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Страна Конструктор Название Год Фото Текст

Pfalz D.III/D.IIIa

Страна: Германия

Год: 1917

Истребитель

Pfalz - E.V - 1916 - Германия<– –>Pfalz - D.IV/D.V - 1917 - Германия


В.Кондратьев Самолеты первой мировой войны


PFALZ D.III/D.IIIa

  После прекращения выпуска моноплана E.IV фирма "Пфальц" более года не занималась постройкой истребителей по собственным проектам. С осени 1916 г. она выпускала по лицензии истребитель "Роланд" D.II.
  Но в начале 1917 г. главный конструктор фирмы Рудольф Герингер, базируясь на конструктивно-силовой схеме "Роланда", создал улучшенную модель истребителя, которую назвали "Пфальц" D.III. Прототип был испытан в июне, а в августе самолет начал поступать в войска. Как и предыдущие модели "Пфальца", D.III направляли, прежде всего, в баварские авиаэскадрильи.
  "Пфальц" D.III представлял собой цельнодеревянный биплан весьма элегантных форм со смешанной обшивкой. Фюзеляж типа полумонокок, выклеенный из шпона с интегрированным килем. Крылья двухлонжеронные с полотняной обшивкой. Двигатель "Мерседес" D.III в 160 л.с. Вооружение - два синхронных пулемета LMG 08/15, размещенные внутри фюзеляжа, под капотом.
  Вскоре появилась модификация D.IIIa. Пулеметы на ней были вынесены наружу и размещены на капоте для лучшего охлаждения и обеспечения возможности устранять неполадки в полете. Кроме того, слегка изменили форму законцовок нижнего крыла и для повышения устойчивости увеличили площадь стабилизатора.
  Всего построено 260 экземпляров D.III (их выпуск прекращен в сентябре 1917-го) и 750 D.IIIa. Пик боевого применения этих машин приходился на апрель 1918 года. Тогда во фронтовых частях их насчитывалось 446 штук. Затем, в связи с прекращением в мае серийного производства, численность "троек" начала быстро сокращаться и к концу августа упала до 169 штук, но отдельные экземпляры прослужили до конца войны.
  "Пфальцы" D.III и D.IIIa, оснащенные менее мощными моторами, чем "Альбатрос" D.V, уступали ему по основным летным характеристикам, но их конструкция была более прочной и выносливой, позволяя круче пикировать и легче переносить боевые повреждения.


МОДИФИКАЦИИ

  D.III; пулеметы под капотом двигателя;

  D.IIIa; пулеметы сверху на капоте, скругленные законцовки крыльев и стабилизатора.


ДВИГАТЕЛЬ: "Мерседес" D.III, 160 л.с.

ВООРУЖЕНИЕ: 2 синхр. LMG 08/15 "Шпандау".


ЛЕТНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКИ

  Размах, м 9,40
  Длина, м 6,95
  Площадь крыла, кв.м 22,17
  Сухой вес, кг 689,5
  Взлетный вес, кг 922,0
  Скорость максимальная, км/ч 164
  Время подъема на высоту
   2000 м, мин. сек 7,15
  Потолок, м 5200


O.Thetford, P.Gray German Aircraft of the First World War (Putnam)


Pfalz D III and IIIa

  With the completion of the E type monoplane orders, the Pfalz factory had no immediate project of their own, so towards the end of 1916 a contract was arranged for the L.F.G. Roland D.I to be built under license. This aircraft was followed in 1917 by construction of the Roland D.II for supply to the Bavarian Jagdstaffeln.
  In the meantime the Pfalz design office had given thought to an original fighter which, in the summer of 1917, emerged as the Pfalz D.III powered with the ubiquitous 160 h.p. Mercedes D.III engine. Much of the constructional technique of the Roland fighters was used in this aircraft, although it in no way resembled them in appearance.
  As has been mentioned elsewhere, the first Roland fighters had been referred to as "Haifisch" (Shark), but they were in no way as shark-like in profile as was this first original Pfalz design. The Mercedes D.III engine was closely cowled in a decidedly snoutish nose, the contour of which was initiated by the small pointed spinner on the airscrew. With such a sharp profile it was inevitable that most of the cylinder block protruded, but it was encased in removable metal panels. Apart from the metal paneling adjacent to the engine, the remainder of the fuselage was a wooden, semimonocoque structure. The light basic framework of spruce longerons and oval ply formers was spirally wrapped, in opposing directions, with two layers of ply strip and then fabric-covered and doped. The vertical fin was an integral part of the fuselage. On the earlier production D.III the twin Spandau machine-guns were mounted inside the fuselage, with only the muzzles protruding each side of the cylinder block; later they were mounted on the decking in front of the windscreen in the more usual manner to facilitate servicing.
  The angular tailplane was a wooden structure, fabric covered and of an inverted aerofoil section as an aid to more rapid dive recovery. It was undoubtedly the use of this feature that made it possible to fit an unbalanced, one-piece elevator of wooden construction. The rounded and balanced rudder was of welded steel-tube construction with fabric covering.
  Of austerely angular outline, the fabric-covered wings owed something to the Nieuport-or Albatros-but without the shortcoming of the single spar lower wing featured in those two types. Although the upper wing was the greater in span and chord, both wings were of the same basic shape, with parallel chord and severely raked angular tips. The upper wing was a one-piece structure without dihedral and based on two box-spars cable braced to the compression members. A unique feature of the box-spars was the insertion of a diaphragm at all rib stations to transmit the sheer stresses across the spar, and might with advantage have been incorporated in all box-spars. Ribs were of three ply, with fretted lightening holes and softwood capping strips, and were interspaced with strip false ribs, which extended as far as the rear spar. The center-section panel, with its curved cut-out, was ply skinned and housed the flush-type Teeves and Braun radiator in the starboard side and a gravity fuel tank in the port side.
  Ailerons, with characteristic wash-out, were of parallel chord with triangular balance portions and were, unusually, of wooden framing. They were operated by a crank at mid-span, which in turn was actuated by cables which ran through the lower wing. The bottom wing panels, each with 1 degree dihedral, were of the same style of construction and were joined to extremely carefully fashioned root fairings, which were built integral with the fuselage.
  The center-section struts were of wood and of inverted U-pattern; interplane struts, also wood, were vee shaped and wide enough at the base to join both spars of the lower wing. A conventional vee-type undercarriage chassis was fitted and the axle and spreaders encased in a streamlined fairing. The unusual arrangement of the tailskid may be seen from the general arrangement drawing - it was sprung with elastic cord.
  It was the autumn of 1917 when the Pfalz D.III got to the Front, mainly going to Bavarian Jastas and often forming a composite establishment with Albatros D.IIIs, D.Vs and Roland D.IIs. It has often been reported that the Pfalz D.III was unpopular with pilots due to inferior performance and maneuverability, but this attitude is not easily understood in the light of an Allied assessment of a D.III (4184/17) which force-landed near Bonnieul on 26th February 1918 and was put into flying trim again. It was reported that view from the cockpit was excellent in all directions, with the possible exception of approach glide, when to some extent the top wing interfered. With regard to flight characteristics, the comment was that the aircraft was stable laterally and unstable directionally and longitudinally, which doubtless meant that general maneuverability was good, although the rate of roll was perhaps not what it might have been. It was also reported as answering well to all controls - "much better than does the Albatros D.V".
  In 1918 the D.IIIa, an improved version which competed at the January fighter competition, was introduced. This aircraft was fitted with the Mercedes D.IIIa motor of some 180 h.p. and had a tailplane of increased area and near semicircular profile. The tips of the lower wing were also modified to a more rounded shape to improve efficiency, otherwise the machine was substantially the same as its forebear.
  According to the Inter-Allied Control Commission figures, some 600 Pfalz D.III and D.IIIa were supplied altogether, and no less than 350 were still in Front Line service in August 1918.
  In being responsible to the Bavarian administration and not the German Flugmeisterei (Directorate of Aircraft Production), the Pfalz firm were often a law unto themselves, as evidenced by the fact that practically the whole of the Pfalz D.III/IIIa production had fuselages finished with aluminum dope.


Description: Single-seat fighter.
Manufacturer: Pfalz Flugzeug-Werke, G.m.b.H. Speyer am Rhein (Pfal.)
Power Plant: D.III 160 h.p. Mercedes D.III 6- cylinder in-line water-cooled engine.
   D.IIIa 180 h.p. Mercedes D.IIIa
Dimensions:
   Span 9.4 m. (30 ft. 10 1/8 in.)
   Length 6.95 m. (22 ft. 9 3/4 in.)
   Height 2.67 m. (8 ft. 9 1/8 in.)
   Area 22.17 sq.m. (237.75 sq.ft.)
Weights:
   Empty 1,532 lb
   Loaded 2,056 lb
Performance:
   Max speed at
   10,000 ft. 102.5 m.p.h.
   15,000 ft. 91.5 m.p.h.
   Climb to
   5,000 ft. 6 min. 55 sec.
   10,000 ft. 17 min. 30 sec.
   15,000 ft. 41 min. 20 sec.
   Ceiling 17,000 ft.
   Endurance 2 1/2 hr.
Armament: Two fixed Spandau machine-guns firing forward.


W.Green, G.Swanborough The Complete Book of Fighters


PFALZ D III Germany

  Designed by Ing Geringer assisted by Ing Paulus and Ing Geldmacher, the D III owed much to experience gained in manufacture of the LFG Roland D I and II, and was an unequal-span single-bay biplane of wooden construction with a semi-monocoque fuselage. Powered by a 160 hp Daimler D III six-cylinder water-cooled engine and carrying an armament of twin LMG 08/15 machine guns, the D III completed Typen-Prufung at Adlershof in June 1917. By October 1917, 145 D IIIs were already in squadron service, the number at the Front attaining a peak of 276 by the year's end. The D IIIa, which embodied relatively minor changes including a redesigned, longer-span tailplane, repositioned guns and modified lower-wing tips, reached the Front in December 1917. The D IIIa attained its peak service usage in April 1918 when 433 were at the Front. Similarly powered and armed to the D III, the D IIIa, which remained in first-line use until the end of hostilities, had a basically similar specification, the following data relating to the earlier model.

Max speed, 102 mph (165 km/h) at 9,840 ft (3 000 m).
Time to 4,920 ft (1500 m), 6.9 min.
Endurance, 2.2 hrs.
Empty weight, 1,521 lb (690 kg).
Loaded weight, 2,039 lb (925 kg).
Span, 30 ft 10 in (9,40 m).
Length, 22 ft 9 2/3 in (6,95 m).
Height, 9 ft 9 1/8 in (2,67 m).
Wing area, 238.32 sqft (22,14 m2).


J.Herris Development of German Warplanes in WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 1)


Pfalz D.III and D.IIIa

  The Pfalz D.I was the Roland D.I built by Pfalz, and the Pfalz D.II was the Roland D.II built by Pfalz. This designation scheme was confusing, and Idflieg soon changed the designations of these aircraft to Roland D.I(Pfal) and Roland D.II(Pfal). Originally Pfalz was ordered to build the Roland D.III under license as the Pfalz D.III, but meanwhile Pfalz had developed their own original design, and testing soon revealed it was superior to the Roland D.III. Pfalz production was quickly changed to their own design, which appeared as the Pfalz D.III. Concerned about using a single-spar wing when shown the Nieuport, Pfalz used a two-spar design for the lower wing of their D.III as shown by the interplane struts. The lower wing was narrower in chord than the upper wing to provide the benefits of a better downward view, but without the fragility of the single-spar wing. The Pfalz D.III, the Albatros fighters, and the Roland D.I/II/III all used two guns and the same 160 hp Mercedes engine, and all had similar performance. This was a problem because the newer Allied fighters had better performance, creating the dilemma faced by the German fighter force from the summer of 1917 until the arrival of the Fokker D.VII in the late spring of 1918.


J.Herris Pfalz Aircraft of WWI (A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes 5)


Pfalz D.III & D.IIIa

  With the introduction of the Pfalz D.III fighter, Pfalz stepped forward into the ranks of the leading German fighter manufacturers. The Pfalz D.III emulated several key features of the Roland D.II built under license by Pfalz, including the 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine, twin synchronized Spandau machine guns that were buried in the fuselage, the Wickelrumpf wrapped-plywood fuselage construction, and the overall configuration.
  The best German fighters of late 1916 through mid-1917 were the Albatros series, which were also powered by the 160 hp Mercedes D.III engine and armed with two synchronized Spandau machine guns. The Albatros D.I and D.II had conventional biplane wing cellules with two spars in each wing. The Albatros D.III married a Nieuport-style sesquiplane wing cellule to the fuselage of its predecessors. Climb and maneuverability were somewhat improved, but at the expense of occasional lower wing failures in combat that often were fatal. The follow-on Albatros D.V was a more streamlined D.III, and its lighter structure was even more susceptible to lower wing failures. The competing LFG Roland D.I/II/IIa/III designs were strong and speedy but had mediocre maneuverability and handling characteristics. Furthermore, the Argus-powered Roland D.IIa had poor climb at altitudes over 3,000m. The outright copies of the Nieuport, the SSW. D.I and Euler D.I, had no performance advantages over the authentic Nieuports and found little favor with their pilots; they were accordingly produced in limited numbers.
  Into this situation stepped the Pfalz firm with its D.III. Although the Pfalz D.III had a narrowchord lower wing, unlike the Nieuport and Albatros designs it had two spars for greater strength and better aeroelastic characteristics. That is, the lower wing was not subject to flutter at high diving speeds like the Nieuport and Albatros fighters. This was a key benefit that was gratefully received by many pilots.
  Sharing the same engine and armament as the Roland D.II, Albatros D.III, and Albatros D.V, performance of the Pfalz D.III was generally similar, but its wing design was considerably stronger than the Albatros D.III and D.V and it was not subject to the lower wing spar failures that plagued these Albatros designs. Furthermore, the maneuverability and handling characteristics of the Pfalz D.III were considerably superior to the Roland D.II and D.III.
  In July 1917 Idflieg reported that "at the present, Pfalz had a production order of 370 Pfalz D.III fighters in hand." This was a momentous change for the Pfalz company, which up to that time had produced mostly aircraft under license together with a small number of mediocre derivatives of those designs. From now on Pfalz would be a strong contender in German fighter aviation, its products surpassed only by the later Fokker designs. The first Pfalz D.III fighters reached the front, including Jasta 10, in July/August 1917.
  Like the Roland fighters, the Pfalz D.III had its machine guns buried in the forward fuselage where they were inaccessible to the pilot in the event the guns jammed. Pilots criticized this feature, and the D.IIIa was produced with the guns mounted in the normal position for those times; on top of the fuselage immediately in front of the pilot. At the same time, the D.IIIa featured an enlarged, more rounded horizontal stabilizer, and the lower wing tips were also rounded and stiffened to reduce wingtip vibration. These modifications were first tried on D.III 4165/17, and production switched from the D.III to D.IIIa with aircraft number D.4190/17 (approximately). The first D.IIIa fighters arrived at the front in November. There were some minor structural failures of the ailerons, and these were quickly modified to solve the problem.


Wickelrumpf

  The Pfalz D.III used the Wickelrumpf technique of fuselage construction that Pfalz had learned from building the LFG Roland fighters under license. This entailed wrapping thin, narrow strips of plywood around a mold and gluing them together into a strong, light, monocoque shell. During the late stages of the production process the fuselage was wrapped by a layer of fabric. Minimum framing was required. The technique facilitated streamlined shapes and conserved scarce resources by using abundant plywood. It also resisted battle damage because the entire shell carried the load, leaving no weak spots in the structure that could be disabled by a single bullet. Although labor intensive, this construction proved so successful that it was used in all known subsequent Pfalz designs, including the Pfalz D.VIII.
  

