machine is Lieutenant Pil. Stefan Stec, April 4, 1919. The exact date of the photo is possible after the ribbon of the Cross of Valor (Krzyz Walecznych), which in the initial period replaced the given cross (which has not yet been produced). Note the fuselage is covered by four colored canvas and rudder with five colored canvas. Such a canvas mixture is often seen on the Fokker E.Vs.
Fokker E.V 187/18 (CWL no. 001) photographed in Sommer 1919 at Lewandowka airfield. Close inspection of the original picture show that at this time the aircraft had minor repairs. It is very probable that the fuselage at this time was over painted dark green without 001 number and Lt. Stefan Stec's insignia. The rudder looks like it is in the original camouflage and markings.
The CO of the 7th Fighter Squadron, Lt pilot Stefan Stec, in the cockpit of Fokker E.V (CWL No. 001 (187/18), Lviv/Lewandowka, April 1919. On this plane on 29 April 1919, Pil. Stefan Stec achieved an aerial victory against two Ukrainian planes. The aircraft is in its original Fokker finish. Clearly visible are details of the painted, personal pilot's emblem - the Rose of the Winds inscribed in the letter "S" (which Stec used during the WWI, as a pilot of the Filiegrkompagnie 3/J). Note that CWL number 001 is over painted & new one is added. In this time markings of III.Grupa Lotnicza (3rd Aviation Group) was painted. Noteworthy are the round counters of the fired ammunition installed in the rear of the MG Spandau.
Yesterday's enemies today united in a common flight. American-Italian mission at the Lviv airport in 1919. In the background Fokker E.V no. 001.
Fokker E.V 188/18 (CWL 006) after crash during acceptance flight on 29 May 1919 at Warsaw/Mokotow airfield. The pilot Lt Mikolaj Bielawin from 59th Esk. Breguet was severely injured.
Fokker E.V 190/18 (CWL 00.4) photographed at 1st Eskadra Wielkopolska, Bobrujsk airfield in October 1919. Standing at front of the aeroplane, from left to right: Mechanics Stachowiak, Palkowski and two pilots sierz. Jozef Napierala i ppor. pil. Teofil Krzywik. Machine still in original German camouflage. CWL numbers and chessboards added only.
Fokker E.V CWL 00.4 (190/18) belonging to porucznik Julian Jasinski, a pilot of the 19th Fighter Squadron (16.EM). In early of June the Fokker monoplane was moved from Borysov to the Priyamino airfield for repair and repainting. Priyamino was the home base of the Red Aviation 4th Aero Group commanded by the famous pilot Aleksey D. Shirinkin. At this location was a storage facility for damaged and captured aircraft. On June 3, 1920, porucznik pilot Julian Jasinski got lost during a delivery flight to the front of the renovated monoplane when he was not carrying ammunition. Aircraft was was shot from the ground and on a damaged. Pilot emergency landed near Borisov on June 3, 1920. and was captured. After he was captured, Soviet propaganda publicized the incident stating that the Polish pilot had fled to their side. After the war, the pilot recalled that before he was sent to a PoW camp, according to the traditions of the Western Front from World War I, he was hosted for two days in the Shirinkin squadron. The aviator also provided exhaustive testimony, as a result of which he was completely cleared of any adverse allegations. During WWII he served in the PSP in Great Britain in 1942-43 as a ground defence officer in 308 and 315 Polish Fighter Squadron and then he was the chief of staff until 1946 in 303 Polish Fighter Squadron. A Soviet Nieuport 23 from 4th ASG can be seen in the background. Note also the stump mounted anti-aircraft Lewis machine gun.
Photo of Soviet-captured Fokker E.V CWL 00.4 (190/18). The plane with the upper wing removed, waiting to be repainted. Photos from a later period show that the airframe was painted dark green at the top and light blue at the bottom. During its service in 2nd Independent Fighter Aviation Otriad, large pocket(s) was sewn on the sides allo wing to take small bombs or grenades. Red stars on wing and squadron markings at the rudder was painted. In winter, Russian-made aviation skis were installed. In the background two Soviet Nieuports 24bis belonging to the 4th Soviet Aero Group. Left from the 13th Bolshevik Aero Squadron (yig-yang sign on the rudder) and on the right from the 11th Bolshevik Aero Squadron (the comet has the rudder).
A famous photograph taken in Lwow airfield on 5 April 1919 showing Fokker E.V 193/18 (CWL 002). It was the second machine of Lt. Stefan Stec from 3 May 1919 allocated to 7 Eskadra Lotnicza and used by 2nd/Lt. pilot Ludwik Idzikowski. Note much smaller wind-rose emblem and stylized letter 'S'.