Pfalz D.III/IIIa Pilot Comments

  As might be expected, a variety of viewpoints are expressed by the pilots in the following quotes. This reflects individual pilot preferences and the affect of environmental wear and tear on the aircraft in the field. This affected their performance in a number of ways,- water absorption into the wooden structure increased weight and warped the airframe, and engines that were worn or not maintained properly would not give full rated power.
  Here is what Carl Degelow had to say about the Pfalz D.IIIa (from Germany’s Last Knight of the Air, by Degelow, translated by Peter Kilduff, William Kimber, London, 1979):
  "When I arrived at Jasta 40 in May 1918, the Staffel was equipped with Albatros D.Va and Pfalz D.IIIa aircraft. Both were quite different from the Fokker Dr.I triplanes that I had most recently flown in Jasta 7, as they were biplanes powered by in-line Mercedes or Benz engines, rather than the rotary engines of the triplanes. Given the choice, I selected a Pfalz D.IIIa, a type I had also flown in Jasta 7. The Pfalz was a bit under-powered and it did not climb as well as the Albatros, but I felt it was a safer aircraft. For some time the Albatros D.Va had a structural problem with the lower wing spar, which had a tendency to break under stress, causing the bottom wing to part company with the rest of the airplane! The defect was eventually corrected by encasing the spar in a metal sleeve, but pilots were still instructed to avoid getting into a very stressful dive, which is one of the best ways to save your hide when you are on the losing end of an aerial combat. Suffice to say, this did little to install confidence in the Albatros fighter planes. So, in my case, I took the second-rate Pfalz and, having learned its limitations, made the best of a bad job."
  Paul Strahle flew both the Albatros D.III(OAW) and Albatros D.V in combat for some time with Jastas 18 and 57, and he had this to say (in a private letter):
  "...(in other units) most pilots had by now received the Pfalz. I did not value the Pfalz, as my Albatros D.V was by far the better machine... the Pfalz was, flight technically speaking, not in the same class." By the phrase "flight technically speaking" it is not known if he is referring to the performance, handling qualities, or perhaps both.
  In Josef Jacobs' diary as translated (by Harry Van Dorssen) and presented in Cross & Cockade International Vol. 25 No. 2:
  28 September 1917: "Yesterday the first Pfalz arrived. It appears to climb better and be more maneuverable."
  29 Sept.: "This afternoon my new Pfalz arrived."
  5 Oct.: "Today I flew my Pfalz D.III for the first time. It climbs better but is slower."
  9 Oct.: "In the evening I made a test flight with my Pfalz. It climbs very well; however, it is much slower than the D.V."
  15 Oct. "I flew my Pfalz once for a test at greater altitudes... I received two Pfalz and two D.Vs from Hauptmann Funk."
  23-24 Oct. "Late in the afternoon of the 23rd I test flew my Pfalz."
  24 December:" Afterwards presents were given. The men received a large mass of wonderful things, mainly from the Inspector of the Airforce but also from Fokker and Pfalz. The latter firm gave 3 marks to every man." (Apparently Pfalz was trying to remain on good terms with the pilots.)
  3 April 1918: "At altitudes up to 2000m the Fokker triplane is better than Albatros and Pfalz and much more maneuverable, but you have to test fly her very long in order to familiarize (yourself) for she's very unstable while shooting."
  From Cross & Cockade Vol. 15 No.3, Autumn 1974, there is an interview with Georg (or Hans-Georg) von der Osten of Jastas 11 and 4. Von der Osten had crashed in a Pfalz D.III on 28 March, and he said, "In a scrap on March 28 I was shot down in a dog fight with a Britisher and my plane was battered to pieces on the ground. We never found out why. I was flying a Pfalz D.III, not an Albatros as stated by Bodenschatz. Alas, it was a Pfalz, and these Pfalzes had a nasty habit of slipping in a turn, so it can be assumed that I crashed while slipping in a turn. The plane was smashed so I don't know whether the Britisher shot my plane to pieces or whether I just slipped and crashed." Von der Osten also said he had a skull fracture and remembers nothing of the fight.
  In Richthofen: Beyond the Legend of the Red Baron, by Peter Kilduff, the author quotes from the British Summary of Air Intelligence that a captured Jasta 15 pilot stated, "The Pfalz scout is not popular with pilots owing to its lack of speed and its bad manoevrability; an improved type is expected..." The pilot was no doubt Uffz. Hegeler captured near Bonneuil in Pfalz D.III 4184/17, with a black sloping band on the fuselage with three ovals cut out of it, designated G.141 by the British. He was talking about the D.III, therefore,- the "improved type" is probably the D.IIIa.
  From the war diary of Jasta 64w from February 1 until March 31, 1918, as translated by Steven Lawson:
  "The squadron went into the field with the Pfalz D.IIIa. These aircraft, however, revealed engine deficiencies already while braking, such as "chewing up" of the pistons, wrong sparking order, and the failing of the water pumps. The Jagdstaffel is under the impression that the engines had not been tested in the brake position. The central actuating shafts of the M.G.'s were dirtied to such an extent with sawdust and metal splinters, that the shafts got stuck and thus many propeller salvos were cashiered. Of all the engines there was only one that could make 1400 revolutions in a straight flight, the rest, on the average, made only 1300-1340 revolutions. The Jagdstaffel has received only one kind of propeller (Axial, 276 diameter, 220 lift). The lifting capacity of the airplanes was very had, because the engines could not be used to their maximum capacity. The material received and the spare parts were scarce at the new formation. Only gradually could some materials be obtained from the stocks of Armee Flug Park 5. Under these difficult circumstances and the partially untrained mechanical personnel the flight activity of the Jagdstaffel has suffered considerably..."
  From April 1 until May 31, 1918:
  "The Jagdstaffel is equipped with the Pfalz D.IIIa and Albatros D.Va and there has been nothing to complain about (concerning) the working of the engines or the materials used. One lack, however, is still a small choice of propellers, which are needed to utilize the engines to their full potential.
  "In order to be able to successfully combat the steady flow of enemy bombing squadrons flying over to the German industrial area, these planes are no longer sufficient. It is recommended that the Jagdstaffel be equipped with the newest types.
  "The main defect of the M.G.'s consisted in most cases that they have too "raw" cartridges and at times, very rusted belts, so that new belts must be installed and the machines guns must be removed."
  From June 1 until July 31, 1918:
  "In the course of time the fuselage of the Pfalz D.IIIa, flown by the Jagdstaffel, has become warped to such an extent that they pull to the side, which becomes very unpleasantly noticeable at landing, when the aircraft either pull to the right or to the left on the respective wing and break the spars."
  "With the Pfalz D.IIIa, 1314/18, in the enclosed part of the body, the cables governing elevation and steerage have shrunk; for this reason the steering is very hard. After precise investigation of the Pfalz D.IIIa 8138/17 with the very troublesome tail, we found two bags with iron filings with a total weight of 20.5 kilos under the engine supports. After taking this out, the aircraft could hardly be flown.
  "With almost all Pfalz D.IIIa the [following] defect became apparent, that after a long service period as the result of strong vibration during flight, the separating wall in the emergency tank ripped open the seams - near the brace where it was attached - and thus let gasoline out. Also, after some flights, the radiators began to leak at the braces and soldering places of the fins. Some main tanks were badly soldered and let gas out.
  "The Mercedes engines worked faultlessly. Some tumbler switches have deteriorated due to material failure..."
  From the war diary of Jasta 47w, which was initially equipped with Pfalz D.IIIas 5902-5921/17, the only technical information notes that on February 9, 1918, "Corporal Schilli crashed with his Pfalz D.IIIa 5904/17 during a test flight at 50 meters altitude as a result of misfiring of the engine. The plane was demolished. Corporal Schilling was severely wounded and is in Field Hospital 45 at Kortrjk [Courtrai]."
  From the above Jasta 64w comments, the Fokker factory wasn't the only one with shoddy workmanship, although Pfalz generally had a reputation for excellent workmanship. Jasta 64w formed the main fighter opposition to the 94th and 95th Aero Squadrons during their early days at Toul, and the first two planes downed by Winslow and Campbell came from Jasta 64w. The poor condition of Jasta 64w's aircraft may be one reason the Yanks didn't have too much trouble with them.
  

Pfalz D.III Specifications
Engine: 160 hp Mercedes D.III
Wing: Span Upper 9.40 m
Span Lower 8.15 m
Chord Upper 1.65 m
Chord Lower 1.20 m
Dihedral Upper 0
Dihedral Lower 1 deg
Gap 1.40 m
Area 22.14 sq m
General: Length 6.95 m
Height 2.67 m
Empty Weight 687 kg
Loaded Weight 923 kg
Maximum Speed: 180 kmh
Climb: 1000m 2.8 min
2000m 7 min
3000m 11.8 min
4000m 18 min
5000m 28 min

Pfalz D.IIIa Specifications
Engine: 160/180 hp Mercedes D.III/D.IIIa
Wing: Span Upper 9.40 m
Span Lower 7.80 m
Chord Upper 1.65 m
Chord Lower 1.20 m
Dihedral Upper 0
Dihedral Lower 1 deg
Gap 1.40 m
Area 22.76 sq m
General: Length 6.95 m
Height 2.67 m
Empty Weight 689 kg
Loaded Weight 922 kg
Maximum Speed 180 kmh
Climb: 1000m 3.3 min
2000m 7.3 min
3000m 11.7 min
4000m 17.3 min
5000m 24.7 min

Pfalz D.lll and D.IIIa Production Orders
Order Date Qty Type Serial Numbers Lower Wing Tips Tailplane Machine Guns Strut Ends Notes
Apr 1917 70 D.III 1360-1429/17 Pointed Narrow Buried Blunt
Jun 1917 190 D.III/IIIa 4000-4299/17 4165/17 was D.IIIa Prototype
Sep 1917 200 D.IIIa 5854-6053/17 Round Broad Raised Blunt
Jan 1918 340 D.IIIa 8000-8339/17 Round Broad Raised Struts pointed after 8052/17
Feb 1918 100 D.IIIa 1250-1349/18 Round Broad Raised Pointed
Feb 1918? 20? D.IIIa 1350-1369/18? Round Broad Raised Pointed Built for Turkey
Of the total of 1,010 Pfalz D.III and D.IIIa fighters ordered, about 750 were delivered as the D.IIIa. Analysis of photographs indicates that production switched from the D.III to the D.IIIa about 20-30 aircraft after 4165/17, the D.IIIa prototype, was built.


A.Jackson British Civil Aircraft since 1919 vol.3 (Putnam)


Pfalz D.III replica

  Two replicas of the 1917 German single seat fighter, with de-inverted 145h.p. Gipsy Major 10 Mk.2 engines, built for 20th Century Fox productions Ltd. 1965 for the film ‘Blue Max’: G-ATIF, c/n PPS/PFLZ/1, by D. E. Bianchi at Booker, airfreighted to Dublin by Aer Lingus Carvair 7.65, P. to F. 4.12.65; G-ATIJ, c/n PT. 16, (illustrated), built at Eastleigh to the designs of Ray Hilborne, first flown by V. H. Bellamy 8.65, ferried to Dublin via Valley by Peter Bernest 11-12.8.65, P. to F. 29.8.65. Re-registered 6.67 as ELARC and ’RD respectively.
  Span, 30 ft. 11 in. Length, 23 ft. 2 in. A.U.W. (G-ATIF) 1,600 lb. (G-ATIJ) 1,400 lb.


Журнал Flight


Flight, April 18, 1918.

THE PFALZ SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER.

  AMONG the more recent German single-seater fighters there is one which up to the present has been little known to the general public, although it is, as far as we have been able to ascertain, employed to a considerable extent by the enemy and by no means unknown to our pilots at the front. We are referring to the Pfalz scout, of which we are able to publish this week, by the courtesy of the authorities, three photographs and a few brief particulars. Several of these machines have fallen into our hands, and later on we hope to refer to this interesting machine in more detail than is possible this week. The preparation of the necessary drawings and sketches takes a considerable time, but so as to lose no time in placing before our readers illustrations which may be helpful for purposes of identification we are referring to it briefly in this issue.
  In outward appearance the Pfalz scout is chiefly remarkable on account of the fact that it imitates, as do the recent Albatros scouts, the wing bracing originated by the Nieuport firm, incorporating a larger top plane and a smaller lower plane. The type is frequently termed by the Germans a one-and-a-half plane. The wing bracing differs, as regards the inter-plane struts, from that of the later type Albatros single-seaters in that the lower ends of the struts do not meet at a point, but are connected by a short horizontal member. The lower plane has two spars according to usual practice, although these are placed rather close together, thus forming in reality a compromise between the single-spar lower plane of small chord and the ordinary two-spar lower plane with chord equal to that of the top plane.
  The Pfalz follows Albatros practice in that the upper wing runs right through, and is in one piece. This construction is possible on account of the fact that no dihedral angle is given to the wings. The top plane is mounted on struts sloping outward from the body.
  The attachment of the lower wing to the body is interesting. Instead of the attachment usually found there is on the Pfalz scout a short wing root, built integrally with the body, to which the lower spars are secured. In order to attain this the three-ply covering of the body has a reflex curvature at this point, from the convex curve of the body to a concave curve gradually merging into the shape of the wing section. There can be little doubt that this has been done in order to minimise resistance, but whether or not it achieves this purpose to any considerable degree may perhaps be open to doubt.
  The body of the Pfalz single-seater is of elliptical cross section and appears to be of comparatively good streamline form. It is deep so as to allow only just the top of the pilot's head to project outside, and to bring the top plane down low so as to obstruct the view to a lesser extent. It is narrow so as to allow the pilot a good view downward, the narrow overall width being rendered possible by the adoption of the semi-monocoque construction.
  Although being in general principle similar to the Albatros construction the body of the Pfalz differs somewhat in the manner of applying the ply-wood covering. Whereas that of the Albatros is put on in short rectangular sections, each covering only one span between adjacent body formers, the covering of the Pfalz is in the form of two thicknesses of three-ply, each in the form of long narrow strips put on diagonally, the strips of the inner skin and those of the outer running at approximately right angles to one another. It would appear that this form of construction is of some advantage, inasmuch as difficulty is always experienced in getting three-ply wood to bend to a double curvature. A sheet of three-ply may be readily bent along one axis, but even a very thin sheet will protest if one tries to bend it in addition along an axis at right angles to the former. The fact is, therefore, almost certainly at the bottom of the Pfalz construction. However, this is a subject to which we hope to return later.
  To the casual observer the tail planes of the Pfalz do not present anything of particular interest, but a closer examination reveals the fact that the tail plane appears to be put on "the wrong way round." That is to say, it has a flat top surface and a convex bottom surface. As far as is possible to judge from a somewhat hurried inspection, the tail plane is not set at any angle of incidence to the line of flight - either positive or negative - and one would therefore rather expect that during a steep dive the tail plane would exert a somewhat excessive righting force tending to "flatten out" the machine rather abruptly. This is so unusual in a German machine, where frequently the tail plane is set at a positive angle of lift, as to give food for some speculation.
  The engine fitted to the Pfalz scout in question is a 160 h.p. Mercedes, which, as the accompanying photographs show, is neatly covered in with the exception of the extreme top of the cylinders. We have at the moment no figures regarding performance, but in view of the evident low resistance of the body the speed may safely be assumed to be fairly good.


Flight, July 25, 1918.

THE PFALZ SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER.
160 H.P. MERCEDES ENGINE.

In our issue of April 18th, 1918, we published some photographs and a brief description of the Pfalz single-seater fighter. We have, since then, by the courtesy of the authorities, been permitted to examine in detail, and sketch, one of these machines exhibited at the Enemy Aircraft View Rooms. Owing to the fact that several of these machines have been captured, there is available a great number of parts, so that it has been possible to ascertain the internal construction of practically all the details, many of which are very interesting. As the Pfalz is, constructionally, rather different from the general run of German machines, we propose to devote a considerable space to it, hoping that the information thus conveyed will be found both useful and interesting to all concerned in the production and use of aircraft. - ED.]

  As a type the Pfalz belongs to the single-seater fighter class with low-resistance body, which during the last twelve months or so has been given more attention in Germany than ever before. Up till that time German designers had, generally speaking, troubled little about cutting down head resistance on their machines, trusting, presumably, to their high-power water-cooled engines to pull them through. As, however, the machines of the Allies increased in speed and climb it became obvious that something more than mere engine power would be required to cope with the constantly increasing demands, and once this was realised several German firms began to look around for ways and means of improving the performance of their machines. Among these were the Albatros firm, which turned out some single-seater fighters, incorporating the Nieuport type wing bracing and the semi-monocoque body of stream-line shape. It was on machines of this type that the pilots of the "Richthofen Circus" did much of their fighting. Then there was the Roland fighter, in which attempts were also made at stream-lining the body, but which went rather farther and made the body so deep as to serve directly as a support for the top plane. Finally we have the Pfalz, in which stream-lining has been carried a little farther still, inasmuch as the attachment of the lower wings takes the form of wing roots formed integrally with the body and the object of which is presumably to avoid sharp corners at the juncture of wings and body. The wing arrangement of the Pfalz also differs slightly from that of the Albatros in that the inter-plane struts do not come to a point on a single lower spar, but are separate at their lower ends by a short horizontal piece, evidently so as to enable the struts to take care of the twisting moment due to the travel of the c.p. better than can be done with a point attachment.
  An examination of the Pfalz biplane gives the impression, also conveyed in the accompanying drawings, of very low resistance indeed, and with an engine of 160 h.p. one naturally expects the machine to have an excellent speed. Tests carried out in this country do not, however, confirm this first impression, and the following particulars of performance can only be regarded as disappointing in view of the promising appearance of the Pfalz, and this is another proof of the difficulty of judging "by eye" the merits or otherwise of a machine.
  According to the official report on the tests the following data were established :-

Pfalz Scout, No. G. 141.
Engine 160 h.p. Mercedes.
Number of crew One.
Military duty Fighter.
Propeller Axial, Berlin.
Total military load 281 lbs.
Climb to 10,000 ft. In 17 mins. 30 secs.
Speed at 10,000 ft. 102 1/2 m.p.h.; revs., 1,400 r.p.m.
Rate of climb 360 ft./min.; revs., 1,310 r.p.m.
Climb to 15,000 ft. In 41 mins. 20 secs.
Speed at 15,000 ft. 91 1/2 m.p.h.; revs., 1,325 r.p.m.
Rate of climb 100 ft./min.; revs., 1,280 r.p.m.
Estimated absolute ceiling 17,000 ft.
Greatest height reached 15,000 ft. in 41 mins. 20 secs.

The total military load is made up as follows :-
Riot 180 lbs.
Two Spandau guns 70 "
Dead weight 31 "
Total 281 "

Weight per sq. ft. 8.56 lbs.
Weight per h.p. 12.84 "

Total weight of machine, fully loaded 2,056 lbs.
Weight of machine, bare, with water 1,580 lbs.
Military load, less crew 101 "
Crew, as above 180 "
Petrol, 21 1/2 galls 155 "
Oil, 4 galls. 40 "
Total 2056 "

  The first question that naturally comes to mind after studying this table of performances is. What is the reason for this poor performance, for it can scarcely be termed otherwise. Some of the figures given in the table may help to furnish the solution, although after perusing them there are still several remaining unanswered. For instance, the wing loading is somewhat high, but certainly not so much so as to account by itself for the low maximum speed and low rate of climb. The body appears to be of good streamline form, but against this must be placed the fact that the maximum cross sectional area is comparatively large, owing to the deep body reaching nearly to the top plane. As regards the wing bracing, this is simple enough as far as concerns the number of wires and struts, but the cables are not faired, and as they are of rather large diameter, their resistance at maximum speed may reasonably be assumed to be fairly high. If, however, the detrimental resistance is considerable, the wing resistance is probably no less so, the wing section being of the deeply cambered type so favoured by German designers, and which has, generally speaking, a somewhat high drag, although its lift is good. We have for some time held the opinion that German designers were deliberately employing deeply cambered sections with a view to obtaining better performance at altitudes, but we are bound to admit that the official tests of the Pfalz scarcely appear to bear out this contention. We would strongly urge that the authorities have tests carried out at the N.P.L. on all the German wing sections of which data are available, as the publications of the results of such tests would be of the greatest interest. We do not for a moment imagine that the sections would reveal any superiority over those more commonly employed by the Allies, but some interesting facts might nevertheless be brought to light, which might be of use to our own designers, if only as a warning regarding what not to do.
  Constructionally the Pfalz single-seater is even more interesting, showing, as it does, considerable departures in detail design from other German makes of the same class, on which its fundamental arrangement is evidently founded. This refers especially to the Albatros fighter single-seater, which is characterised by the same main features, such as large top plane and small bottom plane, one pair of interplane Vee struts on each side, ply-wood streamline body, &c. Apart from minor differences in shape, the Pfalz designer has chiefly struck out along original lines in the construction of the body. Whereas in the Albatros one finds the same oval formers connected by longitudinal rails, the manner of applying the three-ply covering is totally different in the two machines. In the Albatros the ply-wood is put on in small pieces covering only a bay or so; the covering of the Pfalz is in the form of long strips spirally laid on, the strips of the two layers forming an angle with one another.
  In Fig. 1 is shown the general arrangement of the Pfalz body. There are in all eight longerons, it will be noticed-one at the top, one at the bottom, one half-way up on each side and four at what would be the corners in a rectangular section body. These longerons run the whole length of the body, with the exception of the top one, which is terminated just to the rear of the engine, and are attached to the formers as shown in the sketch, Fig. 2. The longerons are stop-chambered so as to leave them solid where occur the formers, into which they are sunk and secured by a wood screw. The formers themselves are built up of smaller pieces of spruce, lap-jointed and covered each side with a facing of three-ply wood.
  Reference has already been made to the fact that wing roots are formed integrally with the body. These roots can be seen in the side view, Fig. 1; and account for the peculiar shape of formers III and IV. Judging by these formers the cross-sectional area is unduly increased at this point, although this may be partly made up for by the shape of the-ply-wood covering, which merges the lines of the lower plane into the curves of the body. This is illustrated in the two sketches, Fig. 3. It is, perhaps, open to doubt whether or not this elaborate arrangement is worth while. Constructionally it must necessarily entail considerable extra work, and aerodynamically it does not look as neat and efficient as the Albatros way of doing the same thing by frankly letting the bottom plane abut directly on the curved sides of the body.
  Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the Pfalz body, and serves in conjunction with Fig. 1 to explain the general arrangement of formers and longerons. Some of the formers, it will be noticed, are sloped in relation to the others. Thus, for instance, the former in the neighbourhood of the pilot's seat slopes back so as to bring it approximately into line with the rear chassis struts, while rigidity is lent to the front portion of the body by sloping one of the formers carrying the engine bearers until its top meets the top of the next former. In this point also the formers are joined to the front struts carrying the top plane, while one of them serves, at the point of attachment of the bottom corner longeron, to transmit the load from the front chassis struts.
  One of the difficulties of monocoque body construction has always been that you cannot bend three-ply sheet over a double curvature. That is to say, in sheet form the three-ply will bend willingly to the curvature of the converging sides of a flat-sided body; but as soon as the sides are no longer flat but have a curvature, however slight, three-ply in sheet form cannot be employed. In the Albatros this difficulty is overcome by using small sheets, covering only one bay, and forming in reality, although it is not noticeable, a series of straight bays. In the Pfalz a different method has been employed. The body covering consists of two layers of three-ply, each less than 1 mm. thick. The plywood is evidently manufactured in sheets, and before applying to the body is cut up into parallel strips of about 3 to 4 ins. the width apparently varying considerably throughout the body. The first layer of three-ply is then put on by bending it diagonally around the body, attaching it by tacking to the various longerons, en route, and cutting each narrow strip at the top and bottom longerons, which form the terminals so to speak of the three-ply covering, which is thus applied in two halves. The second layer of strips is then laid on top of the first, but at a different angle, to which it is secured by glueing, and finally tacked to the longerons. The inside layer is reinforced, in the front portion of the body, by glueing tapes over the joint between adjoining strips of plywood. This and other details are shown in Fig. 5. In order to spread a joint in the ply-wood over as large an area as possible the joint is made, as shown, in a sort of saw tooth or serrated butt joint style. This, in brief, is the fundamental construction of the Pfalz body, and differs considerably from other makes. As to its efficiency - we cannot speak. The weight at any rate, judging from the comparatively low total weight of the machine, can scarcely be any greater than the girder type of body, but as regards strength we have no information. We have heard it said that the Pfalz machines have a habit of breaking their bodies just aft of the pilot's cockpit, but for the accuracy of this statement we cannot vouch. As a compromise between sheet three-ply covering and true monococque construction the Pfalz method would appear to have certain advantages.

(To be continued.)


Flight, August 1, 1918.

THE PFALZ SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER.
160 H.P. MERCEDES ENGINE.
(Continued from page 827.)

  AT the stern the Pfalz body terminates, as shown in the illustrations in our last issue and further illustrated in detail in Fig. 6, in a somewhat elaborate framework of wood, which performs the various functions of forming supports for the tail plane, tail skid, and vertical fin with its rudder. The design of this part of the body must have provided some pretty problems in projection drawing, and one is inclined to think that a little less rigid economy in metal fittings might have resulted in a considerably simpler design. The second former from the stern is, it will be seen from Fig. 6, sloped backwards to form the leading edge of the vertical fin, and is reinforced above the body with other pieces of' wood to give it a rounded edge. The last former is in duplicate, its front half extending upwards to form a member of the fin, while the other half terminates just above the body and serves chiefly as a support for the short length of spar to which the front spar of the tail plane is attached. Between these two formers and sloping so as to form in side view a cross, are another two formers, built up in much the same manner as the main body formers. The angle formed by one of these and the longeron accommodates the leading edge of the small plane permanently fixed to the body, while the point of intersection of the two formers supports a short transverse cylindrical piece of wood, around which is wrapped the shock absorbers for the tail skid. The details of both these joints are shown in the sketches of Fig. 6. The small tail plane root is covered, on the actual machine, with plywood, but this has been omitted in the sketch in order to better show the constructional details.
  The tail plane itself is in one piece, and fits into the slot provided for it in the body. The manner in which it is secured after being placed in its slot will be clear from an inspection of Fig. 7. The front spar rests in the slot in the body, and is secured against lateral tilting by a steel band on each side, overlapping the butt joint between the front part of the rib and the tail plane root, as shown in Fig. 7. The rear spar of the tail plane is locked in place by two long bolts and a stud. The two bolts are placed one on each side of the stern, as indicated in the sketch in Fig. 7, while the stud passes through a lug welded on to the extreme rear of the steel shoe surrounding the heel of the fuselage into another lug near the foot of the stern post. The whole tail plane with its elevator can therefore be removed by undoing five nuts, and, of course, the connections in the elevator control cables.
  As regards the tail plane and elevator themselves, these are constructed along more or less standard lines and do not present any especially remarkable features. It has already been pointed out that the tail plane appears at first sight to have been put on "upside down," having a flat top surface and a convex bottom surface. The reason for this is not apparent, but it is possible that the disposition of the various weights and surfaces is such that there is either a lift-weight couple or a thrust resistance couple or both; and that this section tail plane has been employed to equalise such couples. However, in a later machine captured and now at the Enemy Aircraft View Rooms the shape of the tail plane had been altered to a symmetrical section, so that it would appear that the "inverted" section has either been found unsatisfactory in practice or the reasons for its employment removed in a later design. Structurally the tail plane is built up of spruce spars with ribs having ash flanges and poplar webs. The inner ribs an covered with three-ply to give extra rigidity for attachment to the body. The front spar is of I section while the rear spar is channel section, with recesses top and bottom for forming a flat surface with the rib flanges. There is no internal wire bracing, the necessary rigidity being obtained by means of diagonal ribs and by plates of three-ply placed over the joints between-ribs and spars. The leading edge, which is also bent back to form the tips of the tail plane, is laminated as shown in Fig. 7, and is lightened by spindling between the ribs. The laminations are probably steamed so as to be easily bent to form the rounded corners of the tail plane.
  The elevator, owing to the fact that the rudder has no downward projection, is in one piece, and is built up in a manner similar to that of the tail plane. Its leading edge is formed by a box spar, and the ribs are similar to those of the tail plane. The attachment of the ribs to the trailing edge is somewhat unusual. Instead of the flanges of the ribs passing over the trailing edge they are thinned down and pass into a slot in the trailing edge as shown inset in Fig. 7. They are then secured in place by a small metal clip. The slots in the trailing edge appear to have been made with a circular cutter of about 3 in. diameter, the ends of the rib flanges being placed where the slot is deepest. The elevator hinges are formed by forked bolts passing through the rear spar of the tail plane, and corresponding with eye bolts through the leading edge of the elevator.
  The elevator crank levers are of a type frequently found on German machines. The crank itself is of streamline section, and is welded to a channel section base plate surrounding three sides of the leading edge. Another base plate of similar shape, but made of lighter gauge, is slipped over the leading edge from the front, and forms a washer for the hinge bolt, which passes through the leading edge at a point coincident with the crank lever. The attachment of the elevator and rudder cables to their respective cranks is in the form of a ball and socket, joint, or, more correctly speaking, the ball portion of it is not a complete ball but a slice of a sphere, formed integrally with the bolt passing out of the socket into the barrel of the wire-strainer. The socket, and also the ball have a flat formed on one side so as to prevent the ball from turning in the socket. Behind the ball a small split-pin passes transversely through the socket, thus preventing the ball from dropping out of the socket when the control cables are removed. The socket is kept filled with grease.
  The rudder, which, as already pointed out, is placed wholly above the elevator, is built entirely of steel tubing. The ribs are joined, not directly to the rudder post, but to a collar of very light gauge, which is in turn pinned and braced to the rudder post. The object of this construction probably is to avoid weakening the rudder post by welding, since all the rudder ribs can then be welded to their collars on a jig, the rudder post being inserted afterwards and the collars pinned in place. The rear end of the ribs is joined direct to the trailing edge by welding. The method of tapering the rib tubes down towards the trailing edge is different from anything we have yet seen on a German machine. A vertical slice is taken out of one of the tubes, and the edges thus formed are pushed over the other tube of the rib as indicated in Fig. 8, the two tubes being held together by short welds at intervals.
  The foot of the rudder post rests in a cup or shoe on the trailing edge of the vertical tin, while additional hinges are provided at intervals. The form these hinges take is shown in Fig. 8. To prevent the rudder post from sliding up and down a collar is placed above and one below each hinge. To these collars are welded two U-shaped rods around which is wrapped fabric in order to form an air tight joint at the points where the hinge pierces the rudder covering. This is also shown in Fig. 8. The fabric wrapping has been omitted for the sake of clearness.
  The tail skid is of somewhat unusual shape, as shown in the right-hand sketch of Fig. 7. Owing to the fact that there is no vertical fin below the body of the Pfalz, and no downward projection of the rudder, it has been possible to reduce head resistance of skid by making it horizontal for the greater part of its length, with just a downward curve at the rear to give greater clearance for the tail plane. The skid is pivoted on a bolt passing through a lug on the heel of the fuselage. Its free end is sprung by rubber cord from the short cylindrical piece of wood already referred to, and shown in Fig. 6. This attachment looks remarkably weak - a piece of wood, slotted at its ends to fit over the cross formed by the two sloping body formers. Yet in all the captured specimens of Pfalz machines that we have had an opportunity to examine, this particular member has never been broken, so that one can only infer that it is stronger than it appears. As to the skid itself, it is built up of ten laminations of wood, each about 5 mm. thick. At the rear the skid is provided with a sheet metal shoe to protect it against wear.

(To be continued.)


Flight, August 8, 1918.

THE PFALZ SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER.
160 H.P. MERCEDES ENGINE.
(Continued from page 856.)