Lt. pilot. Ing. Stefan Stec, commanding the 7 Eskadra Mysliwska and Ing. Wladyslaw Rubczyhski, the manager of the mechanical works of the III Park Lotniczy in front of Fokker no. 002 (193/18), Lwow, early May 1919. Note the Polish national markings without borders, painted around the wings. This aircraft had red-white-red painted from bottom elevator and red-white rudder, markings of the all machines in III.Grupa Lotnicza (3rd Aviation Group). The dog sitting on wheel wings is Stec's lovely pet from Fliegerkompagnie 3/J, WW1 A-H times.
Crashed by 2nd/Lt. pilot Ludwik Idzikowski (during WWI a pilot of Imperial Russian Aviation) CWL No. 002 (E.V 193/18) on Lviv-Lewandowka airfield, late May 1919. The original Stefan Stec's emblem was changed to 'Rose of the Winds' inscribed in the sign of infinity. The Fokker E.V monoplanes Nos. 001, 002 and 003 (Lt. Stefan Bastyr - a pilot from Austro-Hungarian Fliegerkompagnie 37P) with the 'Rose of the Winds' emblem on a white chevron), took an active part in frontline combat, fighting with enemy planes and carrying out strafing on ground targets during April and May 1919. Note the red-white painted elevator (bottom only) markings of the all machines in III.Grupa Lotnicza (3rd Aviation Group).
Another picture showing the Fokker E.V 193 (CWL 002) crashed by 2nd/Lt. pilot Ludwik Idzikowski.
Two pictures showing crashed Fokker E.V CWL no. 007 and its pilot ppor. Antoni Poznahski. Polonne airfield on 17 May 1920. Note the underwing extra wire bracing is clearly seen.
The unrestored Fokker D.VIII fuselage at the Museo Caproni.
The unrestored Fokker D.VIII fuselage at the Museo Caproni.
View of Moeres airfield post-war. D.VII 6693/18 bears the Thistle emblem of the 9th Escadrille as does the Hanriot H.D.1 parked next to it. The serial 'F 2' is presented on the middle rudder stripe. The Escadrille was equipped with the Hanriot H.D.1 and the Fokkers were used as trainers - given that they had a stationary engine and were more powerful than the Hanriots, this seems a strange combination of types. A late-war Gotha bomber can be seen in the background. Belgium's air arm used some of these bombers along with other German types in the years following WWL (via D Brackx)
A two-seat D.VII with a Brandenburg C.I.
Two-seat D.VII H.02 with Brandenburg C.I in the background.
The Huffer H 9

  Julius Huffer was born in 1903 and never completed any technical training. Around 1920, he acquired the Gustav Schulze aircraft factory using his father’s inheritance. As he was not of age, his cousin Georg Huffer allowed his name to be used as the owner of the business until Julius came of age. Julius was constantly in financial trouble. In 1926 he brought his cousin, Georg into the business after he had been declared bankrupt.
  Deutsche Lloyd Flugzeug-Werke (DLFW) had tried to market their conversion of the Fokker D.VII as a two-seater but the effort was unsuccessful. Dr Georg Huffer’s Flugzeugbau Huffer of Munster, produced a two-seat version of the Fokker D.VII for the civilian market as a training/sporting biplane. It is assumed he had a license from DLFW as this meant that he did not have to undergo further testing as the modifications were already approved and only a simple test would lead to a certificate of airworthiness. Huffer did build and sell the type in a convoluted manner that has made it difficult for historians to determine exactly what went on in the 1920s, especially due to the incomplete German records of civil aviation. Huffer had his own system of designations but also used that of DLFW. The type was known as the Huffer Type H.9 but registered as the DLFW D VIII.
  It appears that the H9 was designated D VIII when equipped with a Type III engine and D VIIIa with a Type IIIa engine. Nine were built between 1928 to 1929.
  The first D VIII (w/n 1) was tested by the DVL with Georg as applicant. The fuselage was stated to be of Fokker Johannisthal construction with new wings by Huffer. Rudolf Ruding made the first flight of D VIII (w/n 1) at Munster in May 1927, but this resulted in the aircraft being completely written off.
  The Huffer H.S.D. II was a two-seat communal cockpit version of the Fokker D.VII. This appeared around late 1924, and was one of those fighters hidden at the end of the war, this one in a straw shed on Luneburg Heath. The fuselage had survived well, but the wings had to be replaced. It was rebuilt as w/n 101 with extended wings. A 160-hp Mercedes D.III was installed. Harry Fink made the first flight of the machine and became ‘lost’ and landed at Paderborn. Huffer had moved to Paderborn and in this way he transported the aircraft to the new field without having to pay land transportation as the machine had not received permission to make the flight as the new wings had not been approved.