  THE seating accommodation of the Pfalz does not present any special features, except, perhaps, that the pilot's cockpit is quite roomy considering the area of the cross section at this point. This is, of course, a consequence of the peculiar body construction, which leaves, for a given cross section, more space inside than is possible when employing the girder type fuselage with rectangular main structure and the fairings added afterwards. Thus, in the case of a circular cross section, for a diameter of 3 ft. the inscribed square is only about 2 ft., while with the monocoque construction the whole circle is available for the accommodation of the pilot. This is another way of saying that the cross sectional area of a body of rounded section can be kept smaller with monocoque construction than with girder-cum-fairing construction, resulting in lower head resistance.
  The seating itself is of the usual type, and was indicated in Figs. 1 and 4 of our July 25th issue. The front edge of the seat is supported on the sloping former, while the rear of the seat rests on a transverse member supported on a small false former slightly farther aft. Needless to say the pilot is equipped with a safety belt, which in the Pfalz is in the form of webbing, attached as shown in Fig. 9, to the longerons via a short length of coil spring.
  The Pfalz controls are shown in Fig. 10. A tubular control lever, forked at its lower end, is attached to a longitudinal rocking-shaft, which carries at its front end the transverse cranks for the aileron controls. In connection with these it should be remembered that ailerons are fitted to the top plane only, hence two cables pass from each end of the crank and around pulleys, one of them being what might be termed the positive cable, running through the lower plane, over pulleys, and to the aileron crank; the other being the return or equalising cable running across the body through the opposite lower plane, over a pulley, and to the opposite aileron.
  As is now general practice, means are provided for locking the elevator in any desired position. The manner of doing this in the Pfalz will be evident from an inspection of Fig. 10. The collar carrying the oaileron control cranks has welded to it a vertical forked lug, a bolt through which forms the pivot for a hinged stay rod, terminating at the top in a flat, curved, slotted strip, which may be locked in any position by means of a locking disc of aluminium. At its upper end the control column has welded to it two handles, bound with cord, of which the left is rotatable and operates the throttle much after the fashion of a motor cycle. Centrally placed are two triggers operating the two synchronised machine guns via Bowden cables. The handle is shown in Fig. 11. This sketch, it may be pointed out, has been drawn from the port side in order to better show the twisting handle, while the general sketch of the controls is drawn as seen from the starboard side.
  The rudder bar of the Pfalz presents some rather unusual features. Thus the rudder cables are anchored to forked lugs on the front of the foot bar, through which they pass, and issue from the rear of the bar through channel section guides which act, when the foot bar is moved to the extremity of its travel, as quadrants for the cables. The object of this rather complicated arrangement is hot clear unless it has been done in order to get the forked lugs working in compression instead of in tension. The foot rests are in the form of flat forks inserted in sockets in the foot bar and provided with adjustment for length to suit individual pilots.
  Where the rudder and elevator cables issue from the interior of the body they pass through small sheet steel plates carrying a steel tube fitted with a copper tube liner to protect the cables against wear. Internal and external views of one of these fittings are shown in Fig. 12.
  The engine a 160 h.p. Mercedes is mounted in the nose of the body on two longitudinal bearers supported by four main formers. The details of the mounting do not call for any comment, and the general arrangement of the engine mounting will be sufficiently clear from Figs. 1 and 4. The main petrol tank is carried in the bottom of the body, resting on the spar roots of the lower plane built into the body as a permanent fixture. The usual hand-operated pressure pump and an engine-driven pump are provided for forcing the petrol from the main tank up into the service tank built into the top plane. The oil tank is carried by the side of the engine. The nose of the machine is rounded off, and terminates in a "spinner" fitted over the propeller boss, thus forming a very smooth entry for the air. Near the nose of the machine there are two scoops, that on the port side carrying air into the engine housing, while the scoop on the starboard side has a tube running to an opening in the crank case, which is ventilated by this means. These features, as well as the neat inspection doors provided in convenient places on the front part of the body, are shown in Fig. 13. The sketches are, we think, self-explanatory.
  The undercarriage is of the Vee type, with struts of streamline section steel tube. The struts look somewhat spidery, being of rather small dimensions as regards their section. The major axis of the section is 48 mm., and the maximum thickness of the strut, occurring fairly far back, is 30 mm. The fineness ratio is therefore very low. The attachment of the chassis struts to the body is of interest. The rear struts are bolted, as shown in detail in Fig. 15. to an I section steel bracket built into the wing roots on the body. Thus the landing shocks are transmitted from this strut via the bracket to the fixed rear spar and its former, and to the sloping former surrounding the pilot's seat. The upper ends of the front struts are welded to elongated base plates of heaw gauge, which serve as lugs for the chassis bracing cables. In order to distribute landing shocks over a larger area a steel band is passed underneath the bottom of the body, so that the whole bottom part of the former to which the struts are attached rests in the loop of this strap. The arrangement is illustrated in Fig. 15.
  The apices of the chassis Vees are connected by two cross struts, one in front and one behind the axle. As a matter of fact it is hardly correct to term the rear one a strut in the ordinary sense of the word, as it consists of short lengths of solid wood tapered to fit the steel socket attaching it to the chassis struts, the remainder of its length being made up of a thin strip of wood forming the top surface of the trailing edge, while its bottom surface is in the form of a sheet of three-ply passing under the axle to the front cross strut. The latter is a wood strut spindled out to a "D" section, and tapered at the ends to fit the tapered steel sockets which connect it by means of bolts to the chassis struts. The top of the streamline casing around the axle thus formed is a hinged lid of aluminium, which, as the axle moves up and down when the machine is running along the ground, opens and closes, lying of course, snugly against the rear cross strut when the axle is relieved of its load as the machine leaves the ground, thus forming a good stream-line section with, it is to be presumed, a fairly low head resistance. Cross bracing of the chassis is in the front bay of the struts only, and is in the form of stout stranded cable. As in the case of the wing cables, no stream-lining has been attempted, a feature fairly typical of even modern German machines.
  The shock absorbers are in the form of cords which as regards outward appearance might easily be mistaken for rubber cord, but which on closer examination, are found to be spiral springs, one inside the other, enclosed in a woven cover similar to those employed for covering stranded rubber cords. These springs are wrapped around the apex of the chassis Vee and around the axle, and are prevented from slipping up along the chassis struts by lugs welded to the struts. Two lugs higher up serve as anchorage for the short loop of stranded cable which limits the travel of the axle. This length of cable is enclosed in a cover, as shown in Fig. 15, to protect it against wear. The tubular axle is a fairly large diameter - 55 mm., to be exact; but we have not been able to ascertain of what gauge the tube is made. The details of the undercarriage are shown in the perspective sketches of Fig. 15 and in section in Fig. 14.

(To be continued.)


Flight, August 15, 1918.

THE PFALZ SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER.
160 H.P. MERCEDES ENGINE.
(Continued from page 888.)

  FUNDAMENTALLY the Pfalz single-seater belongs to the type frequently termed by the Germans a one-and-a-half-plane, that is to say, it is a machine having a larger top plane and a smaller bottom plane. The type was, as is of course well known, originated by the French Nieuport firm, and the first machine of this type, if not actually making its appearance, was at any rate contemplated, before the outbreak of war. Since then, although comparatively recently, the enemy has copied the type fairly extensively, chiefly in the Albatros single-seaters and in the make at present under review. Aerodynamically this arrangement of the planes is of advantage on account of the fact that in a biplane the lower plane is the less efficient, and that therefore the more of the total surface is formed by the top plane the better the overall efficiency. Practically also certain advantages attend the arrangement. The effect of the smaller lower chord is twofold. The gap between the planes need not be so great as in the case of a biplane having both planes of the same chord, and for a given fuselage depth the top plane may therefore be placed at a smaller height above the top of the body, resulting in a better view forward. Again the smaller bottom chord does not obstruct the view downward to the same extent as does a plane of larger chord. Thus the "one-and-a-half-plane" forms a good compromise between the lighter structure of a biplane and the good visibility of the "parasol" monoplane, which latter is probably unsurpassed as a fighter as far as obstructing the view in all directions to the smallest extent is concerned.
  In the design of its wing structure the Pfalz shows several interesting features. The outward slope of the struts connecting the body with the top plane was originated, we believe, by Sopwiths in their "one-and-a-half-strutter," while the Vee form inter-plane struts are typically Nieuport. Constructionally, however, the Pfalz is a good deal different in both these features, The Vee struts are not strictly speaking placed in the form of a letter V, as they do not quite meet in a point on the lower plane, which has two spars instead of the single spar employed in the original Nieuport. The object of having two spars is evidently to provide a more rigid structure better capable of resisting the twisting moment due to the travel of the centre of pressure. Owing to the fact that the inter-plane struts do not come to a point, incidence wires should be employed, but in their stead the struts are so built up as to form the bottom of a solid U which lends to the lower ends of the struts the rigidity usually provided by incidence wires. The same applies more or less to the body struts, which, as was shown in the illustrations published in our issue of July 25th, are in the form of an inverted, flattened U with its cross member adjoining the upper plane. Here, again, the construction of the struts has been designed to perform the function of incidence wires. While on the subject of these struts, attention may be drawn to a somewhat unusual arrangement of the transverse bracing cables. Generally these run from port top rail to top of starboard body struts and vice versa. In the Pfalz, however, this arrangement has been discarded and the arrangement indicated in Fig. 16 substituted. The cross wiring does not, it will be seen, run over the top of the body at all. Instead the cables from the upper ends of the struts on one side run to the root of the bottom- plane on the same side. The body struts pivot around their attachment to the body, and any lateral displacement of the top plane would therefore result in a raising of one side or the other with a consequent tightening of the corresponding cables. From a practical point of view this arrangement of the cables would appear to possess considerable merits. The crossing of the cables above the body generally necessitates piercing of the top covering, which in most machines is raised considerably above the top longerons, to which the lower ends of the cables are usually anchored. These wires are therefore as a rule difficult to get at, and from a rigger's point of view at any rate, the Pfalz arrangement appears preferable. Then again wires crossing above the body frequently interfere with the placing of the machine guns, or with the sighting tube and other accessories. Aerodynamically, it is true, the Pfalz arrangement is at some slight disadvantage, inasmuch as the length of cables exposed to the air is greater than in the case of cables crossing above the body. When, however, as in the Pfalz, the struts are designed to do away with incidence wires the total length of cables is probably no greater, and so, on the whole, one is inclined to consider the arrangement worth while.
  The general arrangement of the Pfalz wings is shown in Fig. 19. Ailerons, it will be seem, are fitted to the top plane only, as is almost universal practice in Germany. They are hinged to a false spar, and have their crank levers working in slots in the plane, another feature characteristic of enemy machines. This part of the' wing is reinforced extensively by the use of three-ply wood. As shown in the drawing, the petrol service tank is built into the top plane, as is also the radiator, which is provided with a shutter that can, owing to the low placing of the top plane, be operated direct from the pilot's seat, a handle projecting aft from the radiator being provided for this purpose. This central portion of the top plane is also reinforced by a covering of three-ply.
  The two wing sections of the Pfalz are shown in Fig. 20. The lower section is not, it will be observed, an exact geometrical reduction of the upper one, the trailing portion of its lower surface being more in the nature of a reversed curvature than is the case with the top section. The difference does not, however, appear to be great. The maximum camber of the sections appears to be smaller than one usually finds on German machines. At the same time the camber is very considerable for a machine intended for fast flying, and it is possible that the wing section is, at any rate partly, responsible for the inferior performance of the Pfalz.
  The wing spars of both planes are of the box form, although not, as indicated in the sections of Fig. 20, made up in the usual way of two channel sections joined by a hardwood tongue and grooves. The flanges of the spars are of spruce, and of the section shown in the illustration. Front and rear faces of the spars are formed by plies of wood made up of two thin outer layers of three-ply with a thicker layer of spruce in between them. At points where the spars are pierced by bolts for the attachment of inter-plane struts or internal compression tubes, the space between top and bottom flanges is filled up solid by packing pieces. The attachment of the spar webs to the flanges is by glueing only, no tacks or screws being employed. The spar is afterwards covered for its entire length by fabric, to prevent moisture from attacking the internal glued joints and to reduce the risk of splitting. The fabric is not wrapped around the spar spirally but is laid uo straight, finishing off along one comer of the spar. As in most machines, the spars are not placed with their vertical faces at right angles to the chord line but at right angles to the line of flight.
  Reference has already been made to the struts connecting the body with the top plane, and to the fact that these struts are pivoted at their attachment to the body. The exact form which this pivot takes is shown in Fig. 17. A circular base plate is bolted to the body formers where these are crossed by the tipper body rails. The base plate has welded to it a cup or socket into which fits a spherical male portion secured to a sheet steel shoe surrounding the lower end of the body struts. A pin (taper) passing through socket and ball secure the strut in place. The slot through the ball is of elliptical section to allow a certain amount of play for alignment.
  Fig. 18 shows how the lower spars are attached to the wing roots formed integrally with the body. The fixed spar inside the body is split to receive the former occurring at this point, and is rounded off at its outer end to a circular section. A steel cap surrounds the end of the spar root, to which it is secured, as far as we have been able to ascertain, by a single pin. This cap is surrounded by a collar incorporating a fork for the attachment of the lift cable, and terminates at its outer end in a steel piece shaped like an eyebolt. The inner end of the wing spar is also surrounded by a sleeve, this, however, being secured by two bolts, the inner of which is an eyebolt that serves as an anchorage for the internal drift wiring. The wing spar sleeve carries at its inner end the female portion of the joint, a fork end, which engages with the eyebolt of the fixed spar, the two being held together by a quick-release pin as shown. In Fig. 18 the ribs have been omitted in the larger drawing for the sake of clearness, but they are indicated in the smaller inset.

(To be continued.)


Flight, August 22, 1918.

THE PFALZ SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER.
160 H.P. MERCEDES ENGINE.
(Concluded from page 908.)

  THE top plane of the Pfalz is supported from the body by two inverted, flattened U's, as mentioned in our last issue. The attachment of these U's to the body was shown in Fig. 17. The attachment to the top plane is of a similar character, as shown in Fig. 21. The upper corner of the centre-section struts is provided with a sheet steel shoe to which is welded a socket or cup. A bolt passing vertically through the spar terminates in a ball-shaped head, which fits into the cup, and a taper pin passing through ball and socket locks the joint. The inter-plane cables are attached to little anchor pieces shaped as shown in the sketch, terminating inside the larger cup in a wide head shaped to fit the internal curve of the cup. A certain amount of play is therefore allowed. The right hand sketch in Fig. 21 shows, from a different point of view, the corresponding fitting on the rear spar.
  The internal compression tubes of the wings are secured to the spar by a very simple fitting, shown inset in Fig. 21. A small steel plate is stamped out to form a shallow projection, the diameter of which corresponds to the internal diameter of the compression tube, which is thus prevented from slipping on the spar. This sheet steel plate is secured to the spars by two horizontal bolts, and its ends are shaped to form the lugs for the attachment of the drift or anti-drift wires, as the case may be. The drift wires of the Pfalz are in reality tie rods of circular section, threaded at their ends to fit directly into the barrel of the turnbuckles. The anti-drift wires are solid wires of about 12 gauge size.
  The inter-plane struts of the Pfalz are, as mentioned in our last issue, approximately of Vee form, although they do not quite come to a point at their lower ends. In section they are, needless to say, stream-line, and constructionally they are built up of various laminations, as shown in one of the small insets of Fig. 22. The two outer layers are spruce. Then come, one on each side, two layers of thin three-ply, while the centre of the strut is formed by a piece of spruce. The whole is then covered with fabric. The same construction is employed for the centre-section struts. The angle formed by the vertical and horizontal arms of these struts is elaborately built up of laminations, the grains of which cross one another at various angles. The strength appears good, but the struts are certainly not light, compared with the ordinary hollow or even solid spruce strut.
  The attachment of the inter-plane struts to the bottom plane is interesting. As the horizontal arm of the struts is shorter than the distance between the spars of the bottom plane the struts cannot be attached directly to the spars. Instead they are attached, by means of the usual Pfalz ball-and-socket joint, to a compression tube. Owing to the fact that this tube is subject to a lateral load, being loaded both as a strut and as a beam, the usual compression tube attachment already referred to would be inadequate. Instead the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 22 is employed. The compression tube is unlike those employed elsewhere in the planes, inasmuch as it is not of circular section, but is flattened so as to have fiat parallel sides and a top and bottom forming arcs of a circle. At its ends this tube is welded to a base plate of channel section, which partly surrounds the three sides of the wing spar. Before being welded to its end plates the tube is slotted at its ends to accommodate the lugs for the drift and anti-drift wires. These lugs are formed by bending a piece of sheet steel to a channel section, the bottom of the channel being welded to the base plate and the arms welded to the compression tube. The horizontal bolts securing the base plates to the wing spar have their heads filed flat so as to pass between the two drift wire lugs, and are thus at the same time prevented from turning when tightening up the nuts on the other side of the spar. The details of this part of the wing structure will be clear from Fig. 22.
  The general arrangement and spacing of the wing ribs of the Pfalz were shown in Fig. 19 of our last issue. Constructionally the ribs are built up in the usual way of three-ply webs and spruce flanges. False ribs occur between the main ribs, running over the top of the spars, from leading edge to rear spar. These false ribs are made of ash. In connection with the main ribs mention may be made of a rather neat little "dodge" for attaching the ribs in place on the spars. As usual the rib flanges are tacked to the top and bottom faces of the spars. In addition the ribs are prevented from sliding along the spars by two vertical pieces of wood, each tacked to the spar. In the middle these vertical pieces are slotted to accommodate a small square block of wood about 1/2 inch square - which is glued to the face of the spar. The end of the rib web is recessed to give room for this block, the effect of which is, it will be seen, to relieve to a certain extent the shearing stress on the rib flanges at the corners of the spar. It is only a small detail we admit, but it is, we think worthy of mention, and has been included in Fig. 22.
  The crank lever of the ailerons is shown in Fig. 23. As in all German machines, ailerons axe fitted to the top plane only, and their crank levers are horizontal, working in slots in the plane. The aileron hinges on a false spar. The crank levers are built up of two halves of sheet steel, pressed to form in section one half of an ellipse. The two halves are then welded together along the edges. The control cables are secured to the crank lever by the same ball-and-socket attachment as that employed for the rudder and elevator controls already described. The cables pass from the lever, around pulleys in the bottom wing, and through tubes to the controls. These tubes appear to be made of some sort of paper or cardboard, although whether made by wrapping the paper spirally or rolled up straight to form a tube we have not been able to ascertain.
  Reference has already been made to the fact that the radiator of the Pfalz is mounted in the top plane. The cooling may be varied by an adjustable shutter which has a handle projecting back so as to be within the reach of the pilot. The arrangement of this shutter is shown in Fig. 26. The rod carrying the handle has a series of notches cut in it so as to form suitable stops for the shutter in any desired position. The details of the locking device will be evident from an inspection of Fig. 26.
  The armament of the Pfalz consists of two synchronized machine guns of the Spandau type. The mounting of these is shown in Fig. 25. Two transverse tubes form the supports for the gun mounting, which appears very light, being made of light gauge steel suitably reinforced by webs in places. The rear attachment of the gun provides for vertical adjustment, while the front attachment enables a slight lateral alignment of the gun after the mounting has been bolted into place on the cross tubes. A peculiarity of the gun placing on this particular Pfalz is that the guns are entirely enclosed under the top covering of the body, with only the muzzle projecting. This is indicated in Fig. 24. On a later specimen of the Pfalz fighter the more usual placing of the guns above the body has been employed, whether because enclosing the guns was found unsatisfactory or not we are not in a position to say. Probably the enclosed guns were found to have a tendency to overheat.
  In the Pfalz under review no attempt appears to have been made to camouflage the machine, which is painted with aluminium paint all over its body and wings. The rudder tail plane and elevator are painted a dark yellow.