  The H.S.D. II was sold to the Technical University of Hannover and registered as D-428. However, the machine was lost in an emergency landing when flying to Hanover by Gustav Koch, a WWI bomber pilot. He flew into thick fog and hit trees while trying to land. The report of the incident refers to the machine as a DLFW VIIIa. Whether the registration D-428 was ever officially allotted to this aircraft is not clear, D-428 was allocated to an Aero Sport S1.
  Likewise, D-407 (w/n 508), the Werke Nummer indicating it was built by DLFW. Purchased by Westfalenwerk GmbH in June 1923, it went through the Huffer works in the winter of 1924/1925 for overhaul and emerged with extended wings. It was bought by the owners of Trumpf chocolate as a Huffer machine. The German records underwent clean-up programs between 1936 and 1938, and dates are likely to be months or even years out as to when an aircraft was no longer flyable and when it was officially deleted from the records.
  When the Huffer works closed in January 1926, four Fokker D.VII fuselages were taken as bankrupt assets. They were sold and one was to come on the civil register as D-891, and strangely, it used a DLFW construction number when registered. See the table on the following page for details.


DLFW D VIII on the German Civil register
Registration Type Work# Engine Registered Notes
D-407 D VIIIa 508 Daimler III February 1928 Built by DLFW and purchased by Westfalenwerk GmbH in June 1923. It went through the Huffer works in the winter of 1924/1925 for overhaul and emerged with extended wings. It was bought by the owners of Trumpf chocolate. Cancelled December 1928.
D-446 D VIIIa 505 Daimler D.III - Feb 1928 Luftfahrtverein, Essen. Withdrawn April 1932.
D-700 D VIIIa 601 Daimler D.III February 1928 Cancelled April 1932.
D-891 D VIIIa 510 Daimler D.IIIa February 1928 Fuselage acquired from Huffer bankrupt stock. Destroyed February 1932.
D-1239 D VIII 2 Daimler D.IIIa May 1928 Succession civil owners, last in August 1931. November 1936, listed as destroyed in aircraft roll.
D-1440 DVIII 3 Daimler D.III July 1928 Last registered D-1440 August 1929. D-IHOT about January 1935.June 1937, written off aircraft roll.
D-1454 D VIIIa 13 Daimler D.IIIa July 1928 Crashed at Mariensiel on 6 April 1928, killing the pilot, Robert Muller. Registration cancelled December 1936
D-1527 DVIII 4 Daimler D.IIIa November 1928 Registered to Flugzeugbau Huffer. Destroyed by fire February 1933.
D-1586 DVIII D VIIIa 5 Daimler D.III BMW IIIA April 1929 Bavarian Aviation Association, Wurzburg. July 1931, D VIIIa when re-engined. December 1933, registration withdrawn.
D-2253 DVIII 6 or 7 April 1932 4 October 1932, recorded as destroyed at airport.
Note: Werke Nummers 1, 6 or 7 did not have a registration number.


Specifications DLFW D VIII
Span 8.90 m
Length 7.10 m
Area 20.9 m2
Weight empty 760 kg
Weight loaded 1,120 kg
Speed 170-180 km/h
Landing speed 85-90 km/h
Time to 1,000 m 4.5 min
Ceiling 5,500 m
Range 595 km
Duration 3.5 h
Motor 160-Mercedes D.III.
Source: http://docplayer.org/26869421-Der-hueffer-flugzeugbau-in-muenster-paderborn-und-krefeld.html
Fokker D.VII derivative Huffer H9 in two seat configuration and painted in the colors of the Trumpf Schokoladen Fabrik and used for aerial advertisement work.
Huffer H-9 D-407 “Trumpf" Trumpf Chocolate Company Circa 1926
Huffer DLFW D VIII, w/n 2, D-1239 went to the Central German Air Service in Weimar. In May 1928 the plane was sold to Breslau. The names of the two gentlemen who lean so casually on the wing have, unfortunately, not been passed down.
D-446 two-seater conversion of a D.VII bearing the name of Richthofen, yet the famous airman did not fly the type in combat. It was most probably painted to advertise the 1929 silent film Richtofen.
Advertisement from the Illustrated Flug-Woche No. 4/1929, for the Huffer H 9 version of the two-seat D.VII derivative.
Trumpf chocolates used Huffer H 9, registration D-407, for advertising. The company is still in existence.