J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
D.IIIa 1296/18 of Jasta 56. The unit markings of chrome yellow nose and tail with blue-gray fuselage were applied, which are thought to have covered the serial number, with five-color camouflage fabric on the wings and wheel covers.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Richthofen's elite fighter wing, Jagdgeschwader I, was supplied with a number of D.III fighters, the yellow-nosed aircraft of Jasta 10 being particularly well-recorded. The famous Jasta 11 also received a few examples, one of which was 1369/17. This was a fairly early-production machine from the first factory batch, which may explain the unusual white-bordered crosses seen on the fuselage and wings. The unit marking of Jagdstaffel 11 was the red color applied to the nose, struts, and wheel covers. The entire tail was painted white as a personal marking of the unknown pilot, and this was supplemented by an adjacent dark band that may have been black. Otherwise this aircraft bore the standard factory finish.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1370/17 is one of the most familiar examples of the type, yet misconceptions about its true coloration remain commonly circulated in many publications. Vzfw. Hecht of Jasta 10 was flying this machine when he was captured behind British lines on 27 December 1917. His aircraft was one of the first two D.IIIs to fall intact into Allied hands, and together with Hegeler's D.III 4184/17 of Jasta 15 (captured on 26 February 1918), it became the subject of detailed technical reports. Official RFC documents on file at the Public Records Office make it clear that 1370/17 was basically finished in typical silbergrau overall. The nose, struts, and wheel covers were painted in Jasta 10 chrome yellow as one would expect. However, the two bands on either side of the fuselage cross, and that on the upper wing, were definitely black. The entire tail unit (with the exception of the national insignia) was painted deep green as a personal marking of the pilot,- Richthofen himself specified that aircraft tail sections were the best spot for personal colors, and several D.IIIs of Jasta 10 were so marked. The green tail is confirmed by original paint on the extant rudder of this aircraft, which is held in storage by the RAF Museum. D.III 1370/17 was given the British Captured Aircraft number G.110. The similarity of the fuselage stripes to those seen in the one poor quality photo of the D.III reportedly flown by Voss has led this author to speculate in the past that Voss' D.III may actually have been 1370/17, in an earlier configuration. This remains an unconfirmed speculation; readers should note that Voss' D.III had only a yellow nose and the black stripes, and did not have a green tail when he flew it.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
D.III of Vzfw. Friedrich Rudenberg of Jasta 10; the nose, struts, and wheel covers were painted in Jasta 10 chrome yellow. The red stripes on the tail and the black band on the fuselage were Rudenberg's personal markings. The rest of this aircraft retained its overall silbergrau factory finish.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III xx71/17 of Lt. Hans Klein of Jasta 10; the nose, struts, and wheel covers were painted in Jasta 10 chrome yellow. The yellow tail and black fuselage stripe were Klein's personal markings. The rest of this aircraft retained its overall silbergrau factory finish.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1386/17 of Lt. Alfred Lenz, Staffelfuhrer of Jasta 22. The black stripes on the fuselage were Lenz's personal markings. The rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of silbergrau overall.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The silbergrau (silver-gray) finish of the Pfalz firm's first indigenous design - the D.III - is well-known to enthusiasts. However, a few examples of the first production batch left the factory with upper surfaces in a two-tone camouflage, these color areas having hazy or clouded edges. This application was no doubt inspired by the use of such a finish on the Roland D.II and D.IIa machines that the Pfalz firm had produced under license. The colors used in this camouflage are not recorded, but since dark green and mauve/lilac shades were frequently utilized by other German firms at this period, D.III 1395/17 is illustrated in those colors. Similarly, the lightcolored undersides may have been a pale blue, bluegray, or (most likely) silver-gray as shown. The serial number, weights table and other stenciled data were painted in black over the camouflage colors. This aircraft was eventually assigned to Jasta 10, where it became the subject of several excellent photographs with Lt. Aloys Heldmann; at some point the wheel covers were apparently painted white.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Пфальц" D.III, пилот лейтенант Алоиз Хельдман, 1917г.
J.Herris - Development of German Warplanes in WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Gustav Bellen of Jasta 10 flew another of the early two-tone camouflaged D.IIIs. Like Heldmann's D.III 1395/17, this aircraft had undersurfaces finished in a light color, most likely silver-gray. The fuselage cross was unusually marked on a white band that encircled the fuselage, and this cross seems to have had a silbergrau border. Whether this unique marking was applied at the factory or at the front is unknown. This D.III may also have borne a partially yellow nose as a Jasta 10 machine, but since the only known photos show the aircraft with its nose buried in the dirt, we have chosen to illustrate it in a factory finish.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1397/17 served in Jasta 4 in early 1918. The black spiral band wrapped around the fuselage from nose to tail was the Staffel marking at this time. The individual marking of the unknown pilot was the red tail with white dots. The rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of silbergrau overall.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1405/17 was assigned to Jasta 32b, one of several Bavarian fighter units to receive Pfalz aircraft. It is believed that the unit marking of the Staffel in late 1917/early 1918 consisted of the black (?) tail unit seen on 1405/17, as well as a white spinner. Note that the circular Pfalz decal on the rudder was not painted over, but carefully left uncovered. The additional black display on the nose and wheel covers, as well as the "L" on the fuselage, were personal decorations of the pilot. The remainder of this D.III retained the usual silver-gray appearance. The pilot of 1405/17 was probably Offz. Stv. Jakob Landin of Jasta 32b, who was later killed in the crash of D.IIIa 5897/17 on 27 February 1918 at Guesnain.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III flown by Lt.d.R. Alfred Wunsch of Jasta 22. The black chevrons on the fuselage were the pilot's personal markings,- the rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of overall silbergrau.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4011/17 was flown by Lt. Fritz Hohn of Jasta 21 in the winter of 1917-1918. Once the aircraft reached the Jasta it was marked with the vertical black/white stripe just behind the cockpit, which was the unit marking of this Staffel. The black 'H' and the various red and black stripes were the pilot's personal embellishments. Hohn was beginning to develop his penchant for attacking balloons in this period (at least 10 of his eventual 21 victories would be balloons) and it was believed that the disruptive stripe pattern would break up the outline of the aircraft by an optical effect, thus making it difficult for anti-aircraft gunners to hit. Hohn used similar markings on a later Pfalz D.IIIa and eventually on a Fokker D.VII as well.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
D.III 4056/17 of Jasta 16b. The red heart with arrow on the fuselage and black stripe along the top of the fuselage were the pilot's personal markings. The black spinner and tail were the unit markings, and the rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of silbergrau overall.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 16b flown by Oblt. Friedrich "Fritz" Roth. The black stripe on the fuselage was the pilot's personal marking. The black spinner and tail were the unit markings, and the rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of silbergrau overall.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Lt. August Handl, Jasta 16b. The black stripe on the fuselage was the pilot's personal marking. The black spinner and tail were the unit markings, and the rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of silbergrau overall.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 16b. The black stripes on the fuselage were the pilot's personal marking. The black spinner and tail were the unit markings, and the rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of silbergrau overall, except the wings were covered in 5-color camouflage fabric.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt.d.R. Heinrich Arntzen of Jasta 15 flew Pfalz D.III 4059/17 as a member of Jasta 15 circa January 1918. Arntzen had the fuselage crosses on his Pfalz over-painted with his usual personal emblem, which was based on the Prussian observer's badge. This was a black and white quartering, surrounded with a red border; there were apparently no other special markings on this machine. Arntzen, a former observer, began his career as a Jagdflieger in Jasta 15 and would eventually command Jasta 50, surviving the war with 11 confirmed victories.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt.d.R.Rudolf Stark's D.III 4064/17 is one of the best-known and documented Pfalz fighters. In the usual silver-gray finish when it became his first aircraft upon arrival at Jasta 34b, it was soon emblazoned with what would become his standard personal colors. In his classic book Wings of War, Stark wrote: "A Pfalz D.III stands silver-like in the hanger... My identification marks are painted on the machine - a lilac stripe behind the seat and a lilac coat for the propeller bonnet."
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The depiction and description of Pfalz D.III 4114/17 is somewhat provisional. This aircraft was photographed on two separate occasions, in somewhat different markings. When first photographed, the only special markings it bore were a white tail and nose. Later, when photographed after a landing in which its fuselage was broken, the right side of the tail had been repainted in silver-gray leaving a white border to the rudder cross, while the left side seems to have remained white. Of more significance is the fact that a single spiral band was now seen aft of the cockpit, intersecting with the white-bordered fuselage cross. This band seems to have been part of a 'snake-line' marking, which was for a time part of the unit livery of Kest 8 - thus the attribution of 4114/17 to that unit. Pfalz D.IIIa 4229/17 of Kest 8 bore a very similar but more elaborate snake-line, as did several Albatros fighters of the unit, and it is likely 4114/17 also belonged to that unit. The pilot remains unknown.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Marine-Feld Jagdstaffeln were also equipped with the Pfalz D.III and D.IIIa. One of the better-documented examples is D.III 4169/17, in which Flugmaat Armin Undiener of Marine-Feld Jasta II met his death in a crash on 28 January 1918. Undiener's personal marking was the black and white checkered band just behind the fuselage cross, and the aircraft also bore a white tail. The white nose is provisional.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
D.III 4184/17 of Uffz. Hegeler of Jasta 15. The black stripe on the fuselage was Hegeler's personal marking; the rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of silbergrau overall.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Пфальц D.III, пилот - лейтенант Г.Кляйн, зима 1917-1918гг.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This D.III (serial unknown) was photographed as part of the equipment of Jasta 15, possibly circa February 1918. During this period there was no unit marking for this Staffel but the aircraft were painted with distinctive individual colors and emblems, such as Arntzen's observer's badge seen previously. This particular Pfalz was flown by Lt. Claus von Waldow, as indicated by his personal stylized "N" emblem in a black frame. The significance of this letter remains an enigma, but it probably symbolized a lady friend. In addition, five dark/light bands encircled the rear fuselage,- these have been interpreted as red and white, but this is only speculation. The rest of the airframe retained a standard finish.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Under the command of Hauptmann Rudolf Berthold, Jasta 18 marked its aircraft in accordance with the dress tunic of Berthold's old infantry regiment. The Albatros D.V and Pfalz D.III/IIIa fighters of the Staffel were therefore decorated with red noses and dark blue fuselages and tails. This Pfalz D.III was the first machine assigned to Lt. Hans Burkhard von Buttlar when he arrived at the unit in January 1918. The white man-in-the-moon emblem with its pipe and faint eye marking was his personal marking. The undersides of the fuselage and the tailplane were not painted in the unit colors, but apparently remained in Pfalz silver-gray. The upper surfaces of both wings were also painted in the unit's dark blue, but the undersides retained their silver-gray factory finish. The colors applied to the struts are somewhat speculative.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This D.IIIa (serial unconfirmed, but probably in the 42XX/18 range) served in Jasta 4, one of the component units of Jagdgeschwader I, in early 1918. The black spiral band wrapped around the fuselage from nose to tail was the Staffel marking at this time. The black chord-wise stripes on the factory finish silver tail were identification markings of the unknown pilot. The markings on the tailplane have previously been illustrated as broad black bands applied spanwise, but it is now certain that they were narrow black chord-wise stripes as shown in the scrap view. The rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of silbergrau overall.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 5855/17 was flown by Vzfw. Josef Schaefer of Jasta 16b in the winter/spring of 1918. Very similar in many respects to Max Holtzem's D.IIIa of the same Jagdstaffel, this Pfalz exhibited the black tail unit marking of Bavarian Jasta 16, and personal markings of black stripes - which were a popular choice in this Staffel. Note that the stripes are just ever so slightly off-vertical, angling forward from bottom to top just a bit. A silver-gray border was carefully retained around the iron cross border on the fuselage, and the rudder cross bore a white border. It is possible that this machine also had a black spinner (difficult to see in the photo) as did other Pfalz of the unit. A rack of flare cartridges was affixed to the port fuselage side ahead of the cockpit.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The beautiful D.IIIa of Vzfw. Max Holtzem of Jasta 16b (serial unknown) must certainly rank as one of the most elegantly decorated Pfalz fighters of the war. Documented in three blemished photographs and the pilot's own recollections, it nonetheless presents some problems in interpretation. The black tail section was the Jasta 16b unit marking in April 1918, along with (probably) a black spinner. The vertical black stripes and the carefully-delineated black/white comet were Holtzem's personal markings. In later years Holtzem said, "My symbol, the comet, was the guardian-angel who flew with me. This was my dear mother who I had lost when I was 9 years old... It was elaborated very nice(ly) in black and white over the silver fuselage of my Pfalz D.III (sic)". By April 1918, all national insignia on this machine had been converted to the early Balkenkreuz form with complete white borders in all locations. One of the photos indicates that there was some kind of eight-pointed star marking on the top wing, similar to that in the comet emblem, but apparently a single color (black?). This is tentatively illustrated in the scrap view. Curiously, Holtzem's aircraft also had the usual exhaust manifold removed, and six straight exhaust pipes fitted to the engine.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 5947/17 is a less flamboyant but attractive example of the Pfalz aircraft of Jasta 30. This machine also bore the unit's diamond marking on fuselage, tail and (probably) upper wing center section. Personal embellishment included a black chevron marking which swept back along the fuselage to the leading edge of the tailplane, and a black outline to all tail surfaces.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Hans-Joachim Buddecke, the third ace to win the Pour le Merite, flew D.IIIa 5983/17 during his brief service in Jasta 30 in 1918. He had won early fame as a Fokker Eindecker pilot, achieving most of his victories flying in Turkish service in the Dardanelles campaign. Buddecke was transferred to Jasta 30 on 15 February 1918 after his second tour of duty in Turkey, apparently so that he could acclimatize himself to the much more intense tempo of aerial warfare over the Western Front. He achieved his 13th and last victory on 19 February, downing a Sopwith Camel of No. 80 Squadron; on 8 March he was transferred to the unit of his old friend Rudolf Berthold (who was still recovering from a serious arm wound) to lead the unit in the air, but only two days later he was killed in action. His Jasta 30 Pfalz was emblazoned with an unusual emblem around the fuselage insignia, which is thought to have been a highly stylized 'heart' in black. Apparently the orange diamond unit marking which is so identified with Jasta 30 Pfalz fighters had not yet been instituted when the photo of this D.IIIa was taken. The rest of the machine was the typical silver-gray overall.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8033/17 came down behind French lines on 27 March 1918 and became the subject of several photographs when it was on display in the town square of Nancy. It was probably flown by Offz. Stv. Schuschke of Jasta 64w, a Wurttemberg unit, who is recorded as having been taken POW on that date. The four vertical dark stripes on the fuselage were probably black, and most likely personal decor. Two-color broad stripes are just discernible on the upper surface of the tailplane in one photo, and Allied intelligence reports mention that Jasta 64w carried 'red and black' stripes on the tail as unit markings - those being the colors of Wurttemberg. Judging from another photo, however, on this machine only the black stripes were applied to the underside of the tail, the rest remaining in the factory finish silver-gray.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Vzfw. Jakob Pollinger of Jasta 77b reportedly ran out of fuel and landed behind British lines near Bourney, where his D.IIIa 8284/17 was captured in completely intact condition on 30 May 1918. The Pfalz was assigned number G/5 Bde/13 by the British. Reports on this machine indicate it had a blue tail, including the fin but not the rudder (this being the unit markings of Jasta 77b), a blue spinner, and a black swastika as the pilot's individual marking. The rudder was white as a background for the early style of Balkenkreuz, and the cross on the fuselage had a white border. Both wings were covered in five-color lozenge fabric, and photos show that the national insignia on the wings remained in their iron cross form (with white outlines) at the date the machine was captured. The color profile shows 8284/17 in its original German markings at the moment it was captured; these were soon overpainted with British rudder stripes and roundels.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Unfortunately, very little is known about the origin of this interesting D.IIIa, which may have been 8304/17. It appears in a photo of derelict aircraft fuselages in the late A.E. Ferko's files now held in the History of Aviation Collection, University of Texas, Dallas. This unidentified machine bore a shield marking painted over the fuselage cross, displaying a black (?) cross on a white background - a typical emblem of the medieval Teutonic Knights. Two crossed swords were painted 'behind' the shield. The colors of this insignia as illustrated remain provisional. Though the wings are missing from the aircraft in the photo, they were possibly covered in five-color fabric on a D.IIIa this late in the production sequence. The rudder displayed a late Balkenkreuz, and the earlier iron cross remained visible through the paint used to convert the insignia.
В.Обухович, А.Никифоров - Самолеты Первой Мировой войны
Пфальц D III
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This unique black Pfalz D.IIIa was flown by Lt.d.R. Carl Degelow, most likely when he served in Jasta 7. It is based on two photos, one a familiar crash photo which may date to 23 March 1918; on that date the commander of Jasta 7, Josef Jacobs, recorded in his diary that, "Upon landing Lt. Degelow raced against a 30 kph wind, machine turned over, he remained completely unhurt". Whatever the details of the crash, Degelow's machine displayed the black color of Jasta 7, which was by this time generally applied to the entire fuselage, empennage, and sometimes the wings as shown here. The black finish was definitely applied to the undercarriage and apparently to the struts and all wing surfaces. Degelow's personal symbol of the white stag was closely based on the commercial logo of Dr. Lahmann's sanatorium in Weisse Hirsch near Dresden, where he had spent time recovering from a wound. The stag was in silvery-white with black details and golden yellow antlers.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Hauptmann Rudolf Berthold, the so-called 'Iron Knight', was the formidable - even fanatical - commander of Jagdgeschwader II when he flew this famous D.IIIa marked in the dark blue and red colors of his Jasta 15. Seen in a line-up photo taken at Balatre in April 1918, the Pfalz had dark blue applied to the fuselage and upper surfaces of both wings. Most prior depictions of this aircraft have shown the demarcation between the red nose and dark blue as being at the mid-cockpit area, but inspection of the photo reveals this was actually at the rear cabane strut, as it was on all the other Jasta 18/15 Pfalz D.III and D.IIIa aircraft illustrated in this book. Berthold's classic white winged sword emblem appeared aft of the cockpit, though in a slightly different form from that seen on his later Fokker D.VII. The initial style of Balkenkreuz was in use when this D.IIIa was photographed, a period when Berthold was still recovering from grievous wounds. The extent of his combat flying in this machine, given his limited physical abilities at this time, remains a moot point.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Jasta 18 Pfalz D.IIIa displayed the characteristic red and dark blue markings initiated by Berthold. This machine in fact was the same aircraft as seen in profile 33, which illustrates the markings used when it was flown by Gefreiter Hitschler. Once Hitschler was transferred to Jasta 57 in late January 1918, this D.IIIa was taken over by Lt. von Buttlar, who referred to it as "My Pfalz D.IIIa" in his album. At some unknown later date, the five white stripes were painted over with a dark color (shown as red here based on the prominent red in his coat of arms) and von Buttlar's emblem of a white hunting horn was superimposed on the dark band. The yellow details of this horn emblem are provisional, again based on his coat of arms. This aircraft was flown operationally without a spinner.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Pfalz D.IIIa displayed the red and dark blue colors of Berthold's Jasta 18 on the fuselage and upper surfaces of both wings and the tail. The dark blue painting necessitated white borders for the national insignia on the upper wing and rudder, which are unusually thick in this case. Again, the under surfaces and wheel covers were probably left in factory silbergrau finish. It is believed that the five vertical white stripes were the personal emblem of Gefreiter Hitschler, who was transferred to Jasta 57 in late January 1918, leaving his Pfalz fighter behind. This Pfalz seems to have been flown without its spinner for most of its operational career. Perhaps most noteworthy is the fact that this machine was something of a hybrid: it had the D.IIIa gun placement and tailplane, but was still fitted with the angular lower wing tips of the D.III.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
In general the factory finish of the Pfalz D.IIIa was similar to that of the D.III, except that later production examples of the D.IIIa had their wings, elevators, wheel covers, and rudders covered in five-color printed camouflage ('lozenge') fabric. One of these was this spectacularly decorated aircraft of Jasta 30. The unit marking applied to the Pfalz fighters of this Jasta consisted of a yellowish-orange diamond with black border, and this was painted on both fuselage sides, both upper and under surfaces of the tailplane, and (usually) on the upper surface of the top wing center section. Research by German historians indicates the two-color longitudinal stripes were white and a medium shade of gray called Mausgrau (mouse-gray) as illustrated; the tail surfaces were in white, outlined with black. The commander of Jasta 30, Oblt. Hans Bethge, flew this machine in February/March 1918 with conventional iron cross national insignia. After Bethge was killed on 17 March in a different D.IIIa (5888/17), this machine was apparently taken over by Lt. Erich Kaus. It would soon have its crosses converted to the initial form of Balkenkreuz in obedience to an Idflieg order also dated 17 March 1918. Kaus is believed to have flown this aircraft through April/May 1918.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This colorful Pfalz D.IIIa was taken over by American occupation forces in Koblenz in 1919, and became the subject of numerous photos and even a brief bit of motion picture film; by that time the aircraft was considerably worn and dirtied, and had undergone several markings changes. The diagonal black and white stripes on the tailplane and elevators mark it as a veteran of Jasta 37, which also featured black fuselages for a period as seen on this Pfalz. The unknown pilot's personal marking was a white-bordered dark band adjacent to the cockpit; this band is shown as red, but it may also simply have been black. When photographed in 1919, this machine bore the number '23' in large black characters on a white panel on the fuselage, and also on the underside of the starboard lower wing. These numbers almost certainly indicate that after service in Jasta 37 the machine was transferred to a Jastaschule, where it saw further wear and tear. The tip of the previous Balkenkreuz insignia on the fuselage can be made out ahead of the white panel. The machine is illustrated as it may have appeared in its final days in Jasta 37, without the '23' markings. The upper wing appears to have been covered in five-color printed camouflage fabric, but the lower wing appears lighter (silbergrau?) in the photos; perhaps the lower wing was replaced during the machine's service in a fighter school.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Jasta 58 had at least one or two examples of the Pfalz D.IIIa on its strength in mid-1918. The illustration of the D.IIIa (serial number and pilot unknown) is based on a photo that is none too clear, and remains conditional. The unit marking Jasta 58 carried on its Albatros and Pfalz fighters consisted of a lengthwise black stripe from nose to tail, generally with vertical black stripes wrapped around the fore and aft ends of the horizontal stripe. This was commonly supplemented by a white spinner. In the case of the D.IIIa shown here, the pilot's individual marking was made up of the two vertical stripes just aft of the cockpit; these seem to be a bit lighter than the black unit stripe and have been interpreted as red - which is only speculation. The rudder seems to have been white as well, and five-color lozenge fabric was employed on the wings and probably the elevator. The ultimate style of Balkenkreuz insignia is seen on the fuselage and rudder.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Vzfw. Karl Gerster, a two-victory pilot of Jasta 62, was photographed in front of a dark-painted D.IIIa that is interpreted here. According to the French interrogation of Jasta 62 POW Vzfw. Stadley (taken prisoner on 27 June 1918, along with his Albatros D.Va 7258/17), the unit marking of this Staffel was a black fuselage with a red cowling, and these colors are shown on Gerster's D.IIIa as illustrated. Most of the fuselage and tail unit were probably black, while the spinner and metal cowling panels appear to have been red. The wings are provisionally illustrated as covered in five-color lozenge fabric.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
D.IIIa of a Marine Feld Jasta. The black diamond on the fuselage was the pilot's personal marking; the yellow (?) nose, wheel covers, and tail stripe were the unit markings, and the rest of this aircraft retained its factory finish of silbergrau overall. Interestingly, there is no cross on the tail.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz Oberingenieur Rudolf Geringer poses with the Pfalz D.III prototype in April 1917. The straight upper edge of the original rudder is barely visible. Unlike production machines, the D.III prototype was fitted with unbalanced ailerons. The D.III had two machine guns buried in the forward fuselage for streamlining like the Roland fighters Pfalz had built under license, but pilots complained they could not reach the guns in combat to clear jams. As a result, the Pfalz D.IIIa had the guns in front of the pilot where they could be reached inflight. The D.IIIa also had rounded lower wingtips to reduce vibration inflight, and the leading edge of the horizontal stabilizer was enlarged and rounded for easier dive recovery.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rear view of a Pfalz D.III illustrates its streamlining, the pointed lower wingtips, and narrow-chord tailplane characteristic of the D.III.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz D.III seen from the rear displays clean lines.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
"Пфальц" D.III на западном фронте, осень 1917г.
The Pfalz D.IIIa was the most famous Pfalz design. This one has bands painted around the rear fuselage.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Front view of a Pfalz D.III reveals an interesting repair to the upper port wing.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Unidentified Pfalz D.III wearing late insignia.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
No spinner is fitted to this Pfalz D.IIIa at the Daimler factory for engine testing, perhaps to facilitate engine and propeller changes. The rudder wears printed camouflage fabric.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Unknown pilot in his Pfalz D.III.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
The Pfalz DIII reached the Bavarian units at the front in the autumn of 1917. An Allied test on an aircraft captured the following February praised most aspects of this lighter.
Pfalz DIII 1330/17.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1364/17.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1366/17 was photographed in front of the Adlershof hangars during the Typenprufung in May 1917. The black datum line on the nose was used to correctly align and rig the wing cellule.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
An early production Pfalz D.III 1366/17 painted in the standard factory finish of silver-gray. The aluminum powder in the paint protected the wood and fabric from the sun and provided 'air-superiority' style camouflage. "D.III 1366/17" appears above the rudder cross, and the Pfalz logo is on the rudder balance area.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1369/17 of Jasta 11. At least one Jasta 11 pilot is recorded as having flown a Pfalz D.IIIa; Lt. von Linsingen crashed D.IIIa 4223/17 on 24 January 1918 and was hospitalized. The white tail was a personal marking, supplemented by a dark fuselage band (red? black?). There are non-standard (for Pfalz) white borders on the fuselage cross and apparently on the under-wing crosses.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III lineup of Jasta 10 on Courtrai aerodrome, circa November 1917. Hecht's 1370/17 is third from right. The stripes on the fuselage and top wing of Hecht's D.III were black and the tail was green.The yellow noses and wheels, Jasta 10's unit markings, show up dark with the type of film used.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1370/17, wearing factory markings only, is newly arrived at Jasta 10.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Downed 1370/17 is being transported back from the front after being downed by No.35 Sqdn., RFC near Villers-Carbonnel on 27 December 1917.
K.Delve - World War One in the Air /Crowood/
Pfalz DIII 1370/17 (which acquired G 110 as its captured serial). The aircraft belonged to Jasta 10 and was shot down by a 35 Squadron aircraft on 27 December 1917. It is seen here at Estrees-aux-Chausee.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Downed Pfalz D.III 1370/17 is re-assembled and in British hands (designated G.110) after being downed by No.35 Sqdn. The pilot was Vzfw. Hecht of Jasta 10. The supplementary wingtip bracing cable installed after the aircraft reached the front is barely visible.
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Pfalz D.III 1370/17. Capture number G.110
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Side view of the Pfalz single-seater fighter, 160 h.p. Mercedes engine.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1370/17 of Jasta 10 after capture with its German insignia painted over.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
More views of Pfalz D.III 1370/17 of Jasta 10 after capture with its German insignia painted over.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
View from above of the Pfalz single-seater fighter, 160 h.p. Mercedes engine.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Rear view of the Pfalz Chaser, D.III type.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Front view of the Pfalz single-seater fighter, 160 h.p. Mercedes engine.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Front view of the Pfalz Single-seater D.III Type.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz D.III 1382/17
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1386/17 of Jasta 22 flown by Lt. Alfred Lenz, CO. The markings on either side of the fuselage cross are black, as are the sloping bands on the horizontal tail and upper wing.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1395/17 was one of the few factory-camouflaged D.III fighters assigned to Jasta 10. At left Lt. Heldmann is sitting on the wheel; white or light blue wheels were apparently part of his personal markings.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Heldmann is donning his flying clothes before a mission. Heldmann went on to fly a Fokker D.VII with Jasta 10.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Another photo of factory-camouflaged Pfalz D.III 1395/17 of Jasta 10 and Lt. Heldmann getting ready to fly. Lt. Heldmann achieved 15 confirmed victories, all while serving with Jasta 10, and was twice acting commander during 1918.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Oberleutnant Oskar Freiherr von Boenigk of Jasta 4 in his Pfalz D.III 1396/17. The machine gun muzzle is visible beside the engine. Below the stencil - Leergewicht 695 Kg (empty weight) and zulassige Belastung bei vollem Tank 170 Kg (permissible load with full tank) - are the rigging instructions and the small manufacturer's nameplate. In Jasta 4 von Boenigk scored 7 victories before he left to command Jasta 21. He achieved a total of 26 victories, eventually commanded JGII, and won the Pour le Merite.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1397/17 of Jasta 4.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1405/17 in service with Jasta 32b after unit and personal markings were applied. It was probably flown by Offz.Stv. Jakob Landin. The nose, tail, and "L" are black and the spinner is white over standard factory finish.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1405/17 displays its clean lines, access panels, and factory finish. This is Sanke Card No. 1053.
First flown around June 1917, the clean-looking Pfalz D III, like its near contemporary, the Albatros DV, was to prove inferior to the Camel, SE 5 and Spad that were to be encountered in ever growing numbers from the summer of 1917 onwards. Initially deployed operationally in late August 1917, the 160hp Mercedes D III-powered machine lacked the agility and climb capability of the Albatros DV, but was faster than the D V, having a top level speed of 112mph at sea level, falling to 103mph at 9.840 feet. Further, the Pfalz D III was extremely robust and suffered none of the wing flutter problems of the Albatros series. It was therefore useful for fast attack missions such as those against well defended balloons. The one area that pilots were particularly critical of in the D III was that of climb, the D III taking 7 minutes to reach 5,000 feet, compared with the SE 5A's 5 minutes 35 seconds to reach the same height. Notwithstanding, the twin 7.92mm Spandau armed D III's career paralleled that of the Albatros DV in as much as it was to be produced in an up-rated D IIIa form towards the close of 1917. Based on the operational numbers on record for April 1918, the total Pfalz D III and IIIa build must have been around 1,000 machines.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz D.III 4006/17
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4011/17 of Jasta 21, flown by Lt. Fritz Hohn, winter of 1917-18. The machines of this unit also carried small personal numbers in black, in this case marked beneath the serial number on the fuselage. The combination of horizontal and diagonal stripes were an attempt to make the aircraft more difficult for ground gunners to hit, and were applied as Hohn was beginning his career as a balloon buster.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4011/17 of Lt. Fritz Hohn of Jasta 21, winter of 1917-1918, with his teddy bear mascot.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Ltn. Fritz Hohn (right) of Jasta 21s and two friends (see teddy bear fastened to the rear cockpit decking) prepare for takeoff in Hohn’s elaborately marked Pfalz D.IIIa. German pilots were well known for applying lavish markings on their aircraft as well as having lucky talismans, and mascots, including monkeys, baboons, and nearly every breed of dog!
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4011/17 of Lt. Fritz Hohn in Jasta 21, winter of 1917-1918, with his teddy bear mascot. This D.III wore the Jasta 21 unit marking of a vertical black and white line just aft of the cockpit. The top surface of the wings and the rest of the aircraft markings were Hohn's individual markings. Hohn scored 21 confirmed victories, including 10 balloons. He later became acting commander of Jasta 60, then commander of Jasta 41, where he scored three victories in three days, but was then killed in action.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Emil Thuy of Jasta 28 in his Pfalz D.IIIa 4017/17. Thuy had an impressive career; after scoring 14 victories flying with Jasta 21, he was made Staffelfuhrer of Jasta 28, which he commanded until the end of the war. Thuy scored 35 victories and was awarded the Pour le Merite.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 4033/17 of Jasta 16b has experienced an all too common landing accident.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 4033/17 of Jasta 16b has experienced an all too common landing accident.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4034/17 of Uffz. Eugen Fortig of Jasta 16b crashed fatally during a familiarization flight on 27 January 1918.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Fluglehrer Riensberg killed in the crash of Pfalz D.III 4049/17, Jan 13, 1917.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4056/17 of Jasta 16b.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz D.III 4058/17
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4059/17 of Lt. Heinrich Arntzen, Jasta 15, late 1917, at Le Clos Ferme (Boncours) airfield. Lt. Arntzen's personal emblem was a Prussian observer's badge (black and white quartering with a red border); no unit marking was in use at this time. Arntzen had a remarkable career; starting as a photographer in Zeppelins, he became an observer in aircraft, claiming four victories. He then became a pilot, first with Jasta 15 where he gained two more victories, then as CO of Jasta 50, where he brought his total to 11. During a balloon attack on 27 May, 1918 he was shot through the eye, yet survived. Despite the loss of an eye, he returned to combat flying single-seat photo-reconniassance missions. He kept the bullet removed from his brain and mounted it on a base as a momento!
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Uffz. Rudolf Ligenfelter poses with his Pfalz D.III 4062/17 of Jasta 16b. The black tail was the unit marking. Lingenfelter was killed in an accident on 21 February 1918 at Aertrycke airfield.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4063/17 of Jasta 21, taken at Jasta 21 and circulated around to nearby aviation units to familiarize them with the new type; the dark nose and tail were personal markings of the unknown pilot.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Men of Jasta 21 posing with the same Pfalz.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4064/17 flown by Lt. Rudolf Stark of Jasta 34b. The wrinkled fuselage shows the effects of exposure to the elements that damaged the wooden shell. Lt. Stark scored five victories in Jasta 34b before moving to Jasta 77b as acting commander, where he scored one more victory. On 7 June 1918 he went to Jasta 35b as Staffelfuhrer, where he scored five more victories to bring his total to 11. The fuselage band and spinner on his Pfalz were painted lilac.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4102/17, unit unknown.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4114/17 eventually served with Kest 8; the wheels, nose, and tail are painted white.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4114/17 after a bad landing. The Kest 8 marking of a snake wrapped around the fuselage, not yet applied above, had been added before the accident.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz D.III 4156/17
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Vzfw. Hitschler of Jasta 18 is photographed with a hybrid Pfalz D.IIIa that could be 4165/17, the prototype. This aircraft has the rounded tailplane and raised guns of the D.IIIa but retains the pointed lower wings of the D.III. The bracing cables to the upper wingtips are barely visible in the original photograph.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Cockpit of the Pfalz D.IIIa prototype, 4165/17, clearly shows the raised machine guns that were much more accessible to the pilots in case of a jam The tachometer is the round instrument in the center of the panel.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4169/17 of Marine Feld Jasta II crashed by Flugmaat Undiener, who was killed.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4184/17 of Jasta 15 flown by Uffz. Hegeler is shown here after capture. Hegeler was downed by Lt. A. Cowper of No.24 Sqdn., RFC, on 26 Feb. 1918. The marking behind the cockpit is black with the basic silver color showing through the ovals. Allocated the British capture number G.141, it was subsequently displayed in London's Agricultural Hall.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Hegeler's Pfalz D III (serial 4184/17). Capture number G.141
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
На фотографии изображен Пфальц DIII, у которого снята вся обшивка, за исключением алюминиевой.
Captured Pfalz D.III 4184/17 stripped bare for inspection. The light fuselage framework supported an outer plywood shell, created by the Wickelrumpf technique. The barrel of one of the buried machine guns is just visible.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Captured Pfalz D.III 4184/17 stripped bare for inspection. The light fuselage framework supported an outer plywood shell, created by the Wickelrumpf technique.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Cockpit of Pfalz D.III 4184/17 of Jasta 15 captured on February 26, 1918 and assigned the British captured aircraft number G.141
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz D.III 4185/17 photographed at the Jasta 5 aerodrome at Boistrancourt in 1917. Overall silbergrau finish is relieved by encircling red and white bands which have obliterated all traces of the fuselage serial number. Note windscreen style and safety harness Strap hanging from cockpit.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa prototype.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 4202/17 of Jasta 30 with pilots: left to right: Lt.d.R. Hans Holthausen, Oblt. Hans Bethge (with glasses), Lt. Karl Weitz, and Lt. Freiherr von der Horst.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 4203/17 of Jasta 30, flown by Staffelfuhrer Lt. Hans-Georg von der Marwitz.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
D.IIIa 4203/17 of a Marine Feld Jasta.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Flugmaat Undiener, probably with Marine Feld Jasta II, with Pfalz D.IIIa 4215/17. A Pfalz logo is on the cabane strut; the fuel lines from the upper wing show clearly.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two Pfalz D.IIIa fighters of Kest 8, with Pfalz D.IIIa 4229/17 at left with the snake marking around the fuselage.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two views of Pfalz D.IIIa 4229/17 of Kest 8 flown by Lt. Karl Bucker (3 victories) on a visit home. The hometown crowd has shown up to great the visiting hero and view his fighter.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Karl Bucker at left with his Pfalz D.IIIa 4229/17 of Kest 8 during his visit home.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 4229/17 wearing the Kest 8 marking wrapped around the fuselage has some pilots on it. From left to right, Lt.d.R. Wilhelm Neuenhofen (15 victories), Off.- Stv. Hilger, Lt. Karl Bucker (3 victories), and Vzfw. Bohlen.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
"Пфальц" D.IIIa с "тевтонским" крестом.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Rudolf Stark poses by Pfalz D.IIIa 5882/17, one he flew in Jasta 34b. Stark's lilac fuselage band is visible.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Ltn.d.R. Emil Koch, commander of Jasta 32b, poses with Pfalz D.IIIa 5885/17 of the unit, circa May 1918.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Hptm. Franz Hailer in Pfalz D.IIIa 5895/17. The dark painted fuselage wears a band of blue and white Bavarian diamonds, reflecting Hailer's Bavarian origin.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Marine Lt. Carl Kuring of Marine Feld Jasta III in his Pfalz D.IIIa 5940/17.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 5947/17 of Jasta 30, flown by Lt. Freiherr von der Horst.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Pfalz D.IIIa 5947/17 of Jasta 30 with ground crew.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Erich Kaus and ground crew with Pfalz D.IIIa 5981/17 of Jasta 30.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The third pilot to be awarded the Pour le Merite was Oblt. Hans-Joachim Buddecke. He is shown in his Pfalz D.IIIa 5983/17 during the brief time he flew with Jasta 30 in 1918. Buddecke won most of his fame in Turkey, raising his score to 13 confirmed victories. When he returned to the Western Front air combat had changed greatly, and he was killed in action with Sopwith Camels of No.3 Squadron, RNAS, on March 10,1918, before he could adjust to the new conditions. He was killed going to the aid of his old friend Rudolf Berthold, himself a Pour le Merite ace who scored 44 victories.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 6014/17 in late-war insignia with camouflage fabric covering the wings.This Pfalz belonged to Grenschutz Allenstein, a post-war border defense unit made up of both fighters and two-seaters.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
Pfalz D IIIa, serial 6014/17, photographed sometime after 15 April 1918, as indicated by the machine's Balkankreuse markings. Although the Pfalz fighter equipped a large number of Jastas, it seems it never equipped any one exclusively.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Grenzschutz Allenstein, a post-war border-defense unit, has a collection of fighters and two-seaters including, second from left, Pfalz D.IIIa 6014/17.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 6033/17.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Fritz Hohn flew similarly-marked Pfalz D.IIIa 8009/17 while still with Jasta 21. Hohn is at right, again with his teddy bear mascot. Lt. Muller of Flieger-Abteilung (A) 274 is at left.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8033/17 of Jasta 64w.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8033/17 in French hands.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8033/17 after capture.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8033/17 of Jasta 64w after capture. The pilot, Offz.-Stv. Schuschke, was made POW on 27 March, 1918. In the above image the aircraft was on display at Nancy. The work no. was 1663.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The cockpit, engine, and machine guns of Pfalz D.IIIa 8033/17 show a key difference from the D.III with its buried machine guns. A flare cartridge rack is on the right side of the fuselage next to the cockpit.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Looking rather bland, Pfalz D.IIIa 8033/17 in French markings at Villacoublay.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8052/17 of Lt. Moch with '10' on the fuselage, under the starboard lower wing, and perhaps the top of the upper wing; unit unknown.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa, probably 8131/17, and other captured German aircraft on display in London during the war.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