Given the number of people who saw the display of the German aircraft brought back to Australia in the displays in Melbourne. Victoria, and Adelaide, South Australia, the paucity of photographs of these aircraft is hard to understand. This page from The Australasian of 26 June 1920, shows the L.V.G. C.V that was brought down in Palestine and displayed in crashed condition.
The Museum's facility at Flugwerft Schleissheim in Oberschleissheim, now houses the D.VII. It is seen on display in 2016 with a reproduction Otto pusher.
Ploughshares - Civilian Fokker D.VII biplanes O-BILL and O-BEBE with Belgian Rumpler C types on a civil airfield. The Fokkers and at least one Rumpler are still in lozenge fabric. (via D Brackx)
Since there is no one in the cockpit, this may be a demonstration on how to prime and start the motor. The end aircraft appears to be an Ansaldo. (via Gennady Petrov archive)
Lithuanian airfield with a lone Fokker D.VII amongst Ansaldo biplanes obtained from Italy.
A.S.2113 bears the same style of serial application with 'Fok D VII' stenciled under the serial. It also bears the plane number '3'. Curtiss Jennys in the background. Photographed at Post Field, Oklahoma.
This D.VII in full USAS markings bears the serial A.S.7729 indicating it was 7729/18. The machine is unarmed with the large faired windscreen. US DH-4 bomber in the background.
A black and white finished Air Service LUSAC 11 is lined-up behind the D.VII.
Given the number of people who saw the display of the German aircraft brought back to Australia in the displays in Melbourne. Victoria, and Adelaide, South Australia, the paucity of photographs of these aircraft is hard to understand. This page from The Australasian of 26 June 1920, shows the Ross & Keith Smith's Vickers Vimy with a Deperdussin monoplane trainer.
View of Moeres airfield post-war. D.VII 6693/18 bears the Thistle emblem of the 9th Escadrille as does the Hanriot H.D.1 parked next to it. The serial 'F 2' is presented on the middle rudder stripe. The Escadrille was equipped with the Hanriot H.D.1 and the Fokkers were used as trainers - given that they had a stationary engine and were more powerful than the Hanriots, this seems a strange combination of types. A late-war Gotha bomber can be seen in the background. Belgium's air arm used some of these bombers along with other German types in the years following WWL (via D Brackx)
A Hanriot H.D.1, Fokker D.VIII and a Spad at Fubara airfield.
Fokker E.V CWL 00.4 (190/18) belonging to porucznik Julian Jasinski, a pilot of the 19th Fighter Squadron (16.EM). In early of June the Fokker monoplane was moved from Borysov to the Priyamino airfield for repair and repainting. Priyamino was the home base of the Red Aviation 4th Aero Group commanded by the famous pilot Aleksey D. Shirinkin. At this location was a storage facility for damaged and captured aircraft. On June 3, 1920, porucznik pilot Julian Jasinski got lost during a delivery flight to the front of the renovated monoplane when he was not carrying ammunition. Aircraft was was shot from the ground and on a damaged. Pilot emergency landed near Borisov on June 3, 1920. and was captured. After he was captured, Soviet propaganda publicized the incident stating that the Polish pilot had fled to their side. After the war, the pilot recalled that before he was sent to a PoW camp, according to the traditions of the Western Front from World War I, he was hosted for two days in the Shirinkin squadron. The aviator also provided exhaustive testimony, as a result of which he was completely cleared of any adverse allegations. During WWII he served in the PSP in Great Britain in 1942-43 as a ground defence officer in 308 and 315 Polish Fighter Squadron and then he was the chief of staff until 1946 in 303 Polish Fighter Squadron. A Soviet Nieuport 23 from 4th ASG can be seen in the background. Note also the stump mounted anti-aircraft Lewis machine gun.
Photo of Soviet-captured Fokker E.V CWL 00.4 (190/18). The plane with the upper wing removed, waiting to be repainted. Photos from a later period show that the airframe was painted dark green at the top and light blue at the bottom. During its service in 2nd Independent Fighter Aviation Otriad, large pocket(s) was sewn on the sides allo wing to take small bombs or grenades. Red stars on wing and squadron markings at the rudder was painted. In winter, Russian-made aviation skis were installed. In the background two Soviet Nieuports 24bis belonging to the 4th Soviet Aero Group. Left from the 13th Bolshevik Aero Squadron (yig-yang sign on the rudder) and on the right from the 11th Bolshevik Aero Squadron (the comet has the rudder).
A Hanriot H.D.1, Fokker D.VIII and a Spad at Fubara airfield.