"Пфальц" D.IIIa с "балканским" крестом.
Pfalz D.IIIa 8143/17 with modified tailplane with its original iron crosses over-painted in accordance with the Kogenluft (Kommandierenden General der Luftstreitkrafte - Commanding General Air Services) instructions issued 17 March 1918 before Operation Michael, the German spring offensive designed to win the war before American troops could reach the front in numbers. The upper fuselage and wings have been over-painted, but the colors and unit are unknown.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8170/17 of Lt. Hans Bohning, Jasta 79b, with five-color camouflage fabric on lower wing and Bohning's "HB" initial. Bohning scored 17 confirmed victories, the last 12 in Jasta 79b. He survived the war.
Сайт - Pilots-and-planes /WWW/
Ltn.d.R. Rudolf Stark standing in front of Pfalz D.IIIa 8178/17.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Rudolf Stark of Jasta 34b preparing for take-off in Pfalz D.IIIa 8178/17 in early 1918. The fuselage band and spinner on his Pfalz were painted lilac. Stark later flew a Fokker Triplane with lilac engine cowling and fuselage band, and finished the war flying a Fokker D.VII with lilac fuselage band and cowling in Jasta 35b.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8190/17 in factory finish with a dark band around the fuselage.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa, probably 8282/17, of Flieger Andreas Kohler of Jasta 35 brought down by ground fire on 24 April 1918. The photos were taken at No.2 Aircraft Depot at Candas on 26 April 1918.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8284/17 of Jasta 77b flown by Vzfw. Jacob Pollinger is shown before capture.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pollinger's Pfalz D.IIIa 8284/17 of Jasta 77b being removed from the front after capture.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8284/17 of Jasta 77b flown by Vzfw. Jacob Pollinger is shown after capture with crosses over-painted. Pollinger ran out of fuel and came down behind British lines on 30 May 1918. A novice, he had joined Jasta 77b from Jastaschule I on 22 May 1918. The swastika, a Nordic symbol for good luck, was his personal insignia.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 1296/18 of Jasta 56 with a Jasta 56 Fokker D.VII in the background. Both aircraft carry the unit markings of chrome yellow nose and tail with blue-gray fuselage.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 1306/17 with Mercedes D.III Nr. 37554 force-landed in the Netherlands on June 11 or 12, 1918. It was flown by Gefr. Heinz Kleineberg of Jasta 20.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 42xx/17 of Jasta 4. The black stripes on the fin and underside of the tailplane are personal markings.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 4. The black spiral ribbon around the fuselage was the Jasta 4 unit marking.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 4, Flugplatz Awoingt, March 1918. The Pfalz displays the spiral band Jasta 4 marking and painted tail (and spinner?) as personal markings.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Karl Meyer, Jasta 4, by the tail of a Pfalz D.IIIa that may have been his with a personal marking of dark tail and spinner. There appears to be a darker stripe on the tailplane and elevators. Meyer scored four confirmed victories. Flugplatz Awoingt, circa March 1918.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 4 with an Albatros D.Va of Jasta 4 at right.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Left, Lt. Johann Janzen, Jasta 6, 13 victories and right, Lt. Viktor von Pressentin (genannt von Rautter) with two Pfalz D.IIIa fighters of Jasta 4 at Lechelle, April 1918. The Pfalz at left is silver-gray; that on the right has printed five-color camouflage fabric on the wings.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 4 with unknown pilot.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 4 with Lt. Raven Freiherr von Barnekow being assisted out of his RFC-style flying boots. Another Jasta 4 Pfalz D.IIIa is in the background. Barnekow scored no victories in Jasta 4 but went on to score 11 confirmed victories while serving with Jasta 20 and Jasta 1 and survived the war.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 4 taking off.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa fighters of Jasta 4 at Lechelle.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III fighters of Jasta 4 at Armee Flugpark 4 with their distinctive black spiral ribbon unit markings.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Jasta 7 lineup with Lt. Carl Degelow's Pfalz D.IIIa at far right.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Degelow's Pfalz after a landing accident. Josef Jacob's diary for 23 March 1918 read: "Upon landing, Lt. Degelow raced against a 30 kph headwind; machine turned over."
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Pfalz D.III of Lt. Hans Klein of Jasta 10 after a bad landing. Klein scored 22 victories and was awarded the Pour le Merits; he also survived the war.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Hans Klein of Jasta 10 at left by his Pfalz D.III with Schwartzenberger in the cockpit. The black fuselage stripe was Klein's personal marking.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 10 with Schwarzenberger, Klein, and unknown.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 10 during a visit by Ernst Eversbusch, one of the Pfalz company founders. From left are: Unknown, Hptm. Kurt Schwarzenberger of Idflieg, Lt. Hans Klein, Lt. Kuhn, Ernst Eversbusch, Lt. Heldmann, and an unknown airman.The dark (black?) bands on the upper wing may have been formation leader's markings.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Vzfw. Kurt Delang and a yellow-nosed Jasta 10 Pfalz D.IIIa with Axial propeller. Delang scored three victories and survived the war; he lived until 1983.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 10 and Lt. Friedrich "Fritz" Friedrichs in the cockpit. Lt. Friedrichs scored 21 confirmed victories and was nominated for the Pour le Merite, but he died when the ammunition in his Fokker D.VII ignited in flight and he did not receive the Pour le Merite.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Justus Grassmann in his Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 10. Lt. Grassmann scored 10 confirmed victories and survived the war.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Vzfw. Friedrich Rudenberg was one of two Jasta 10 pilots that accompanied Lt. Werner Voss on his final flight in his Fokker F.I 103/17 triplane.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Vzfw. Friedrich Rudenberg of Jasta 10 in his Pfalz D.III; other Pfalz D.III fighters of Jasta 10 are in the background.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 10 said to belong to Lt. Werner Voss.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Werner Voss flying his Pfalz D.III.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
At least two early production Pfalz D.III fighters with factory camouflage were assigned to Jasta 10. In addition to Lt. Heldmann's 1395/17, this one was crashed by Lt. Gustav Bellen on 11 September 1917. The camouflage was green and mauve on the upper surfaces with undersurfaces in silver-gray. On this aircraft a white band circled the fuselage; the fuselage national insignia were apparently outlined in silver-gray. A flare pistol and cartridge rack are mounted on the right side of the cockpit. Bellen downed a balloon on 21 Sept. 1917 for his only victory. He was one of the pilots who flew with Lt. Voss on his fatal flight.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt Werner Voss second from left with his brothers Max at far right and Otto second from right and Idflieg officers at far left and center. A new Pfalz D.III is in the hangar behind them. (Courtesy Lance Bronnenkant)
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt Werner Voss's discusses his new Fokker F.I 103/17 triplane with the Austrian crown prince; Voss's Pfalz D.III fighter and other Jasta 10 Pfalz D.III fighters are behind them.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Fokker Triplane, Fl 103/17 of Werner Voss, one of the leading fighter pilots during 1917. His career started in November 1916 with Jasta 2 and by the following summer he had 30 victories and was commanding Jasta 10.
With a mechanic ready to swing the propeller and two more in attendance, this Fokker Dr I pilot prepares for take-off. Alongside the Dr I is a Pfalz D III of the same Jasta helping illustrate the mixture of types that remained characteristic of German front-line Jastas all the way through to the Armistice. In contrast, the British and French had long since realised the logistical, maintenance and operational benefits of standardising aircraft and engines at squadron level.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa and Albatros fighters line up at Flugplatz Awoingt, March 1918. Jasta 10 is in the foreground and Jasta 4 is in the background.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Jasta 15 lineup with a mixture of Pfalz D.III and Albatros D.V aircraft.This is a significantly earlier view of Jasta 15, before Rudolf Bertold took command, possibly January 1918. "N" is the Pfalz D.III of Lt. Claus von Waldow. The Albatros D.V with the skull marking was apparently flown by Lt. Karl Albert.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Jagdgeschwader II, Jasta 15 lineup in April 1918 at Balatre.The first aircraft is the Pfalz D.IIIa of Hptm. Rudolf Berthold, CO of JGII.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa fighters of Jasta 16b; all have black spinners.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 16b flown by Oblt. Friedrich "Fritz" Roth. Von Roth achieved a total of 28 confirmed victories, of which 20 were balloons; he was the highest-scoring German pilot against these dangerous targets. On 24 April 1918 he became CO of Jasta 16b, and on 29 May 1918 he shot down five balloons in one mission. On 9 September 1918 he was awarded the Pour le Merits.The white/black/white stripe is painted to the rear on the aircraft's other side.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A spectacularly-marked Pfalz D.IIIa, probably from Jasta 16b. The men are from Flieger Abteilung(A) 212.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This spectacularly marked Pfalz D.IIIa was flown by Vzfw. Josef Schaefer of Jasta 16b. The black rings around the fuselage and black tail appear common on Jasta 16b Pfalz fighters; the unit marking was the black tail.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
One of the most spectacularly marked Pfalz D.IIIa fighters was this aircraft of Jasta 16b flown by Vzfw. Max Holtzem, who had previously been an acceptance test pilot at Pfalz.The exhaust pipes have been shortened and a signal flare cartridge rack has been fitted. A star emblem is on the upper left wing.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Dark colored Pfalz D.IIIa fighters of Jasta 18. The man-in-the-moon emblem is that of Hans Burkhard von Buttlar.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Photos of a Pfalz D.III of Jasta 18 flown by Lt. Hans-Burkard von Buttlar.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 18 flown by Lt. Hans von Buttlar. This aircraft had previously been flown by Gefr. Hitschler; after it was assigned to von Buttlar he had the five white stripes painted over and added his hunting horn emblem. Above left a mechanic is in the cockpit; below von Buttlar is in the cockpit.
H.Cowin - Aviation Pioneers /Osprey/
This initial production batch Pfalz D III of Lt Lenz, Jasta 22 was delivered in August 1917, when the unit was based at Vivaise.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 22 flown by Lt.d.R. Alfred Wunsch, whose personal markings of double black chevrons fore and aft of the fuselage cross are visible.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III of Jasta 22. This unidentified fighter has a dark fuselage with a diamond-shaped silver-gray background surrounding the fuselage cross.
J.Herris - Roland Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
This Jasta 23b lineup is mostly Roland D.VIa fighters but includes at least two Pfalz D.IIIa fighters.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 30 with the CO, Lt. Hans-Georg von der Marwitz, with a relieved British POW of No. 208 Sqdn., Cowan, at left, who was flying Sopwith Camel D.9540.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 30, with pilot Ltd.R. Kurt Katzenstein in the cockpit and unidentified ground crewmen. The Jasta 30 orange diamond is repeated on the top of the upper wing and the fuselage is over-painted (black?). Katzenstein scored one victory, a Sopwith Camel on 9 June 1918, possibly D3348 flown by Lt. W. Breckinbridge of No. 210 Squadron, RAF.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Two views of the Pfalz D.IIIa with mouse-gray (not black) fuselage stripes previously flown by then Staffelfuhrer Oblt. Hans Bethge of Jasta 30. By the time these photos were taken the aircraft was being flown by Lt. Erich Kaus. Bethge scored 20 victories and was nominated for the Pour le Merite, but before it could be approved he was killed in action with a British two-seater while flying Pfalz D.IIIa 5888/17. According to Prussian custom, awards were not made posthumously because they were considered to be for the man, not his family or friends, and Bethge's Pour le Merite was not approved.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa probably of Jasta 30.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa fighters of Jasta 30 lined up at Phalempin.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa lineup of Jasta 30 at Flugplatz Phalempin.The DFW C.V hack has Jasta 30's orange diamond marking.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Crashed Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 30 displays the Jasta's orange diamond under the tail surfaces.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa fighters of Jasta 34b.
J.Herris - DFW Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Rudolf Stark, shown here with Pfalz fighters he flew in Jasta 34b, ended the war as Staffelfuhrer of Jasta 35b with 11 victories. Postwar he wrote the well-known book Wings of War, published in 1933, based on his wartime experiences. The Fokker D.VII in the USAF Museum carries the markings of the D.VII Stark flew when in command of Jasta 35b. The fuselage stripe was in lilac, as was the spinner.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa formerly of Jasta 37. The above rearview of the Pfalz D.IIIa illustrates its streamlining, the rounded lower wingtips, and wide-chord tailplane characteristic of the D.IIIa.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa formerly of Jasta 37, then a Jastaschule, photographed at Koblenz in 1919. The number "23" on the fuselage and under the wing was applied at the Jastaschule.The black and white tailplane stripes are part of Jasta 37's unit markings.This training aircraft has no spinner. This aircraft was turned over to the Americans in accordance with the armistice stipulations.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Uffz. Hertel inside his Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 40.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Uffz. Hertel beside his Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 40 after his personal dagger marking was added to the fuselage.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Uffz. Hertel and his ground crew before his Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 40 after his personal dagger marking was applied
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 58 in basic silver with five-color camouflage fabric on wings and elevators. Nose and rudder are white.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 61.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Jasta 62 flown by Vzfw. Karl Gerster. According to French intelligence reports, the Jasta 62 unit markings were the black fuselage with red engine cowling, which seems to fit this photo. The spinner and metal panels around the engine were red, with the rest of the fuselage black.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz fighters of the Marine Feld-Jasta in Belgium.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Lt. Carl Kuning in front of his Pfalz D.IIIa of a Marine Feld Jasta (MFJ III?).
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A Pfalz D.IIIa at Jastaschule with an LVG C.V.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
Albatros D V fighters taking off on patrol. A solitary Pfalz D III can also be seen in the background.
A.Jackson - British Civil Aircraft since 1919 /Putnam/
Pfalz D.III replica
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Современная летающая реплика "Пфальца" D.III на одном из авиашоу.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
The Pfalz D.IIIa from Jasta 20 interned after a forced landing at Schoondijke, Zeeland at about 20:30 hours. The German insignia have now been painted over.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Rearview of the Pfalz D.IIIa from Jasta 20 now in Dutch markings illustrates the rounded lower wingtips and broad-chord tailplane characteristic of the D.IIIa and the printed camouflage fabric on its flying surfaces. The Dutch government did not buy it from Germany, but took over the undamaged fighter and flew it as PF225 until 1920.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa in Turkish Service. A batch of late production Pfalz D.IIIa fighters, probably 20 aircraft, was built for Turkey. Here is a photograph of one of these aircraft with Turkish insignia, the crescent and star insignia, not the black square used by German aircraft in Turkey.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 1365/18 is shown being shipped to Palestine for Turkish use. The rudder has been painted white for the Balkenkreuz insignia, and an unbordered Balkenkreuz is on the fuselage. These photos show the last Pfalz D.IIIa series went beyond D.1349/18; probably 20 Pfalz D.IIIa 1350-1369/18 were built for Turkey. This batch of D.IIIa fighters also means that the first Pfalz D.XII production batch did not start with serial D.1350/18; instead it probably started with 1370/18?
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa fighters at Kara-Pumar on their way to Palestine. An upper wing is mounted on the flat car behind the tail of the D.IIIa on the extreme right. The wing is covered in lozenge fabric with a wide-bordered Balkenkreuz.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz workmen manufacturing Pfalz D.III cabane struts.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III, possibly of Kest 8, standing on its nose after a poor landing. This D.III is in the basic factory finish of overall silver-gray with Maltese crosses; the spiral is a personal marking.The Kests (Kampfeinsitzer Staffeln) were home-defense units stationed behind the lines to intercept bombing raids on German towns.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
A dark-painted Pfalz D.IIIa, tactical '7' of an unknown unit, has come to grief.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Derelict German aircraft after the war. The Pfalz D.III fuselage second from left carries an interesing marking. The Pfalz D.XII next to it wears late camouflage.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 1. - Side elevation and plan of the Pfalz body to scale.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 2. - Sketch showing construction of body former and attachment of longeron.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 3. - The wing roots are formed, on the Pfalz, integrally with the body. On the left is shown the construction of these roots, and on the right the final shape.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 4. - Perspective view of the Pfalz body, stripped of its ply-wood covering.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 5. - <...> showing method of covering with ply-wood the body of the Pfalz.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 6. - Sketch showing mounting of the tail plane root on the Pfalz. The plywood covering of the root has been omitted for the sake of clearness.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 7. - Some tail plane details of the Pfalz.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 8. - The rudder of the Pfalz is built up of steel throughout. The sketches show the main features of the detail construction.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 9. - Sketches showing safety-belt attachment on the Pfalz
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 10. - Perspective drawing of the Pfalz controls. Note the adjustable foot-bar arrangement.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 11. - The control handle of the Pfalz biplane. The left-hand handle is rotatable, and operates the throttle via Bowden cable.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 12. - Guide tubes for the rudder and elevator control cables of the Pfalz biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 13. - Sketch showing the nose of the Pfalz body, with "spinner,'' air scoops and inspection doors.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 14. - Sectional view of the stream-lining of the axle on the Pfalz biplane.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 15. - Details of the Pfalz undercarriage. In the centre a general view of the undercarriage.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 16. - Wiring Diagram of the Pfalz Single-Seater. The bracing of the centre-section struts does not run across the top of the body.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 17. - Attachment of centre section struts to body on the Pfalz.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 18. - Quick-release attachment of lower wing spars to fixed wing roots of the Pfalz single-seater.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 19. - General arrangement of the wings of the Pfalz.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 20. - Upper and lower wing sections of the Pfalz. Inset sections of the wing spars.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 21. - Attachment of centre-section struts to top plane of the Pfalz. On the right the fitting is shown from a different point of view. The inset shows the wiring lug plate, which also serves as a guide for the end of the compression tube.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 22. - Details of the attachment of inter-plane struts to lower plane of the Pfalz single-seater. The smaller insets show a section of the inter-plane struts and - in the left-hand corner - the attachment of the wing ribs to the spars. The top flange is shown cut through so as to show the details below.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 23. - The aileron crank lever of the Pfalz.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 24. - The machine-guns on the Pfalz single-seater are totally enlosed, with the exception of the muzzle. Note the scoop in the engine housing.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 25. - The mounting of one of the two synchronised Spandau machine-guns which constitute the armament of the Pfalz.
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
Fig. 26. - The radiator of the Pfalz is mounted in the top plane, and the cooling is varied by means of a shutter. The details of the locking device which enables the shutter to be left in any desired position are shown in the inset.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Factory drawing of cross section of Pfalz D.III forward fuselage showing location of buried guns and other components.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Metal Pfalz D.III rigging diagram.
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 /Jane's/
The D.III Type Pfalz
W.Green, G.Swanborough - The Complete Book of Fighters
The D III which saw service from autumn 1917.
O.Thetford, P.Gray - German Aircraft of the First World War /Putnam/
R.Kosin - The German Fighter since 1915 /Putnam/
Pfalz D.IIIa
Журнал - Flight за 1918 г.
THE PFALZ SINGLE-SEATER FIGHTER. - Plan, side and front elevation to scale.
В.Кондратьев - Самолеты первой мировой войны
Pfalz D.III
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1370/17 of Vzfw. Hecht, Jasta 10
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 1395/17 of Lt. Aloys Heldmann, Jasta 10
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.III 4011/17 of Lt. Fritz Hohn, Jasta 21
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 42xx/17, Jasta 4
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa 8033/17 of Offz-Stv Schuschke, Jasta 64w.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Vzfw. Max Holtzem, Jasta 16b.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa of Lt. Erich Kaus, Jasta 30.
J.Herris - Pfalz Aircraft of WWI /Centennial Perspective/
Pfalz D.IIIa, Jasta 37